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Communism (from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...
la|communis|lit=common, universal|label=none)Ball, Terence, and Richard Dagger. 9992019.
Communism
(revised ed.).
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., and other publishers ( ...
. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
is a
philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was proba ...
,
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fro ...
,
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social science that studies ...
, and
economic An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents. In general, it is defined 'as a social do ...
ideology and
movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), commonly referred to as movement Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * "Movement", a short story by Nancy Fulda * ''T ...
whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a
communist society In Marxist thought, a communist society or the communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of comm ...
, namely a
socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local o ...
order structured upon the ideas of
common ownership Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property. Forms of common ownership exist in every economic s ...
of the
means of production In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods or productive property) are physical and non-financial inputs used in the production of goods and services with economic value. These include raw materials, facilities, ...
and the absence of
social class#REDIRECT social class#REDIRECT social class {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
es,
money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to ,_and_the_[[State_(polity).html" "title="King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally a ...
, and the [[State (polity)">state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, United States * ''Our Sta ...
. As such, communism is a specific form of [[socialism. Communism includes a variety of [[List of communist ideologies|schools of thought which broadly include
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand class relations and social conflict as well as a dialectical perspective to vi ...
and [[anarcho-communism as well as the [[political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, a price system, private proper ...
, its
economic system#REDIRECT Economic system#REDIRECT Economic system {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
and
mode of production In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (in German: ''Produktionsweise'', meaning "the way of producing") is a specific combination of the following: * Productive forces: these include h ...
, namely that in this system there are two major social classes,
conflict Conflict may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Conflict'' (1936 film), an American boxing film starring John Wayne * ''Conflict'' (1938 film), a French drama film directed by Léonide Moguy * ''Conflict'' (1945 film), an Am ...
between these two classes is the root of all problems in society and this situation can only ultimately be resolved through a
social revolution#REDIRECT Social revolution#REDIRECT Social revolution {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
.Marx, Karl, and
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
. 8481969.
Bourgeois and Proletarians
" Ch. 1 in ''
Manifesto of the Communist Party ''The Communist Manifesto'', originally the ''Manifesto of the Communist Party'' (german: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and ...
'', (''Marx/Engels Selected Works'' 1, pp. 98–137), translated by S. Moore. Moscow:
Progress Publishers Progress Publishers was a Moscow-based Soviet publisher founded in 1931. It was noted for its English-language editions of books on Marxism–Leninism. Progress Publishers were particularly also known for their ''Short History of USSR'' and ABC se ...
. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
The two classes are the
proletariat The proletariat ( from Latin 'producing offspring') are the social class of wage-earners, those members of a society whose only possession of significant economic value is their labour power (their capacity to work). A member of such a class is ...
(the
working class#REDIRECT working class#REDIRECT working class {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
), who make up the majority of the population within society and must work to survive; and the
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: * a sociologically defined social class, especially in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain cultural and financial capital belonging to the middle or upper middle c ...
(the
capitalist Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, a price system, private proper ...
class), a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through
private ownership Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity, and from collective or cooperative property, w ...
of the means of production. According to this analysis,
revolution In political science, a revolution (Latin: ''revolutio'', "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolts against the government, typically due ...
would put the working class in power and in turn establish
social ownership Social ownership is the appropriation of the surplus product produced by the means of production by a society or community as a whole, and is the defining characteristic of a socialist economic system. It can take the form of state ownership, com ...
of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards
communism Communism (from Latin la|communis|lit=common, universal|label=none)Ball, Terence, and Richard Dagger. 9992019.Communism (revised ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 June 2020. is a philosophical, social, political, and economic ide ...
. Along with
social democracy#REDIRECT Social democracy#REDIRECT Social democracy {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, communism became the dominant political tendency within the international
socialist movement The history of socialism has its origins in the 1789 French Revolution and the changes which it brought, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. ''The Communist Manifesto'' was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848 ju ...
by the 1920s. The emergence of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
as the world's first nominally
communist state A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism. Marxism–Leninism was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, the Comintern ...
led to communism's widespread association with
Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 9–24, 36–44. . "By 1985, one-third of the world's popu ...
and the Soviet economic model.Busky, Donald F. 2000. ''Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey''. Praeger. pp. 6–8: . "In a modern sense of the word, communism refers to the ideology of Marxism-Leninism.… e adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasise by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism." Almost all communist governments in the 20th century espoused Marxism–Leninism or a variation of it. Some economists and intellectuals argue that, in practice, the model under which these nominally communist states operated was in fact a form of
state capitalism State capitalism is an economic system in which the state undertakes business and commercial economic activity (i.e. for-profit) and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned enterprises (including the processes of capi ...
Chomsky, Noam Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes called "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is also a major figure in a ...

Chomsky, Noam
. 1986.
The Soviet Union Versus Socialism
" '' Our Generation'' (Spring/Summer). via Chomsky.info. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
Howard, M. C., and J. E. King. 2001.
'State Capitalism' in the Soviet Union
" ''History of Economics Review'' 34(1):110–26. .
Wolff, Richard D. 27 June 2015.
Socialism Means Abolishing the Distinction Between Bosses and Employees
" ''
Truthout Truthout is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit news organization that describes itself as a type of journalism in pursuit of justice. Some of Truthout's main areas of focus are mass incarceration, social justice and climate change. In 2009, Truthout became the f ...
.'' Retrieved 29 January 2020.
or a non-planned administrative or command economy and not an actual communist economic model in accordance with most accepted definitions of “communism” as an economic theory.


Etymology

''Communism'' derives from the
French French (french: français(e)|link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France ** French language, a French language which originated in France, and its various dialects ** French people, a nation and ethnic group identified with Fr ...
''communisme'' which developed out of the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...
roots ''communis'' and the suffix ''isme''. Semantically, ''communis'' can be translated to "of or for the community" while ''isme'' is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or
doctrine Doctrine (from la|doctrina, meaning "teaching, instruction") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system. The ...
. ''Communism'' may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand class relations and social conflict as well as a dialectical perspective to vi ...
, most specifically embodied in ''
The Communist Manifesto ''The Communist Manifesto'', originally the ''Manifesto of the Communist Party'' (german: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and ...
'' which proposed a particular type of communism. One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by
Victor d'Hupay Joseph Alexandre Victor d'Hupay (1746–1818) was a French writer and philosopher. He is known for being perhaps the first writer to use the term ''communism'' in its modern sense. He wished to transform the ideals of the Enlightenment philosophers ...
to
Restif de la Bretonne 250px|Nicolas Restif de la Bretonne Nicolas Restif de la Bretonne, born Nicolas-Edme Rétif or Nicolas-Edme Restif (; 23 October 1734 – 3 February 1806), also known as Rétif, was a French novelist. The term ''retifism'' for shoe fetishism w ...
around 1785, in which d'Hupay describes himself as an ''auteur communiste'' ("communist author"). Years later, Restif would go on to use the term frequently in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a
form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
.
John Goodwyn Barmby John Goodwyn Barmby (Bapt. 12 November 1820–1881) was born at Yoxford in Suffolk and educated at Woodbridge School. He was an English Victorian utopian socialist thinker. He and his wife Catherine Barmby (died 1853/1854) were influential supporte ...

