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DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format invented and developed in 1995 and released in late 1996. The medium can store any kind of digital data and was wide ...

DVD
discs. DVD-Video was the dominant consumer home video format in
Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area of , about 30% of Earth's total lan ...

Asia
,
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
,
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
, and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
in the 2000s until it was supplanted by the high-definition
Blu-ray The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital optical disc storage format. It is designed to supersede the DVD format, capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition video (HDTV 720p and 1080p). The main ap ...
Disc. Discs using the DVD-Video specification require a DVD drive and an
MPEG-2 MPEG-2 is used in Digital Video Broadcast and DVDs. The container_formats..html" ;"title="MPEG program stream">MPEG transport stream, TS, and MPEG program stream, PS, are Container format (digital)">container formats.">MPEG program stream">MPEG ...
decoder (e.g., a DVD player, or a computer DVD drive with a software DVD player). Commercial DVD movies are encoded using a combination MPEG-2 compressed video and audio of varying formats (often multi-channel formats as described below). Typically, the data rate for DVD movies ranges from 3 to 9.5 
Mbit/s In telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of huma ...
, and the
bit rate In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable ''R'') is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. The bit rate is expressed in the unit Data rate units, bit per second unit (symbol: ''bit/s'' ...
is usually adaptive. DVD-Video was first available in Japan on November 1, 1996 (with major releases beginning December 20, 1996), followed by a release on March 24, 1997 in the United States—to line up with the
69th Academy Awards The 69th Academy Awards ceremony, organized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) took place on March 24, 1997, at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles beginning at 6:00 p.m. PST / 9:00 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, ...
that same day. The DVD-Video specification was created by
DVD Forum The DVD Forum is an international organization composed of Computer hardware, hardware, software, media and production companies that use and develop the DVD and formerly HD DVD formats. It was initially known as the DVD Consortium when it was fo ...
and can be obtained from DVD Format/Logo Licensing Corporation for a fee of $5,000.DVD FLLC (2009
"DVD Format Book"
Retrieved 2009-08-14.
The specification is not publicly available and every subscriber must sign a
non-disclosure agreement#REDIRECT Non-disclosure agreement A non-disclosure agreement (NDA), also known as a confidentiality agreement (CA), confidential disclosure agreement (CDA), proprietary information agreement (PIA) or secrecy agreement (SA), is a legal contract o ...
. Certain information in the DVD Book is proprietary and confidential.


