DescriptionIt is a large evergreen Pinophyta, coniferous tree reaching tall, exceptionally with a trunk up to in diameter. It has a conic crown with level branches and drooping branchlets. The leaf, leaves are needle-like, mostly long, occasionally up to long, slender ( thick), borne singly on long shoots, and in dense clusters of 20–30 on short shoots; they vary from bright green to glaucous blue-green in colour. The female conifer cone, cones are barrel-shaped, long and broad, and disintegrate when mature (in 12 months) to release the winged seeds. The male cones are long, and shed their pollen in autumn.
EtymologyThe botanical name, which is also the English common name, derives from the Sanskrit term ''devadāru'', which means "wood of the gods", a compound of ''deva'' "god" and ''dāru'' "wood and tree".
DistributionThe species natively occurs in Afghanistan, Tibet, Nepal, Pakistan, and India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu-Kashmir).
Cultural importanceAmong Hindus, as the etymology of deodar suggests, it is worshiped as a divine tree. Deva, the first half of the Sanskrit term, means ''divine'', ''deity'', or ''deus''. Dāru, the second part, is cognate with (related to) the words ''durum'', ''druid'', ''tree'', and ''true''. Several Hindu legends refer to this tree. For example, Valmiki Ramayan reads: The deodar is the National symbols of Pakistan, national tree of Pakistan, and the List of Indian state symbols, state tree of Himachal Pradesh, India.
CultivationIt is widely grown as an ornamental tree, often planted in parks and large gardens for its drooping foliage. General cultivation is limited to areas with mild winters, with trees frequently killed by temperatures below about , limiting it to hardiness zone, USDA zone 7 and warmer for reliable growth. It can succeed in rather cool-summer climates, as in Ushuaia, Argentina. The most cold-tolerant trees originate in the northwest of the species' range in Kashmir and Paktia Province, Afghanistan. Selected cultivars from this region are hardy to USDA zone 7 or even zone 6, tolerating temperatures down to about . Named cultivars from this region include 'Eisregen', 'Eiswinter', 'Karl Fuchs', 'Kashmir', 'Polar Winter', and 'Shalimar'. Of these, 'Eisregen', 'Eiswinter', 'Karl Fuchs', and 'Polar Winter' were selected in Germany from seed collected in Paktia; 'Kashmir' was a selection of the nursery trade, whereas 'Shalimar' originated from seeds collected in 1964 from Shalimar Bagh (Srinagar), Shalimar Gardens, Kashmir and propagated at the Arnold Arboretum. ''C. deodara'', and the three cultivars 'Feelin’ Blue', 'Pendula', and 'Aurea', have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit (confirmed 2021).
Construction materialDeodar is in great demand as building material because of its durability, rot-resistant character and fine, close grain, which is capable of taking a high polish. Its historical use to construct religious temples and in landscaping around temples is well recorded. Its rot-resistant character also makes it an ideal wood for constructing the well-known houseboats of Srinagar, Kashmir. In Pakistan and India, during the British colonial period, deodar wood was used extensively for construction of barracks, public buildings, bridges, canals and railway cars. Despite its durability, it is not a strong timber, and its brittle nature makes it unsuitable for delicate work where strength is required, such as chair-making.
Herbal Ayurveda''C. deodara'' is used in Ayurvedic medicine. The inner wood is aromatic and used to make incense. Inner wood is distilled into essential oil. As insects avoid this tree, the essential oil is used as insect repellent on the feet of horses, cattle and camels. It also has antifungal properties and has some potential for control of fungal deterioration of spices during storage. The outer bark and stem are astringent. Because of its antifungal and insect repellent properties, rooms made of deodar cedar wood are used to store meat and food grains like oats and wheat in Shimla district, Shimla, Kullu district, Kullu, and Kinnaur district, Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. Cedar oil is often used for its aromatic properties, especially in aromatherapy. It has a characteristic woody odor which may change somewhat in the course of drying out. The crude oils are often yellowish or darker in color. Its applications include soap perfumes, household sprays, floor polishes, and insecticides, and is also used in microscope work as a clearing oil.
ChemistryThe bark of ''Cedrus deodara'' contains large amounts of taxifolin. The wood contains cedeodarin, ampelopsin, cedrin, cedrinoside, and deodarin (3′,4′,5,6-tetrahydroxy-8-methyl dihydroflavonol). The main components of the needle essential oil include α-terpineol (30.2%), linalool (24.47%), limonene (17.01%), anethole (14.57%), caryophyllene (3.14%), and eugenol (2.14%). The deodar cedar also contains lignans and the phenolic sesquiterpene himasecolone, together with isopimaric acid. Other compounds have been identified, including (−)-matairesinol, (−)-nortrachelogenin, and a dibenzylbutyrolactollignan (4,4',9-trihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-9,9'-epoxylignan).
See also* List of Indian timber trees * Cedar oil