John Goodwyn Barmby
is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840.Harper, Douglas.
communist
" ''[[Online Etymology Dictionary''. 2020.


Communism and socialism

Since the 1840s, ''communism'' has usually been distinguished from ''[[socialism''. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term over the words ''[[Fourierism|associationist'', ''[[co-operative'' and ''[[Mutualism (economic theory)|mutualist'' which had previously been used as synonyms. Instead, ''communism'' fell out of use during this period. An early distinction between ''communism'' and ''socialism'' was that the latter aimed to only socialise [[Production (economics)|production, whereas the former aimed to socialise both production and [[Consumption (economics)|consumption (in the form of free access to [[final goods). By 1888, Marxists employed ''socialism'' in place of ''communism'' which had come to be considered an old-fashioned synonym for the former. It was not until 1917, with the [[Bolshevik Revolution, that ''socialism'' came to refer to a distinct stage between
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, a price system, private proper ...
and [[Communist society|communism, introduced by [[Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the [[Bolsheviks|Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's [[productive forces were not sufficiently developed for [[socialist revolution. A distinction between ''communist'' and ''socialist'' as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the [[Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the [[All-Russian Communist Party, where ''communist'' came to specifically refer to socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism, [[Leninism and later in the 1920s of
Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 9–24, 36–44. . "By 1985, one-third of the world's popu ...
, although [[Communist party|communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism. Both ''communism'' and ''socialism'' eventually accorded with the cultural attitude of adherents and opponents towards [[religion. In [[Christendom|Christian Europe, ''communism'' was believed to be the [[atheist way of life. In [[Protestantism in the United Kingdom|Protestant England, the word ''communism'' was too [[phonetically similar to the Roman Catholic ''[[communion rite'', hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
argued that in 1848, at the time when ''
The Communist Manifesto ''The Communist Manifesto'', originally the ''Manifesto of the Communist Party'' (german: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and ...
'' was first published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not". The [[Owenites in England and the [[Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves ''communists''. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of [[Étienne Cabet in France and [[Wilhelm Weitling in Germany. While democrats looked to the [[Revolutions of 1848 as a [[democratic revolution which in the long run ensured [[Liberté, égalité, fraternité|liberty, equality and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: * a sociologically defined social class, especially in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain cultural and financial capital belonging to the middle or upper middle c ...
indifferent to the legitimate demands of the
proletariat The proletariat ( from Latin 'producing offspring') are the social class of wage-earners, those members of a society whose only possession of significant economic value is their labour power (their capacity to work). A member of such a class is ...
. According to ''The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx'', "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".


History


Early communism

According to [[Richard Pipes, the idea of a [[Classless society|classless, [[Egalitarianism|egalitarian society first emerged in [[Ancient Greece.[[Richard Pipes|Pipes, Richard. 2001. ''Communism: A History''. . pp. 3–5. The 5th-century [[Mazdak movement in [[Iran|Persia (modern-day Iran) has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the [[Nobility|noble classes and the [[clergy; for criticizing the institution of [[private property; and for striving to create an egalitarian society. At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of [[Scripture.. In the [[Middle Ages|medieval [[Christian Church, some [[Monasticism|monastic communities and [[religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has also been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer [[Thomas More. In his 1516 [[treatise ''[[Utopia (book)|Utopia'', More portrayed a society based on
common ownership Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property. Forms of common ownership exist in every economic s ...
of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of [[reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a [[Puritan [[Religious denomination|religious group known as the [[Diggers advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 ''Cromwell and Communism'', [[Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the [[English Civil War (especially the Diggers) espoused clear communistic, [[Agrarianism|agrarian ideals and that [[Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the [[Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as [[Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France. Following the upheaval of the [[French Revolution, communism later emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. Unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis."Communism" (2006). ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. ''Encyclopædia Britannica Online''. Notable among them were [[Robert Owen, who founded [[New Harmony, Indiana, in 1825; and [[Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as [[Brook Farm in 1841. In its modern form, communism grew out of the
socialist movement The history of socialism has its origins in the 1789 French Revolution and the changes which it brought, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. ''The Communist Manifesto'' was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848 ju ...
in 19th-century Europe. As the [[Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the
proletariat The proletariat ( from Latin 'producing offspring') are the social class of wage-earners, those members of a society whose only possession of significant economic value is their labour power (their capacity to work). A member of such a class is ...
—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were [[Karl Marx and his associate
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet ''
The Communist Manifesto ''The Communist Manifesto'', originally the ''Manifesto of the Communist Party'' (german: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei), is an 1848 pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and ...
''.


Soviet Union

The 1917 [[October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of [[Vladimir Lenin's [[Bolsheviks which was the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position. The revolution transferred power to the [[All-Russian Congress of Soviets in which the Bolsheviks had a majority.[[David R. Marples|Marples, David R. ''Russia in the Twentieth Century: The Quest for Stability''. p. 38.[[Jerry F. Hough|Hough, Jerry F. ''How the Soviet Union is Governed''. p. 81.Dowlah, Alex F., and John E. Elliott. ''The Life and Times of Soviet Socialism''. p. 18. The event generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule. The moderate [[Mensheviks (minority) opposed Lenin's Bolsheviks (majority) plan for [[Communist revolution|socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace, bread and land" which tapped into the massive public desire for an end to Russian involvement in [[World War I, the peasants' demand for [[land reform and popular support for the [[Soviet (council)|soviets. The
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
was established in 1922. Following Lenin's [[democratic centralism, the Leninist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base. They were made up only of elite [[Professional revolutionaries|cadres approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to [[party discipline. In the [[Moscow Trials, many old Bolsheviks who had played prominent roles during the Russian Revolution of 1917 or in Lenin's Soviet government afterwards, including [[Lev Kamenev, [[Grigory Zinoviev, [[Alexei Rykov and [[Nikolai Bukharin, were accused, pleaded guilty of conspiracy against the Soviet Union, and were executed.