Video data

To record digital video, DVD-Video uses either H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 compression at up to 9.8 Mbit/s (9,800 
kbit/s In telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of huma ...
) or
MPEG-1 Part 2 MPEG-1 is a Technical standard, standard for lossy compression of video and Audio frequency, audio. It is designed to compress VHS-quality raw digital video and CD audio down to about 1.5 Mbit/s (26:1 and 6:1 compression ratios respectively) with ...
compression at up to 1.856 Mbit/s (1,856 kbit/s). DVD-Video supports video with a bit depth of 8 bits per color
YCbCr YCbCr, Y′CbCr, or Y Pb/Cb Pr/Cr, also written as YCBCR or Y′CBCR, is a family of color space A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with color profiling supported by various physical devices, it supports repr ...
with 4:2:0
chroma subsampling Chroma subsampling is the practice of encoding images by implementing less resolution for chroma information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For examp ...
. The following formats are allowed for H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 video: * At a display rate of 25
frames per second A frame is often a structural system that supports other components of a physical construction and/or steel frame frame at 30 St Mary Axe, London, UK. Steel frame is a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel Steel is an ...
,
interlaced Interlaced video (also known as interlaced scan) is a technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display without consuming extra Bandwidth (signal processing), bandwidth. The interlaced signal contains two field (video), fields of ...
(commonly used in regions with 50 Hz image scanning frequency, compatible with analog PAL/SECAM): : 720 × 576 pixels (same resolution as D-1) : 704 × 576 pixels : 352 × 576 pixels (same as the
China Video Disc Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics ...
standard) : 352 × 288 pixels * At a display rate of 29.97 frames per second, interlaced (commonly used in regions with 60 Hz image scanning frequency, compatible with analog NTSC): : 720 × 480 pixels (same resolution as D-1). : 704 × 480 pixels : 352 × 480 pixels (same as the
China Video Disc Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics ...
standard). : 352 × 240 pixels The following formats are allowed for MPEG-1 video: * 352 × 288 pixels at 25 frame/s,
progressive Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform Political organizations * Congressional Progressive Caucus, members within the Democratic Party in the United States Congress dedicated to th ...
(Same as the
VCD Video CD (abbreviated as VCD, and also known as Compact Disc Digital Video) is a home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a standard Sta ...
Standard) * 352 × 240 pixels at 29.97 frame/s, progressive (Same as the
VCD Video CD (abbreviated as VCD, and also known as Compact Disc Digital Video) is a home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a standard Sta ...
Standard) Video with 4:3 frame
aspect ratio The aspect ratio of a geometric Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; '' geo-'' "earth", '' -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμό ...
is supported in all video modes.
Widescreen Widescreen images are images that are displayed within a set of (relationship of image width to height) used in film, television and computer screens. In film, a widescreen film is any film image with a width-to-height aspect ratio greater tha ...
video is supported only in D-1 resolutions. The MPEG-1 Part 2 format does not support interlaced video. The H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 format supports both interlaced and progressive-scan content. Content with a frame rate different from one of the rates shown above can be encoded to H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 by using pulldown. This is most commonly used to encode 23.976 frame/s content for playback at 29.97 frame/s. Pulldown can be implemented directly while the disc is mastered, by actually encoding the data on the disc at 29.97 frames/s; however, this practice is uncommon for most commercial film releases, which provide content optimized for display on progressive-scan television sets. Alternatively, the content can be encoded on the disc itself at one of several alternative frame rates, and use flags that identify scanning type, field order and field repeating pattern. Such flags can be added in video stream by the H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 encoder. A DVD player uses these flags to convert progressive content into interlaced video in real time during playback, producing a signal suitable for interlaced TV sets. These flags also allow reproducing progressive content at their original, non-interlaced format when used with compatible DVD players and progressive-scan television sets.


Audio data

The audio data on a DVD movie can be
PCM Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signal An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time-varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time-varying quantity ...
, DTS,
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II MPEG-1 Audio Layer II or MPEG-2 Audio Layer II (MP2, sometimes incorrectly called Musicam or MUSICAM) is a lossy In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact ...
(MP2), or
Dolby Digital Dolby Digital, originally synonymous with Dolby AC-3, is the name for what has now become a family of audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories Dolby Laboratories, Inc. (often shortened to Dolby Labs and known simply as ...
(AC-3) format. In countries using the
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system standard DVD-Video releases must contain at least one audio track using the PCM, MP2, or AC-3 format, and all standard PAL players must support all three of these formats. A similar standard exists in countries using the
NTSC The National Television System Committee (NTSC)National Television System Committee (1951–1953), Report and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of transm ...
system, though with no requirement mandating the use of or support for the MP2 format. DTS audio is optional for all players, as DTS was not part of the initial draft standard and was added later; thus, many early players are unable to play DTS audio tracks. Only PCM and DTS support 96 kHz sampling rate. Because PCM, being uncompressed, requires a lot of bandwidth and DTS is not universally supported by players, AC-3 is the most common digital audio format for DVDs, and 96 kHz is rare on a DVD. The official allowed formats for the audio tracks on a DVD-Video are: * PCM: 48 kHz or 96 kHz sampling rate, 16 bit or 24 bit
Linear PCM Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signal An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time-varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time-varying quantity ...
, 2 to 6 channels, up to 6,144 kbit/s; N. B. 16-bit 48 kHz 8 channel PCM is allowed by the DVD-Video specification but is not well-supported by authoring applications or players; * AC-3: 48 kHz sampling rate, 1 to 5.1 (6) channels, up to 448 kbit/s; * DTS: 48 kHz or 96 kHz sampling rate; channel layouts = 2.0, 2.1, 5.0, 5.1, 6.1; bitrates for 2.0 and 2.1 = 377.25 and 503.25 kbit/s, bitrates for 5.x and 6.1 = 754.5 and 1509.75 kbit/s; * MP2: 48 kHz sampling rate, 1 to 7.1 channels, up to 912 kbit/s. DVDs can contain more than one channel of audio to go together with the video content, supporting a maximum of eight simultaneous audio tracks per video. This is most commonly used for different audio formats—DTS 5.1, AC-3 2.0 etc.—as well as for commentary and audio tracks in different languages.