Cold War

Its leading role in [[World War II saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as an [[Soviet industrialization|industrialized [[superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The [[Colonial empire|European and [[Empire of Japan|Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in [[Bulgaria, [[Czechoslovakia, [[East Germany, [[Poland, [[Hungary and [[Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under [[Josip Broz Tito in [[Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of [[Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia|Yugoslavia from the [[Cominform which had replaced the [[Comintern and [[Titoism was branded "[[Deviationism|deviationist". [[People's Socialist Republic of Albania|Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II. Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.[[Dan Georgakas|Georgakas, Dan. 1992. "The Hollywood Blacklist." ''Encyclopedia of the American Left''. [[University of Illinois Press.


Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the [[Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union|Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.Alimzhanov, A. 1991.
ДЕКЛАРАЦИЯ Совета Республик Верховного Совета СССР в связи с созданием Содружества Независимых Государств
[DECLARATION of the Council of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in connection with the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States]. ''[[Vedomosti'' 52. [[wikisource:ru:Декларация Совета Республик ВС СССР от December 26, 1991 № 142-Н|Declaration № 142-Н of the [[Soviet of Nationalities|Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, formally establishing the dissolution of the Soviet Union as a state and subject of international law.
The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former [[Soviet republics and created the [[Commonwealth of Independent States, although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do it at all. On the previous day, Soviet President [[Mikhail Gorbachev (the eighth and final [[leader of the Soviet Union) resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers, including control of the [[Cheget|Soviet nuclear missile launching codes, to [[President of Russia|Russian President [[Boris Yeltsin. That evening at 7:32, the [[Flag of the Soviet Union|Soviet flag was lowered from the [[Moscow Kremlin|Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary [[Flag of Russia|Russian flag. Previously from August to December 1991, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union. The week before the union's formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the [[Alma-Ata Protocol, formally establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.


Post-Soviet communism

At present, states controlled by Marxist–Leninist parties under a single-party system include the [[People's Republic of China, the [[Republic of Cuba, the [[Lao People's Democratic Republic and the [[Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The [[Democratic People's Republic of Korea currently refers to its leading ideology as [[Juche which is portrayed as a development of Marxism–Leninism. Communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in several other countries. The [[South African Communist Party is a partner in the [[African National Congress-led government. In [[Socialism in India|India , communists lead the government of [[Kerala. In [[Nepal, communists hold a majority in the [[Nepalese Constituent Assembly|parliament. The [[Communist Party of Brazil was a part of the parliamentary coalition led by the ruling [[Democratic socialism|democratic socialist [[Workers' Party (Brazil)|Workers' Party until August 2016. The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the Maoist legacy, and along with Laos, Vietnam and to a lesser degree Cuba, has decentralized state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. [[Chinese economic reforms were started in 1978 under the leadership of [[Deng Xiaoping, and since then China has managed to bring down the poverty rate from 53% in the Mao era to just 6% in 2001. These reforms are sometimes described by outside commentators as a regression to capitalism, but the communist parties describe it as a necessary adjustment to existing realities in the post-Soviet world in order to maximize industrial productive capacity. In these countries, the land is a universal public monopoly administered by the state and so are natural resources and vital industries and services. The [[public sector is the dominant sector in these economies and the state plays a central role in coordinating economic development.


Theory


Marxist communism

Marxism is a method of [[socioeconomic analysis that frames [[capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes [[Social class|class relations and [[social conflict using a [[materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a [[dialectical view of social transformation. Marxism uses a materialist methodology, referred to by Marx and Engels as the materialist conception of history and now better known as [[historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and especially of
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, a price system, private proper ...
as well as the role of [[class struggles in systemic economic, social and political change. First developed by [[Karl Marx and
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
in the mid-19th century, it has been the foremost ideology of the communist movement. Marxism does not lay out a blueprint of a communist society ''per se'' and it merely presents an analysis that concludes the means by which its implementation will be triggered, distinguishing its fundamental characteristics as based on the derivation of real-life conditions. Marxism considers itself to be the embodiment of [[scientific socialism, but it does not model an ideal society based on the design of [[intellectuals, whereby communism is seen as a [[State of affairs (sociology)|state of affairs to be established based on any intelligent design. Rather, it is a non-[[idealist attempt at the understanding of material history and society, whereby communism is the expression of a real movement, with parameters that are derived from actual life. According to [[Marxist theory, class conflict arises in capitalist societies due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited
proletariat The proletariat ( from Latin 'producing offspring') are the social class of wage-earners, those members of a society whose only possession of significant economic value is their labour power (their capacity to work). A member of such a class is ...
—a class of wage laborers employed to produce goods and services—and the
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: * a sociologically defined social class, especially in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain cultural and financial capital belonging to the middle or upper middle c ...
—the [[ruling class that owns the
means of production In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods or productive property) are physical and non-financial inputs used in the production of goods and services with economic value. These include raw materials, facilities, ...
and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the [[surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of [[Profit (economics)|profit. This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's [[productive forces against its [[relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying [[alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of [[class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a [[proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of [[Socialist mode of production|socialism—a socioeconomic system based on
social ownership Social ownership is the appropriation of the surplus product produced by the means of production by a society or community as a whole, and is the defining characteristic of a socialist economic system. It can take the form of state ownership, com ...
of the means of production, [[To each according to his contribution|distribution based on one's contribution and [[Production for use|production organized directly for use. As the productive forces continued to advance, socialism would be transformed into a
communist society In Marxist thought, a communist society or the communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of comm ...
, i.e. a classless, stateless, humane society based on
common ownership Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property. Forms of common ownership exist in every economic s ...
and [[From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs|distribution based on one's needs. While it originates from the works of Marx and Engels, Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory. Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of [[classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts which has then led to contradictory conclusions. However, there is a movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and [[dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all [[Marxist schools of thought.
Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 9–24, 36–44. . "By 1985, one-third of the world's popu ...
and its offshoots are the most well-known of these and have been a driving force in [[international relations during most of the 20th century. Classical Marxism is the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Marx and Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially [[Leninism and Marxism–Leninism. [[Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxism thought that emerged after the death of Marx and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the [[Second International until World War I in 1914. Orthodox Marxism aims to simplify, codify and systematize Marxist method and theory by clarifying the perceived ambiguities and contradictions of classical Marxism. The philosophy of orthodox Marxism includes the understanding that material development (advances in technology in the [[productive forces) is the primary agent of change in the structure of society and of human social relations and that social systems and their relations (e.g. [[feudalism, [[capitalism and so on) become contradictory and inefficient as the productive forces develop, which results in some form of social revolution arising in response to the mounting contradictions. This revolutionary change is the vehicle for fundamental society-wide changes and ultimately leads to the emergence of new
economic system#REDIRECT Economic system#REDIRECT Economic system {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
s. As a term, ''orthodox Marxism'' represents the methods of historical materialism and of dialectical materialism and not the normative aspects inherent to classical Marxism, without implying dogmatic adherence to the results of Marx's investigations.