Data rate

DVD-Video discs have a raw bitrate of 11.08 Mbit/s, with a 1.0 Mbit/s overhead, leaving a payload bitrate of 10.08 Mbit/s. Of this, up to 3.36 Mbit/s can be used for subtitles, a maximum of 10.08 Mbit/s can be split amongst audio and video, and a maximum of 9.80 Mbit/s can be used for video alone. In the case of multiple angles the data is stored interleaved, and so there is a bitrate penalty leading to a max bitrate of 8 Mbit/s per angle to compensate for additional seek time. This limit is not cumulative, so each additional angle can still have up to 8 Mbit/s of bitrate available. Professionally encoded videos average a bitrate of 4–5 Mbit/s with a maximum of 7–8 Mbit/s in high-action scenes. Encoding at less than the max bitrate (like this) is typically done to allow greater compatibility among players, and to help prevent
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s in the case of dirty or scratched discs Aiming to improve picture quality over standard editions,
Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (abbreviated as SPHE) is the home video distribution division of Sony Pictures, Sony Pictures Entertainment, a subsidiary of Japanese conglomerate Sony, Sony Corporation. Background SPHE is responsible for the d ...
offered " Superbit"—a premium line of DVD-Video titles having average bitrates closer to 6 Mbit/s. Audio quality was also improved by the mandatory inclusion of both Dolby Digital and DTS 5.1 surround audio tracks. Multiple languages, angles, and extra audio tracks were eliminated to free up more space for the main title and thereby to ensure the highest data rate possible. In January 2007 the Superbit line was discontinued.


Other features

Some DVD hardware or software players may play discs whose MPEG files do not conform to the above standards; commonly this is used to support discs authored with formats such as
VCD Video CD (abbreviated as VCD, and also known as Compact Disc Digital Video) is a home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a standard Sta ...
and
SVCD Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a format for storing on standard s. SVCD was intended as a successor to and an alternative to , and falls somewhere between both in terms of technical capability and picture quality. Techn ...
. While VCD and CVD video is supported by the DVD standard, neither SVCD video nor VCD, CVD, or SVCD audio is compatible with the DVD standard. Some hardware players will also play DVD-ROMs or
CD-ROM A CD-ROM (, compact disc read-only memory) is a pre-pressed optical compact disc The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital ...

CD-ROM
s containing "raw" MPEG video files; these are "unauthored" and lack the
file File or filing may refer to: Mechanical tools and processes * File (tool) A file is a tool used to remove fine amounts of material from a workpiece. It is common in woodworking, metalworking, and other similar trade and hobby tasks. Most are ...
and header structure that defines DVD-Video. Standard DVD-Video files contain extra information (such as the number of video tracks, chapters and links to extra features) that DVD players use to navigate the disc. The maximum chapters allowed per title is 99 and the maximum titles allowed per DVD is 99.


File system

Almost all DVD-Video discs use the ''UDF bridge'' format, which is a combination of the DVD MicroUDF (a subset of UDF 1.02) and
ISO 9660 ISO 9660 is a file system In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer h ...
file systems. The UDF bridge format provides backwards compatibility for operating systems that support only ISO 9660. Most DVD players read the UDF filesystem from a DVD-Video disc and ignore the ISO9660 filesystem.


Directory and file structure

A DVD volume for the DVD-Video format has the following structure of directories and files: * AUDIO_TS directory: empty or not present on DVD-Video discs; contains files only on
DVD-Audio DVD-Audio (commonly abbreviated as DVD-A) is a digital format for delivering high-fidelity audio content on a DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage for ...
discs; it is also known as an Audio Title Sets directory; included on DVD-Video discs for compatibility reasons * VIDEO_TS directory: stores all data for the DVD-Video; it is also known as a Video Title Sets directory. This directory is required to be present on a DVD-compliant disc. * ''Video Manager (VMG) files:'' ** VIDEO_TS.IFO file: the Video Manager (VMG) information file—stores control and playback information for the entire DVD—e.g. the First Play PGC (Program Chain), locations of all Video Title Sets (VTS), table of titles, number of volumes, domains for multiple languages and regional and parental control settings, information about subtitles, audio tracks, etc. This file is required to be present on a DVD-compliant disc. ** VIDEO_TS.BUP file: the backup copy of the VIDEO_TS.IFO file. It is part of Video Manager (VMG). ** VIDEO_TS.
VOB VOB (for video object) is the container format in DVD-Video DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc ...
file: the first-play Video Object of the DVD-Video disc, usually a copyright notice or a menu. It is part of Video Manager (VMG). This file is not required to be present on a DVD-compliant disc. * ''Video Title Set (VTS) files:'' ** VTS_01_0.IFO file: stores control and playback information for the Video Title Set 01—e. g. information about chapters, subtitles and audio tracks. A "VTS_zz_0.IFO" file (where "zz" is from 01 to 99) is required to be present on each VTS. ** VTS_01_0.BUP file: a backup copy of the VTS_01_0.IFO file. This file is required to be present on a DVD-compliant disc. It is part of Video Title Set (VTS). ** VTS_01_0.VOB file: Video Title Set 01, Video Object 0, contains the menu for this title. This file is not required to be present on a DVD-compliant disc. ** VTS_01_1.VOB file: Video Title Set 01, Video Object 1, contains the video for this title. At least one file "VTS_zz_1.VOB" is required in the VTS and each "VTS_zz_x". DVD-Video can contain up to 99 (1–99) titles with max 10 (0–9) VOB files each. The last possible VOB file is VTS_99_9.VOB. ** ... etc. IFO files store control and playback information—e. g. information about chapters, subtitles and audio tracks. They do not store any video or audio data or subtitles. BUP files are only backups of the IFO files.


Domains

Data structures recorded on a DVD-compliant disc are components of one of the four data groups called domains: * First-play (FP) – First Play PGC located in the VIDEO_TS.IFO file * Video Manager (VMG) – contains VIDEO_TS.IFO, VIDEO_TS.BUP and VIDEO_TS.VOB * Video Title Set (VTS) – contains "VTS_zz_x.IFO", "VTS_zz_x.BUP" and "VTS_zz_x.VOB" files (where "x" is from 1 to 9) * Video Title Set Menu (VTSM) – uses "VTS_zz_0.VOB" files


Container

Video, audio, subtitle and navigation streams are
multiplexed In telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the natu ...
and stored on a DVD-Video disc in the
VOB VOB (for video object) is the container format in DVD-Video DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc ...
container format (Video Object). VOB is based on the
MPEG program stream Program stream (PS or MPEG-PS) is a container format for multiplexing digital audio, video and more. The PS format is specified in MPEG-1 Part 1 (ISO/IEC 11172-1) and MPEG-2 Part 1, Systems (ISO/IEC standard 13818-1/ITU-T H.222.0). The MPEG-2 Pro ...
format, but with additional limitations and specifications in the private streams."What Is a VOB File"
Retrieved 2009-07-26.

Retrieved 2009-07-24.
The MPEG program stream has provisions for non-standard data (as AC-3, DTS, LPCM or subtitles used in VOB files) in the form of so-called private streams. VOB files are a very strict subset of the MPEG program stream standard. While all VOB files are MPEG program streams, not all MPEG program streams comply with the definition for a VOB file. s can use
DVD-VRThe DVD-VR standard defines a logical format for video recording on DVD-R DVD recordable and DVD rewritable are optical disc recording technologies. Both terms describe DVD optical discs that can be written to by a DVD recorder, whereas only 'rewri ...
or
DVD+VR The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc drive. (CD-R), showing characteristic iridescence. In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting f ...
format instead of DVD-Video. DVD-VR format store multiplexed audiovisual content in VRO containers.DVD Demystified (July 13, 2009
"What Are .IFO, .VOB, .AOB, and .VRO files? How Can I Play Them?"
. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
VRO file is an equivalent to a collection of DVD-Video VOB files. Fragmented VRO files are not widely supported by hardware or software players and video editing software. DVD+VR standard defines a logical format for DVD-Video compliant recording on optical discs and is commonly used on DVD+R/RW media.