Marxist concepts


= Class conflict and historical materialism

= At the root of Marxism is historical materialism, the [[materialist conception of history which holds that the key characteristic of economic systems through history has been the
mode of production In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (in German: ''Produktionsweise'', meaning "the way of producing") is a specific combination of the following: * Productive forces: these include h ...
and that the change between modes of production has been triggered by class struggle. According to this analysis, the [[Industrial Revolution ushered the world into
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, a price system, private proper ...
as a new mode of production. Before capitalism, certain
working class#REDIRECT working class#REDIRECT working class {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
es had ownership of instruments utilized in production. However, because machinery was much more efficient, this property became worthless and the mass majority of workers could only survive by selling their labor to make use of someone else's machinery, thus making someone else profit. Accordingly, capitalism divided the world between two major classes, namely that of the
proletariat The proletariat ( from Latin 'producing offspring') are the social class of wage-earners, those members of a society whose only possession of significant economic value is their labour power (their capacity to work). A member of such a class is ...
and the
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: * a sociologically defined social class, especially in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain cultural and financial capital belonging to the middle or upper middle c ...
. These classes are directly antagonistic as the latter possesses
private ownership Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity, and from collective or cooperative property, w ...
of the
means of production In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods or productive property) are physical and non-financial inputs used in the production of goods and services with economic value. These include raw materials, facilities, ...
, earning profit via the [[surplus value generated by the proletariat, who have no ownership of the means of production and therefore no option but to sell its labor to the bourgeoisie. According to the materialist conception of history, it is through the furtherance of its own material interests that the rising bourgeoisie within [[feudalism captured power and abolished, of all relations of private property, only the feudal privilege, thereby taking the feudal [[ruling class out of existence. This was another key element behind the consolidation of capitalism as the new mode of production, the final expression of class and property relations that has led to a massive expansion of production. It is only in capitalism that private property in itself can be abolished. Similarly, the proletariat would capture political power, abolish bourgeois property through the
common ownership Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property. Forms of common ownership exist in every economic s ...
of the means of production, therefore abolishing the bourgeoisie, ultimately abolishing the proletariat itself and ushering the world into [[Communist society|communism as a new mode of production. In between capitalism and communism, there is the [[dictatorship of the proletariat, a democratic state where the whole of the public authority is elected and recallable under the basis of [[universal suffrage. It is the defeat of the [[bourgeois state, but not yet of the capitalist mode of production and at the same time the only element which places into the realm of possibility moving on from this mode of production.


= Marxian economics

= Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for [[Tendency of the rate of profit to fall|falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression. The [[Socialist mode of production|communist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' [[revolution. According to Marxian [[crisis theory, communism is not an inevitability, but an economic necessity.


= Socialization versus nationalization

= An important concept in Marxism is [[Social ownership|socialization versus [[nationalization. Nationalization is [[state ownership of property whereas socialization is control and management of property by society. Marxism considers the latter as its goal and considers nationalization a tactical issue, as state ownership is still in the realm of the [[Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory)|capitalist mode of production. In the words of
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
, "the transformation [...] into State-ownership does not do away with the capitalistic nature of the productive forces. [...] State-ownership of the productive forces is not the solution of the conflict, but concealed within it are the technical conditions that form the elements of that solution".[[Friedrich Engels|Engels, Friedrich. [1880] 1970
"Historical Materialism"
"But, the transformation—either into joint-stock companies and trusts, or into State-ownership—does not do away with the capitalistic nature of the productive forces. In the joint-stock companies and trusts, this is obvious. And the modern State, again, is only the organization that bourgeois society takes on in order to support the external conditions of the capitalist mode of production against the encroachments as well of the workers as of individual capitalists. The modern state, no matter what its form, is essentially a capitalist machine—the state of the capitalists, the ideal personification of the total national capital. The more it proceeds to the taking over of productive forces, the more does it actually become the national capitalist, the more citizens does it exploit. The workers remain wage-workers—proletarians. The capitalist relation is not done away with. It is, rather, brought to a head. But, brought to a head, it topples over. State-ownership of the productive forces is not the solution of the conflict, but concealed within it are the technical conditions that form the elements of that solution."
[[Friedrich Engels|Engels, Friedrich. [1880] 1970.
Historical Materialism
" Part 3 in ''[[Socialism: Utopian and Scientific'', translated by [[Edward Aveling|E. Aveling (1892), (''[[Marx/Engels Collected Works|Marx/Engels Selected Works'' 3, p. 95–151).
Progress Publishers Progress Publishers was a Moscow-based Soviet publisher founded in 1931. It was noted for its English-language editions of books on Marxism–Leninism. Progress Publishers were particularly also known for their ''Short History of USSR'' and ABC se ...
.
This has led some Marxist groups and tendencies to label states based on nationalization such as the Soviet Union as [[state capitalist.


Leninist communism

Leninism is the body of [[political theory, developed by and named after the [[Russian Revolution|Russian revolutionary and later-[[Premier of the Soviet Union|Soviet premier [[Vladimir Lenin, for the democratic organisation of a revolutionary [[vanguard party and the achievement of a [[Dictatorship of the proletariat#Vladimir Lenin|dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of [[Socialist mode of production|socialism. Leninism comprises [[Types of socialism|socialist political and [[Economic theory|economic theories developed from [[orthodox Marxism as well as Lenin's interpretations of Marxist theory for practical application to the [[Sociopolitical|socio-political conditions of the [[Agrarianism|agrarian, early-20th-century [[Russian Empire. Leninism was composed for revolutionary [[Praxis (process)|praxis and originally was neither a rigorously proper philosophy nor a discrete political theory. After the Russian Revolution and in ''[[History and Class Consciousness|History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics'' (1923), [[György Lukács developed and organised Lenin's pragmatic revolutionary practices and ideology into the formal philosophy of vanguard-party revolution. As a political-science term, ''Leninism'' entered common usage in 1922 after infirmity ended Lenin's participation in governing the Russian Communist Party. At the Fifth Congress of the [[Communist International in July 1924, [[Grigory Zinoviev popularized the term ''Leninism'' to denote "vanguard-party revolution". Within Leninism, [[democratic centralism is a practice in which political decisions reached by voting processes are binding upon all members of the [[communist party. The party's political vanguard is composed of professional revolutionaries that elect leaders and officers as well as to determine policy through free discussion, then this is decisively realized through united action. In the context of the theory of Leninist revolutionary struggle, [[vanguardism is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the
proletariat The proletariat ( from Latin 'producing offspring') are the social class of wage-earners, those members of a society whose only possession of significant economic value is their labour power (their capacity to work). A member of such a class is ...
or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its [[class enemies. From 1917 to 1922, Leninism was the Russian application of [[Marxian economics and political philosophy, effected and realised by the [[Bolsheviks, the vanguard party who led the fight for the [[political independence of the
working class#REDIRECT working class#REDIRECT working class {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
. In the 1925–1929 period, [[Joseph Stalin established his interpretation of Leninism as the official and only legitimate form of Marxism in Russia by amalgamating the political philosophies as
Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 9–24, 36–44. . "By 1985, one-third of the world's popu ...
which then became the [[Ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union|state ideology of the Soviet Union.