Subtitles

DVD-Video may also include up to 32
subtitle Subtitles are Writing, text derived from either a transcript or screenplay of the dialogue or commentary in films, television programs, video games, and the like, always displayed at the bottom of the screen, and at the top of the screen if th ...
or ''subpicture'' tracks. Subtitles are usually offered as a visual aid for deaf and hearing impaired viewers, and for translating dialog into other languages, and karaoke lyrics. They are sometimes used to present additional information about the video being played. Subtitles are stored as
bitmap In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softwar ...

bitmap
images and therefore can contain any arbitrary text or simple image. They are restricted to a 16-color palette, but are usually implemented with a limit of 4 colors. 16 levels of transparency are also supported to allow blending, but this is also not always implemented. The subtitle tracks are contained within the
VOB VOB (for video object) is the container format in DVD-Video DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc ...
file of the DVD. DVD-Video may also contain
closed captioning Closed captioning (CC) and are both processes of displaying on a , , or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information. Both are typically used as a of the portion of a as it occurs (either or in edited form), some ...
material which can only be viewed on a television set with a decoder.


Chapters and angles

DVD-Video may contain chapters for easy navigation, and continuation of a partially watched film. If space permits, it is also possible to include several versions of certain scenes, called "angles." Today, the multi-angle feature is mostly used for internationalization. For example, it can be used to supply different language versions of images containing written text when subtitles would not do (e. g., the
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's spell book in ''
Snow White "Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story A short story is a piece of prose fictio ...
'', and the scrolling text in the openings of the ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...

Star Wars
'' films). Multiple angles have found a niche in markets such as
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yoga
,
erotica Erotica is (in a broad sense) any literary or artistic work that deals substantively with subject matter that is , or but (in a strict sense) is not generally considered to be . may use any artistic form to depict erotic content, including , ...
and live performances.


Extra features

A significant selling point of DVD-Video is that the storage capacity allows for a wide variety of extra, or bonus, features in addition to the feature film. These extra features can include
audio commentary An audio commentary is an additional audio track, usually digital, consisting of a lecture or comments by one or more speakers, that plays in real time with a video. Commentaries can be serious or entertaining in nature, and can add information ...
; documentary features, commonly about the making of the main title;
interview conducted with a member of the public File:Luis Castro esklevndurt.jpg, Some interviews are recorded for television broadcast An interview is essentially a structured conversation where one participant asks questions, and the other provides ...

interview
s; deleted footage;
outtake An outtake is a portion of a work (usually a film or music recording) that is removed in the editing process and not included in the work's final, publicly released version. In the digital era, significant outtakes have been appended to CD and DVD ...
s; photo galleries;
storyboard A storyboard is a graphic organizer that consists of illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digital published media, such as pos ...

storyboard
s; isolated music scores; trivia text commentary; simple games; film shorts; TV spots; radio spots; theatrical trailers which were used to promote the main title; and teaser trailers advertising related movies or DVDs. Extra features often provide entertainment or add depth and understanding to the film. Games,
blooper A blooper is a short clip from a film or video production, usually a deleted scene A deleted scene is footage In filmmaking and video production, footage is raw, unedited material as originally filmed by a movie camera or recorded by a (Digital ...
s, and galleries provide entertainment. Deleted scenes and alternative endings allow the audience to view additional content which was not included in a theatrical release. Directors cuts allow the audience to see how the director envisioned the main title without the constraints which are placed on a theatrical release. Other extras that can be included on DVDs are motion menus, still pictures, up to 32 selectable subtitles, seamless branching for multiple storylines, up to 9 camera angles, and DVD-ROM / data files that can be accessed on a computer. Extra features require additional storage space, which often means encoding the main title with lower than possible data rate to fit both the main title and the extras on one disc. Lower data rate may decrease visual and sound quality, which manifests itself in various
compression artifact A compression artifact (or artefact) is a noticeable distortion of media (including images File:TEIDE.JPG, An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour ...
s. To maintain quality the main title and the extras may be released on several discs, or the extras may be omitted completely like in the " Superbit" line of DVDs.


Restrictions

DVD-Video has four complementary systems designed to restrict the DVD user in various ways:
Macrovision TiVo Corporation, formerly known as the Rovi Corporation and Macrovision Solutions Corporation, was an American technology company. Headquartered in San Jose, California San Jose, officially San José (; ; ), is the cultural, financial, and poli ...

Macrovision
,
Content Scramble System The Content Scramble System (CSS) is a digital rights management Digital rights management (DRM) tools or technological protection measures (TPM) are a set of access control In the fields of physical security and information security, acc ...
(CSS), region codes, and disabled user operations (UOPs). There are also anti-ripping techniques intended to foil ripping software.