= Marxism–Leninism

= Marxism–Leninism is a political ideology developed by [[Joseph Stalin.Lisichkin, G. 1989. "Мифы и реальность, Новый мир" . ''[[Novy Mir'' 3. p. 59. According to its proponents, it is based in
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand class relations and social conflict as well as a dialectical perspective to vi ...
and [[Leninism. It describes the specific political ideology which Stalin implemented in the [[Communist Party of the Soviet Union and in a global scale in the [[Comintern. There is no definite agreement between historians of about whether Stalin actually followed the principles of Marx and Lenin.Александр Бутенко (Aleksandr Butenko), Социализм сегодня: опыт и новая теория// Журнал Альтернативы, №1, 1996, pp. 2–22 . It also contains aspects which according to some are deviations from Marxism such as [[socialism in one country.''[[Contemporary Marxism'' (4–5). Synthesis Publications. 1981. p. 151: "[S]ocialism in one country, a pragmatic deviation from classical Marxism."Erik, Cornell. "North Korea Under Communism: Report of an Envoy to Paradise." p. 169: "Socialism in one country, a slogan that aroused protests as not only it implied a major deviation from Marxist internationalism, but was also strictly speaking incompatible with the basic tenets of Marxism." [[Social fascism was a theory supported by the Comintern and affiliated [[communist parties during the early 1930s which held that
social democracy#REDIRECT Social democracy#REDIRECT Social democracy {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
was a variant of [[fascism because it stood in the way of a [[dictatorship of the proletariat, in addition to a shared [[corporatist economic model. At the time, leaders of the Comintern such as Stalin and [[Rajani Palme Dutt argued that [[Capitalism|capitalist society had entered the [[Third Period in which a [[Proletariat revolution|working-class revolution was imminent, but it could be prevented by social democrats and other ''fascist'' forces. The term ''social fascist'' was used pejoratively to describe social-democratic parties, anti-Comintern and progressive socialist parties and dissenters within Comintern affiliates throughout the [[interwar period. The social fascism theory was advocated vociferously by the [[Communist Party of Germany which was largely controlled and funded by the Soviet leadership from 1928. During the Cold War, Marxism–Leninism was the ideology of the most clearly visible communist movement and is the most prominent ideology associated with communism. According to their proponents, Marxist–Leninist ideologies have been adapted to the material conditions of their respective countries and include [[Castroism (Cuba), [[National communism in Romania|Ceaușism (Romania), [[Gonzalo Thought (Peru), [[Guevarism (Cuba), [[Ho Chi Minh Thought (Vietnam), [[Hoxhaism (anti-revisionist Albania), [[Husakism (Czechoslovakia), [[Juche (North Korea), [[Kadarism (Hungary), [[Khmer Rouge (Cambodia), [[Khrushchevism (Soviet Union), [[Prachanda Path (Nepal), [[Shining Path (Peru) and [[Titoism (anti-Stalinist Yugoslavia). Within Marxism–Leninism, [[anti-revisionism is a position which emerged in the 1950s in opposition to the [[Khrushchev Thaw|reforms of Soviet leader [[Nikita Khrushchev. Where Khrushchev pursued an interpretation that differed from Stalin, the anti-revisionists within the international communist movement remained dedicated to Stalin's ideological legacy and criticized the Soviet Union under Khrushchev and his successors as [[state capitalist and [[social imperialist due to its hopes of achieving peace with the United States. The term ''Stalinism'' is also used to describe these positions, but it is often not used by its supporters who opine that Stalin simply synthesized and practiced [[orthodox Marxism and Leninism. Because different political trends trace the historical roots of revisionism to different eras and leaders, there is significant disagreement today as to what constitutes anti-revisionism. Modern groups which describe themselves as anti-revisionist fall into several categories. Some uphold the works of Stalin and [[Mao Zedong and some the works of Stalin while rejecting Mao and universally tend to oppose [[Trotskyism. Others reject both Stalin and Mao, tracing their ideological roots back to Marx and Lenin. In addition, other groups uphold various less-well-known historical leaders such as [[Enver Hoxha, who also broke with Mao during the [[Sino-Albanian split. Within Marxism–Leninism, ''social imperialism'' was a term used by Mao to criticize the Soviet Union post-Stalin. Mao argued that the Soviet Union had itself become an [[imperialist power while maintaining a socialist façade. Hoxha agreed with Mao in this analysis, before later using the expression to also condemn Mao's [[Three Worlds Theory.


Stalinism

Stalinism represents Stalin's style of governance as opposed to Marxism–Leninism, the [[Socioeconomics|socioeconomic system and [[political ideology implemented by Stalin in the Soviet Union and later copied by other states based on the [[Ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union|Soviet model such as [[central planning, [[nationalization and [[one-party state, along with [[public ownership of the
means of production In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods or productive property) are physical and non-financial inputs used in the production of goods and services with economic value. These include raw materials, facilities, ...
, accelerated [[industrialization, pro-active development of society's [[productive forces (research and development) and nationalised [[natural resources. Marxism–Leninism remained after [[de-Stalinization whereas Stalinism did not. In the last letters before his death, Lenin warned against the danger of Stalin's personality and urged the Soviet government to replace him. Marxism–Leninism has been criticized by other communist and Marxist tendencies. They argue that Marxist–Leninist states did not establish socialism, but rather
state capitalism State capitalism is an economic system in which the state undertakes business and commercial economic activity (i.e. for-profit) and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned enterprises (including the processes of capi ...
. According to Marxism, the dictatorship of the proletariat represents the rule of the majority (democracy) rather than of one party, to the extent that co-founder of Marxism
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
described its "specific form" as the [[Republicanism|democratic republic. Additionally, according to Engels state property by itself is private property of capitalist nature unless the proletariat has control of political power, in which case it forms public property.[[Friedrich Engels|Engels, Friedrich. [1880] 1970.
"Historical Materialism"
"The proletariat seizes the public power, and by means of this transforms the socialized means of production, slipping from the hands of the bourgeoisie, into public property. By this act, the proletariat frees the means of production from the character of capital they have thus far borne, and gives their socialized character complete freedom to work itself out."
Whether the proletariat was actually in control of the Marxist–Leninist states is a matter of debate between Marxism–Leninism and other communist tendencies. To these tendencies, Marxism–Leninism is neither Marxism nor Leninism nor the union of both, but rather an artificial term created to justify Stalin's ideological distortion,History for the IB Diploma: Communism in Crisis 1976–89. Allan Todd. p. 16. "The term Marxism–Leninism, invented by Stalin, was not used until after Lenin's death in 1924. It soon came to be used in Stalin's Soviet Union to refer to what he described as 'orthodox Marxism'. This increasingly came to mean what Stalin himself had to say about political and economic issues." [...] "However, many Marxists (even members of the Communist Party itself) believed that Stalin's ideas and practices (such as socialism in one country and the purges) were almost total distortions of what Marx and Lenin had said". forced into the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Comintern. In the Soviet Union, this struggle against Marxism–Leninism was represented by [[Trotskyism which describes itself as a Marxist and Leninist tendency.


Maoism

Maoism is the theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader [[Mao Zedong. Developed from the 1950s until the [[Deng Xiaoping [[Chinese economic reform in the 1970s, it was widely applied as the guiding political and military ideology of the [[Communist Party of China and as the theory guiding [[revolutionary movements around the world. A key difference between Maoism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism is that [[peasants should be the bulwark of the revolutionary energy which is led by the working class. The synthesis of Marxism–Leninism–Maoism which builds upon the two individual theories as the Chinese adaption of Marxism–Leninism did not occur during the life of Mao. After [[de-Stalinization, Marxism–Leninism was kept in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
while certain [[Anti-revisionism|anti-revisionist tendencies such as [[Hoxhaism and Maoism argued that such had deviated from its original concept. Different policies were applied in [[Albania and [[China which became more distanced from the Soviet Union. From the 1960s, groups who called themselves ''Maoists'', or those who upheld Maoism, were not unified around a common understanding of Maoism, instead having their own particular interpretations of the political, philosophical, economical and military works of Mao. Its adherents claims that as a unified, coherent higher stage of Marxism, it was not consolidated until the 1980s, first being formalized by the [[Communism in Peru|Peruvian communist party [[Shining Path in 1982. Through the experience of the [[people's war waged by the party, the Shining Path were able to posit Maoism as the newest development of Marxism. Proponents of Marxism–Leninism–Maoism refer to the theory as ''Maoism'' itself whereas ''Maoism'' is referred to as either ''Mao Zedong Thought'' or ''Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought''. [[Maoism–Third Worldism is concerned with the infusion and [[Thesis, antithesis, synthesis|synthesis of Marxism–Leninism–Maoism with concepts of non-Marxist [[Third-Worldism such [[dependency theory and [[world-systems theory.


= Trotskyism

= Trotskyism, developed by [[Leon Trotsky in opposition to [[Stalinism, is a Marxist and Leninist tendency that supports the theory of [[permanent revolution and [[world revolution rather than the [[two-stage theory and [[Joseph Stalin's [[socialism in one country. It supported [[proletarian internationalism and another communist revolution in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
. Rather than representing the [[dictatorship of the proletariat, Trotsky claimed that the Soviet Union had become a [[degenerated workers' state under the leadership of Stalin in which class relations had re-emerged in a new form. Trotsky's politics differed sharply from those of Stalin and [[Mao Zedong, most importantly in declaring the need for an international proletarian revolution—rather than socialism in one country—and support for a true dictatorship of the proletariat based on democratic principles. Struggling against Stalin for power in the Soviet Union, Trotsky and his supporters organized into the [[Left Opposition, the platform of which became known as Trotskyism. Stalin eventually succeeded in gaining control of the Soviet regime and Trotskyist attempts to remove Stalin from power resulted in Trotsky's exile from the Soviet Union in 1929. While in exile, Trotsky continued his campaign against Stalin, founding in 1938 the [[Fourth International, a Trotskyist rival to the Comintern. In August 1940, Trotsky was assassinated in [[Mexico City upon Stalin's orders. Trotskyist currents include [[orthodox Trotskyism, [[third camp, [[Posadism, [[Pabloism and [[neo-Trotskyism. In Trotskyist political theory, a degenerated workers' state is a dictatorship of the proletariat in which the working class's democratic control over the state has given way to control by a bureaucratic clique. The term was developed by Trotsky in ''[[The Revolution Betrayed'' and in other works. [[Deformed workers' states are states where the capitalist class has been overthrown, the economy is largely state-owned and planned, but there is no internal democracy or workers' control of industry. In a deformed workers' state, the working class has never held political power like it did in Russia shortly after the [[Bolshevik Revolution. These states are considered deformed because their political and economic structures have been imposed from the top (or from outside) and because revolutionary working class organizations are crushed. Like a degenerated workers' state, a deformed workers' state cannot be said to be a state that is transitioning to socialism. Most Trotskyists cite examples of deformed workers' states today as including [[Cuba, the [[People's Republic of China, [[North Korea and [[Vietnam. The [[Committee for a Workers' International has also included states such as [[Burma and [[Syria at times when they have had a [[nationalized economy.


= Eurocommunism

= Eurocommunism was a [[Revisionism (Marxism)|revisionist trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various [[Western European communist parties, claiming to develop a theory and practice of [[social transformation more relevant to their region. Especially prominent in [[Italy, [[France and [[Spain, communists of this nature sought to undermine the influence of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
and its [[Communist Party of the Soviet Union|communist party during the [[Cold War. [[Enrico Berlinguer, secretary of the [[Italian Communist Party, was widely considered the father of Eurocommunism.