Content Scramble System

Many DVD-Video titles use Content Scramble System (CSS) encryption, which is intended to discourage people from copying the disc. Usually, users need to install software provided on the DVD or downloaded from the Internet such as
MPlayer MPlayer is a free and open-source media player software application. It is available for Linux, OS X and Microsoft Windows. Versions for OS/2, Syllable Desktop, Syllable, AmigaOS, MorphOS and AROS Research Operating System are also available. A p ...

MPlayer
, TotalMedia Theatre,
PowerDVD CyberLink PowerDVD is a universal media player for movie discs, video files, photos and music. The latest version PowerDVD 20 released on April 14, 2020 includes support for the new Ultra HD Blu-ray Disc and 8K video format. During 2016, PowerDVD ...
, VLC or
WinDVD WinDVD (owned by Corel Corporation which bought InterVideo in 2006) is a commercial video player and music player software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a comp ...
to be able to view the disc in a computer system. CSS does not make it difficult (any more) to copy the digital content now that a decoder (
DeCSS DeCSS is one of the first free capable of decrypting content on a commercially produced video disc. Before the release of DeCSS, open source operating systems (such as and ) could not play encrypted video DVDs. DeCSS's development was done ...

DeCSS
) has been released, nor is it possible to distinguish between legal and illegal copies of a work, but CSS does restrict the playback software that may be used. CSS has caused major problems for the inclusion of DVD players in any
open source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized model ...
operating systems, since open source player implementations are not officially given access to the decryption keys or license to the
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
s involved in CSS.
Proprietary software Proprietary software, also known as non-free software or closed-source software, is computer software for which the software's publisher or another person reserves some rights from licenses to use, modify, share modifications, or share the softwa ...
players were also difficult to find on some platforms. However, a successful effort has been made to write a decoder by
reverse engineering Reverse engineering (also known as backwards engineering or back engineering) is a process or method through the application of which one attempts to understand through deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process ...

reverse engineering
, resulting in
DeCSS DeCSS is one of the first free capable of decrypting content on a commercially produced video disc. Before the release of DeCSS, open source operating systems (such as and ) could not play encrypted video DVDs. DeCSS's development was done ...

DeCSS
. This has led to long-running legal battles and the arrest of some of those involved in creating or distributing the DeCSS code, through the use of the controversial U.S.
Digital Millennium Copyright Act The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a 1998 United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North Americ ...
(DMCA), on the grounds that such software could also be used to facilitate unauthorized copying of the data on the discs. The
Videolan VideoLAN is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benef ...

Videolan
team, however, went on to make the
libdvdcss libdvdcss (or libdvdcss2 in some repositories) is a free and open-source software library for accessing and unscrambling DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data ...
library. Unlike DeCSS, libdvdcss can access a CSS-encrypted DVD without the need of a cracked key, thus enabling playback of such discs on opensource players without legal restraints (although DVD rippers using this library may still be subject to restrictions). The DMCA currently affects only the United States, however many other countries are signatories to the similar World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty, WIPO Treaty. In some countries it is not illegal to use de-scrambling software to bypass the DVD restrictions. A List of video players (software), number of software programs have since appeared on the Web to view DVDs on a number of different platforms. Other measures such as anti-ripping, as well as U.S. and non-U.S. copyright law, may be used to prevent making unauthorized copies of DVDs. CSS decrypting software, or ripping software, such as DVD Decrypter, AnyDVD, MacTheRipper, and DVD Shrink allows a disc to be copied to hard disk unscrambled. Some DeCSS applications also remove
Macrovision TiVo Corporation, formerly known as the Rovi Corporation and Macrovision Solutions Corporation, was an American technology company. Headquartered in San Jose, California San Jose, officially San José (; ; ), is the cultural, financial, and poli ...

Macrovision
, region codes, and disabled user operations (UOPs).