Libertarian Marxism

Libertarian Marxism is a broad range of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the [[anti-authoritarian aspects of
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand class relations and social conflict as well as a dialectical perspective to vi ...
. Early currents of libertarian Marxism, known as [[left communism, emerged in opposition to
Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 9–24, 36–44. . "By 1985, one-third of the world's popu ...
and its derivatives such as [[Stalinism, [[Trotskyism and [[Maoism. Libertarian Marxism is also critical of [[reformist positions such as those held by [[social democrats. Libertarian Marxist currents often draw from Marx and Engels' later works, specifically the ''[[Grundrisse'' and ''[[The Civil War in France'', emphasizing the Marxist belief in the ability of the
working class#REDIRECT working class#REDIRECT working class {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
to forge its own destiny without the need for a revolutionary party or [[State (polity)|state to mediate or aid its liberation. Along with [[anarchism, libertarian Marxism is one of the main derivatives of [[libertarian socialism. Aside from left communism, libertarian Marxism includes such currents as [[autonomism, [[communization, [[council communism, [[De Leonism, the [[Johnson–Forest Tendency, [[Lettrism, [[Luxemburgism [[Situationist International|Situationism, [[Socialisme ou Barbarie, [[Solidarity (UK)|Solidarity, the [[World Socialist Movement, [[workerism as well as parts of [[Freudo-Marxism and the [[New Left. Moreover, libertarian Marxism has often had a strong influence on both [[Post-left anarchy|post-left and [[Social anarchism|social anarchists. Notable theorists of libertarian Marxism have included [[Antonie Pannekoek, [[Raya Dunayevskaya, [[C. L. R. James, [[Antonio Negri, [[Cornelius Castoriadis, [[Maurice Brinton, [[Guy Debord, [[Daniel Guérin, [[Ernesto Screpanti, [[Raoul Vaneigem and [[Yanis Varoufakis, who claims that Marx himself was a libertarian Marxist.


= Council communism

= Council communism is a movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s, whose primary organization was the [[Communist Workers Party of Germany. Council communism continues today as a theoretical and activist position within both [[libertarian Marxism and [[libertarian socialism. The core principle of council communism is that the government and the economy should be managed by [[Workers' councils which are composed of [[Delegate model of representation|delegates elected at workplaces and [[Recall election|recallable at any moment. As such, council communists oppose [[Planned economy|state-run [[authoritarian [[state socialism and
state capitalism State capitalism is an economic system in which the state undertakes business and commercial economic activity (i.e. for-profit) and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned enterprises (including the processes of capi ...
. They also oppose the idea of a revolutionary party since council communists believe that a revolution led by a party will necessarily produce a party dictatorship. Council communists support a workers' democracy, produced through a federation of workers' councils. Accordingly, the central argument of council communism in contrast to those of
social democracy#REDIRECT Social democracy#REDIRECT Social democracy {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
and [[Leninist communism is that democratic workers' councils arising in the factories and municipalities are the natural form of working-class organization and governmental power. This view is opposed to both the [[reformist and the Leninism ideologies which respectively stress parliamentary and [[New institutionalism|institutional government by applying [[Reform movement|social reforms on the one hand and [[Vanguard party|vanguard parties and [[Participatory democracy|participative [[democratic centralism on the other.


= Left communism

= Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the communist left which criticizes the political ideas and practices espoused, particularly following the series of revolutions that brought [[World War to an end by [[Bolsheviks and [[social democrats. Left communists assert positions which they regard as more authentically [[Marxist and [[proletarian than the views of
Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 9–24, 36–44. . "By 1985, one-third of the world's popu ...
espoused by the [[Communist International after its [[1st Congress of the Comintern|first congress (March 1919) and during its [[2nd World Congress of the Comintern|second congress (July–August 1920). Left communists represent a range of political movements distinct from [[Marxist–Leninists, whom they largely view as merely the left-wing of [[Capital (economics)|capital; from [[anarcho-communists, some of whom they consider to be [[internationalist socialists; and from various other revolutionary socialist tendencies such as [[De Leonists, whom they tend to see as being internationalist socialists only in limited instances. [[Bordigism is a Leninist left-communist current named after [[Amadeo Bordiga, who did consider himself a Leninist and has been described as being "more Leninist than Lenin".


Non-Marxist communism

The dominant forms of communism are based on Marxism, but non-Marxist versions of communism such as [[Christian communism and [[anarcho-communism also exist.


Anarcho-communism

Anarcho-communism is a [[libertarian theory of [[anarchism and communism which advocates the abolition of the [[State (polity)|state, [[private property and [[capitalism in favor of
common ownership Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property. Forms of common ownership exist in every economic s ...
of the
means of production In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods or productive property) are physical and non-financial inputs used in the production of goods and services with economic value. These include raw materials, facilities, ...
; [[direct democracy; and a [[Horizontal integration|horizontal network of [[voluntary associations and [[workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle "[[From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs|From each according to his ability, to each according to his need". Anarcho-communism differs from Marxism in that it rejects its view about the need for a [[state socialism phase prior to establishing communism. [[Peter Kropotkin, the main theorist of anarcho-communism, argued that a revolutionary society should "transform itself immediately into a communist society", that it should go immediately into what Marx had regarded as the "more advanced, completed, phase of communism". In this way, it tries to avoid the reappearance of "[[Social stratification|class divisions and the need for a state to oversee everything". Some forms of anarcho-communism such as [[insurrectionary anarchism are [[Egoist anarchism|egoist and strongly influenced by radical [[individualism, believing that anarchist communism does not require a [[Communitarianism|communitarian nature at all. Most anarcho-communists view anarchist communism as a way of reconciling the opposition between the individual and society. "Communism is the one which guarantees the greatest amount of individual liberty—provided that the idea that begets the community be Liberty, Anarchy ... Communism guarantees economic freedom better than any other form of association, because it can guarantee wellbeing, even luxury, in return for a few hours of work instead of a day's work." In human history to date, the best-known examples of an anarcho-communist society, i.e. established around the ideas as they exist today and that received worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon, are the anarchist territories during the [[Free Territory during the [[Russian Revolution, the [[Korean People's Association in Manchuria and the [[Spanish Revolution of 1936. During the [[Russian Civil War, anarchists such as [[Nestor Makhno worked through the [[Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine to create and defend anarcho-communism in the Free Territory of the Ukraine from 1919 before being conquered by the [[Bolsheviks in 1921. In 1929, anarcho-communism was achieved in Korea by the Korean Anarchist Federation in Manchuria (KAFM) and the Korean Anarcho-Communist Federation (KACF), with help from anarchist general and independence activist [[Kim Chwa-chin, lasting until 1931, when [[Imperial Japan assassinated Kim and invaded from the south while the [[Chinese Nationalists invaded from the north, resulting in the creation of [[Manchukuo, a puppet state of the [[Empire of Japan. Through the efforts and influence of the [[Anarchism in Spain|Spanish anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the [[Spanish Civil War, starting in 1936 anarcho-communism existed in most of [[Aragon; parts of the [[Levante, Spain|Levante and [[Andalusia; and in the [[Fortification|stronghold of [[Revolutionary Catalonia, before being brutally crushed.


Christian communism

Christian communism is a theological and political theory based upon the view that the teachings of [[Jesus in Christianity|Jesus Christ compel [[Christians to support [[religious communism as the ideal [[social system. As such, many advocates of Christian communism argue that it was taught by Jesus and practiced by the apostles themselves. Some historians confirm it. Christian communism enjoys some support in Russia. For instance, Russian musician [[Yegor Letov was an outspoken Christian communist. "Communism is the [[Kingdom of God on Earth," he said in an interview in 1995.