Anti-ripping

After DeCSS ripping software became available, companies developed techniques to introduce errors in DVD-Video discs that do not normally affect playback and navigation of a disc, but can cause problems in software that attempts to copy the entire disc. These approaches, which are not part of the official DVD-Video specification, include Sony ARccOS Protection, Macrovision Macrovision#RipGuard, RipGuard, X-protect, ProtectDisc SecureBurn, Anaho, Fortium, and others. All of these methods have been circumvented (as might have been expected, since all standard DVD players naturally circumvent them to play and navigate the discs normally). Riplock is a feature that reduces drive noise during playback but inadvertently reduces ripping speed.


Disabled user operations

DVD-Video allows the disc to specify whether or not the user may perform any operation, such as selecting a menu, skipping chapters, forwarding or rewinding essentially any function on the remote control. This is known as User Operation Prohibitions, or Prohibited User Operations (UOPs or PUOs). Most DVD players respect these commands (e. g., by preventing skipping or fast-forwarding through a copyright message or an advertisement at the beginning of a disc). However, grey market players ignore UOPs and some DVD "re-authoring" software packages allow the user to produce a copy without these restrictions. The legality of these activities varies by jurisdiction and is the subject of debate. (See fair use.)


Region codes

Each DVD-Video disc contains one or more region codes, denoting the area(s) of the world in which distribution and playback are intended. The commercial DVD player specification dictates that a player must only play discs that contain its region code. In theory, this allows the motion picture studios to control the various aspects of a release (including content, date and price) on a region-by-region basis, or ensure the success of "staggered" or delayed cinema releases from country to country. For example, the British movie ''28 Days Later'' was released on DVD in Europe several months prior to the film's release in North American movie theaters. Regional coding kept the European DVD unplayable for most North American consumers, thereby ensuring that ticket sales would be relatively unaffected. In practice, many DVD players allow playback of any disc, or can be modified to do so. Entirely independent of encryption, region coding pertains to regional lockout, which originated in the video game industry. From a worldwide perspective regional coding may be seen as a failure. A huge percentage of players outside of North America can be easily modified (and are even sold pre-modified by mainstream stores such as Amazon.co.uk) to ignore the regional codes on a disc. This, coupled with the fact that almost all televisions in Europe and Australasia are capable of displaying NTSC video (at the very least, in black and white), means that consumers in these regions have a huge choice of discs. Contrary to popular belief, this practice is not illegal and in some countries that strongly support free trade it is encouraged. A normal DVD player can only play region-coded discs designated for the player's own particular region. However, a code-free or region-free DVD player is capable of playing DVDs from any of the six regions around the world. The Content Scramble System, CSS license prohibits manufacturing of DVD players that are not set to a single region by default. While the same license prohibits manufacturers from including prominent interfaces to change the region setting it does not clearly prevent them from including "hidden" menus that enable the player's region to be changed; as such, many high-end models in the U.S. include password-protected or otherwise hidden methods to enable multi-region playback. Conversely in the UK and Ireland many cheap DVD players are multi-region while more expensive systems, including the majority of home cinema systems, are preset to play only region 2 discs. In China, DVD-Videos for television series are usually released in MPEG-1 video, with MP2 audio. By forgoing Dolby standards, manufacturers cut costs considerably; encoding in lower bit-rates also allows a TV series to be squeezed onto fewer discs. There is no region coding in such cases. There are also two additional region codes, region 7, which is reserved, and region 8, which is used exclusively for passenger transport such as airlines and cruise ships.


Programming interface

A virtual machine implemented by the DVD player runs bytecode contained on the DVD. This is used to control playback and display special effects on the menus. The instruction set is called the Virtual Machine (VM) DVD command set. There are 16 general parameter registers (GPRM) to hold temporary values and 24 system parameters (SPRM). As a result of a moderately flexible programming interface, DVD players can be used to play games, such as the DVD re-release of ''Dragon's Lair'', along with more sophisticated and advanced games such as ''Scene It?'', all of which can be run on standard DVD players.


Players and recorders

Modern s often support additional formats, including DVD+/-R/RW, CD-R/RW, MP3, Windows Media Audio, WMA,
SVCD Super Video CD (Super Video Compact Disc or SVCD) is a format for storing on standard s. SVCD was intended as a successor to and an alternative to , and falls somewhere between both in terms of technical capability and picture quality. Techn ...
, JPEG, Portable Network Graphics, PNG, Scalable Vector Graphics, SVG, Karaoke, KAR and MPEG-4 (DivX/Xvid). Some also include USB ports or flash memory readers. Player prices range from as low as United States dollar, US$20 (Pound sterling, £10) to as high as US$2,700 (£1,350). DVD drives for computers usually come with one of two kinds of Regional Playback Control (RPC), either RPC-1 or RPC-2. This is used to enforce the publisher's restrictions on what regions of the world the DVD can be played. (See Regional lockout and DVD region codes.) While open-source software DVD players allow everything, commercial ones (both standalone models and software players) come further encumbered with restrictions forbidding the viewer from skipping (or in some cases fast-forwarding) certain content such as copyright warnings or advertisements. (See User operation prohibition.) Video game systems with DVD-Video playback functionality include: Panasonic Q, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5, Wii (with an unsupported hack), Xbox (console), Xbox (additional remote required), Xbox 360, Xbox One, and Xbox Series X.


Competitors and successors

In April 2000, Sonic Solutions and Ravisent announced hDVD, a High-definition video, high-definition extension to DVD. However, hDVD failed to gain much popularity. On November 18, 2003, the Chinese news agency Xinhua News Agency, Xinhua reported the final standard of the Chinese government-sponsored Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) which is another extension of standard DVD. Shortly thereafter the development of the format was halted by a licensing dispute between Chinese companies and On2 Technologies, but on December 6, 2006, 20 Chinese electronic firms unveiled 54 prototype EVD players and announced their intention for the format to completely replace DVDs in China by 2008. However, due to a lack of sales, support for EVD has recently been dropped by the Xinhua Bookstore in Wuhan, which was a major supporter of the format.


Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD

Two competing high-definition (HD) optical-disc formats, HD DVD and
Blu-ray The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital optical disc storage format. It is designed to supersede the DVD format, capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition video (HDTV 720p and 1080p). The main ap ...
, were introduced in 2006. The HD DVD format, promoted by Toshiba, had the backing by the
DVD Forum The DVD Forum is an international organization composed of Computer hardware, hardware, software, media and production companies that use and develop the DVD and formerly HD DVD formats. It was initially known as the DVD Consortium when it was fo ...
, which voted to make it the official successor to DVD. Opposing HD DVD was the Blu-ray format, led by the Blu-ray Disc Association, which shares many members with the DVD forum. With HD DVD launched in March 2006 and Blu-ray launched in June of the same year, a format war started. Industry analysts likened the situation to the Videotape format war, VHS/Betamax format war of the 1980s. At the time of their launch, consumer awareness of either high-definition format was severely limited, with the end result that most consumers avoided both formats, already content with DVD. In February 2008, Toshiba capitulated, citing low demand for HD DVD and the faster growth of Blu-ray, and the inclusion of the format in the video game system PlayStation 3 (PS3), among other reasons. Toshiba ended production of their HD DVD players and discontinued promotion of the format, while the HD DVD movie release schedule concluded by June 2008. After HD DVD was discontinued, Blu-ray became the ''de facto'' high-definition optical disc format. However, sales figures suggest that DVD is in no immediate danger of disappearing. All standard DVDs will play on existing Blu-ray players, making the switch to Blu-ray much easier than the switch from VHS to DVD. Moreover, some labels are cutting back on Blu-ray Disc releases in favor of DVD-Video, claiming that low sales do not justify the more expensive Blu-ray Disc format. In addition, a growing number of hardware vendors are enhancing their Blu-ray players with Internet connectivity for subscription-based video downloads. Ultra HD Blu-ray is the latest version available, supporting 4K resolution content.


CBHD

China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) was introduced in September 2007. This format is based on HD DVD. While the Blu-ray format is marketed internationally, CBHDs have sold significantly in the Chinese market.


See also

* Comparison of video player software *
DVD-VRThe DVD-VR standard defines a logical format for video recording on DVD-R DVD recordable and DVD rewritable are optical disc recording technologies. Both terms describe DVD optical discs that can be written to by a DVD recorder, whereas only 'rewri ...
*
DVD+VR The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc drive. (CD-R), showing characteristic iridescence. In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting f ...
* DVD authoring * List of DVD authoring applications * Superbit * VR mode


References


External links


DVD-Video information
including virtual machine instruction set information. {{Homevid, state=collapsed Audiovisual introductions in 1996 Audio storage Consumer electronics DVD, DVD Japanese inventions Rotating disc computer storage media Video storage