Criticism

Criticism of communism can be divided into two broad categories, namely that which concerns itself with the practical aspects of 20th century
communist state A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism. Marxism–Leninism was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, the Comintern ...
s[[Bruno Bosteels|Bosteels, Bruno. 2014. ''The Actuality of Communism''. Verso Books. and that which concerns itself with communist principles and theory.[[Raymond Taras|Taras, Raymond C. 2015. ''The Road to Disillusion: From Critical Marxism to Post-communism in Eastern Europe''. [[Routledge.
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand class relations and social conflict as well as a dialectical perspective to vi ...
is also subject to general criticism such as that it requires necessary suppression of [[Liberal democracy|liberal democratic rights, that there are issues with the implementation of communism, and that there are economic issues such as the distortion or absence of [[price signals. In addition, [[Empiricism|empirical and [[Epistemology|epistemological problems are frequently cited.Howard, M. C., and J. E. King. 1992. ''A History of Marxian Economics: Volume II, 1929–1990''. Princeton, NJ: [[Princeton University Press.[[John Maynard Keynes|Keynes, John Maynard. 1991. ''Essays in Persuasion''. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 300. .


See also

* ''[[American Communist History'' * [[Anti anti-communism * [[Anti-communist mass killings * [[Commons-based peer production * [[Criticism of Communist party rule * [[:Category:Communism by country|Communism by country * [[Communist bandit * [[List of communist parties * [[Mass killings under communist regimes * [[Post-scarcity economy * [[Socialist state * [[Sociocultural evolution * ''[[Twentieth Century Communism''


References


Quotes


Citations


Bibliography


Further reading

* Adami, Stefano. 2006. "Communism." In ''Encyclopedia of Italian Literary Studies'', edited by G. Marrone. London: Routledge. * Brown, Archie. 2009. ''The Rise and Fall of Communism.'' . * Daniels, Robert V. 1994. ''A Documentary History of Communism and the World: From Revolution to Collapse''. [[University Press of New England. . * — 2007. ''The Rise and Fall of Communism in Russia.'' * [[Jodi Dean|Dean, Jodi. 2012. ''The Communist Horizon''. [[Verso Books|Verso. . * Dirlik, Arif. 1989. ''Origins of Chinese Communism''. [[Oxford University Press. . * Fitzpatrick, Sheila. 2007. "Revisionism in Soviet History." ''[[History and Theory'' 46(4):77–91. . — [[Historiography|Historiographical essay that covers the scholarship of the three major schools, [[totalitarianism, [[Revisionism (Marxism)|revisionism, and [[post-revisionism. * Forman, James D. 1972. ''Communism From Marx's Manifesto To 20th century Reality''. New York: Watts. . * Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola, and Matthias Schündeln. 2020.
The Long-Term Effects of Communism in Eastern Europe (PDF)
" ''[[Journal of Economic Perspectives'' 34(2):172–91.
online
* [[François Furet|Furet, Francois. 2000. ''The Passing of An Illusion: The Idea of Communism In the Twentieth Century'', translated by D. Kan. Chicago: [[University of Chicago Press. . * Fürst, Juliane, Silvio Pons, and Mark Selden, eds. 2017. ''Endgames? Late communism in global perspective, 1968 to the present''. (''The Cambridge History of Communism'' 3). * [[Kristen Ghodsee|Ghodsee, Kristen. 2017. ''Red Hangover: Legacies of Twentieth-Century Communism''. [[Duke University Press. . * Gregor, A. J. 2014. ''Marxism and the Making of China: A Doctrinal History''. . * Laybourn, Keith. 1999. ''Under the Red Flag: A History of Communism in Britain''. * Lovell, Julia. 2019. ''Maoism: A Global History''. . * [[Karl Marx|Marx, Karl and
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
. 8481998. ''[[The Communist Manifesto|Communist Manifesto'' (reprint). [[Signet Classics. . * Morgan, W. John, 2003, ''Communists on Education and Culture 1848-1948'', Palgrave Macmillan. . * Morgan, W. John (Guest Editor), 2005, 'Communism, Post-Communism, and Moral Education', Special Issue, ''The Journal of Moral Education'', Vol. 34, No. 4, December, 2005. ISSN 0305-7240 (print), ISSN 1465-3877 (online). * Naimark, Norman, and Silvio Pons, eds. 2017. ''The socialist camp and world power 1941-1960s'', (''The Cambridge History of Communism'' 2). . * * Pipes, Richard. 2003. ''Communism: A History''. * Pons, Silvio. 2014. ''The Global Revolution: A History of International Communism 1917-1991''. * Pons, Silvio and [[Robert Service (historian)|Robert Service. 2010. ''A Dictionary of 20th century Communism''. * — 2017. ''World Revolution and Socialism in One Country 1917–1941'', (''The Cambridge History of Communism'' 1). . * Pop-Eleches, Grigore, and Joshua A. Tucker. 2017. ''Communism’s Shadow: Historical Legacies and Contemporary Political Attitudes''. Princeton University Press.. * [[David Priestland|Priestland, David. 2009. ''The Red Flag: A History of Communism''. * Sabirov, Kharis. 1987.
What Is Communism?
'' Moscow:
Progress Publishers Progress Publishers was a Moscow-based Soviet publisher founded in 1931. It was noted for its English-language editions of books on Marxism–Leninism. Progress Publishers were particularly also known for their ''Short History of USSR'' and ABC se ...
. * Service, Robert. 2010. ''Comrades!: A History of World Communism''. Harvard University Press. * Shaw, Yu-ming. 2019. ''Ideology, Politics, And Foreign Policy'', (''Changes And Continuities In Chinese Communism'' 1). Routledge. * [[Alexander Zinoviev|Zinoviev, Alexandre. [1980] 1984. ''The Reality of Communism''. [[Schocken Books|Schocken.


External links


Communism
''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., and other publishers ( ...
''.
Libcom.org
Library of almost 20,000 articles, books, pamphlets and journals on [[libertarian communism. * *
The Radical Pamphlet Collection
at the [[Library of Congress contains materials on the topic of communism. {{authority control [[Category:Communism| [[Category:Anarcho-communism [[Category:Anti-capitalism [[Category:Anti-fascism [[Category:Economic ideologies [[Category:Left-wing politics [[Category:Political ideologies [[Category:Political culture [[Category:Social anarchism [[Category:Socialism [[Category:1770s neologisms [[Category:Marxism–Leninism