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A communication theory is a proposed description of communication phenomena, the relationships among them, a storyline describing these relationships, and an argument for these three elements. Communication theory provides a way of talking about and analyzing key events, processes, and commitments that together form communication. Theory can be seen as a way to map the world and make it navigable; communication theory gives us tools to answer empirical, conceptual, or practical communication questions. Although
communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

communication
as an overall concept is variously defined in both commonsense and specialized ways, within communication theory, communication is seen as a vital symbolic and social process. In general, communication is often seen from two perspectives—as an exchange of information (the transmission perspective), and as the work we do to connect with one another and our world (the ritual perspective). This transmission versus ritual distinction is also reflected in communication theory. Communication theories have emerged from multiple historical points of origin, including classical traditions of oratory and rhetoric, Enlightenment-era conceptions of society and the mind, and post-World War II efforts to understand propaganda and relationships between media and society. Prominent historical and modern foundational communication theorists include
Kurt Lewin Kurt Lewin ( ; 9 September 1890 – 12 February 1947) was a German-American psychologist A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experime ...
,
Harold Lasswell Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902December 18, 1978) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of A ...
,
Paul Lazarsfeld Paul Felix Lazarsfeld (February 13, 1901August 30, 1976) was an Austrian-American sociologist. The founder of Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is ...
,
Carl Hovland Carl Iver Hovland (June 12, 1912 – April 16, 1961) was a psychologist working primarily at Yale University and for the United States Army, US Army during World War II who studied attitude (psychology), attitude change and persuasion. He first re ...
, James Carey,
Elihu Katz Elihu Katz (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their anc ...
,
Kenneth Burke Kenneth Duva Burke (May 5, 1897 – November 19, 1993) was an American literary theory, literary theorist, as well as poet, essayist, and novelist, who wrote on 20th-century philosophy, aesthetics, criticism, and rhetoric, rhetorical theory. As a ...
,
John Dewey John Dewey (; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdom ...
, Jurgen Habermas,
Marshall McLuhan Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911 – December 31, 1980) was a Canadian philosopher, whose work is among the cornerstones of the study of media theory. . . Retrieved 24 June 2020. . . Retrieved 24 June 2020. Born in Edmonton, Alberta, an ...

Marshall McLuhan
,
Theodor Adorno Theodor is a masculine given name. It is a German form of TheodoreTheodore may refer to: Places * Theodore, Alabama, United States * Theodore, Australian Capital Territory * Theodore, Queensland, a town in the Shire of Banana, Australia * Th ...
,
Antonio Gramsci Antonio Francesco Gramsci (, ; ; 22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affe ...
,
Robert E. Park
Robert E. Park
,
George Herbert Mead George Herbert Mead (February 27, 1863 – April 26, 1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist, and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists. He is regarded ...

George Herbert Mead
, Joseph Walther,
Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such top ...
and Stuart Hall—although some of these theorists may not explicitly associate themselves with communication as a discipline or field of study.


Models and Elements of Communication Theory

One key activity in communication theory is the development of models and concepts used to describe communication. In the Linear Model, communication works in one direction: a sender encodes some message and sends it through a channel for a receiver to decode. In comparison, the Interactional Model of communication is bidirectional. People send and receive messages in a cooperative fashion as they continuously encode and decode information. The Transactional Model assumes that information is sent and received simultaneously through a noisy channel, and further considers a frame of reference or experience each person brings to the interaction. Some of the basic elements of communication studied in communication theory are: *
Source Source or subsource or ''variation'', may refer to: Research * Historical document * Historical source * Source (intelligence) or subsource, typically a confidential provider of non open-source intelligence * Source (journalism), a person, public ...
: Shannon calls this element the "information source", which "produces a message or sequence of messages to be communicated to the receiving terminal." * Sender: Shannon calls this element the "transmitter", which "operates on the message in some way to produce a signal suitable for transmission over the channel." In Aristotle, this element is the "speaker" (orator). * Channel: For Shannon, the channel is "merely the medium used to transmit the signal from transmitter to receiver." * Receiver: For Shannon, the receiver "performs the inverse operation of that done by the transmitter, reconstructing the message from the signal." * Destination: For Shannon, the destination is "the person (or thing) for whom the message is intended". * Message: from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
''mittere'', "to send". The message is a
concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the bod ...

concept
, information, communication, or
statement Statement or statements may refer to: Common uses *Statement (computer science), the smallest standalone element of an imperative programming language *Statement (logic), declarative sentence that is either true or false *Statement, a Sentence_(lin ...
that is sent in a verbal, written, recorded, or visual form to the recipient. * Feedback * Entropic elements, positive and negative


Epistemology in Communication Theory

Communication theories vary substantially in their
epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the concerned with . Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic , the of , and various related issues. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major ...

epistemology
, and articulating this philosophical commitment is part of the theorizing process. Although the various epistemic positions used in communication theories can vary, one categorization scheme distinguishes among interpretive empirical, metric empirical or post-positivist, rhetorical, and critical epistemologies. Communication theories may also fall within or vary by distinct domains of interest, including information theory, rhetoric and speech, interpersonal communication, organizational communication, sociocultural communication, political communication, computer-mediated communication, and critical perspectives on media and communication.


Interpretive Empirical Epistemology

Interpretive empirical epistemology or interpretivism seeks to develop subjective insight and understanding of communication phenomena through the grounded study of local interactions. When developing or applying an interpretivist theory, the researcher themself is a vital instrument. Theories characteristic of this epistemology include
structurationThe theory of structuration is a social theory of the creation and reproduction of social systems that is based on the analysis of both ''structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or sys ...
and
symbolic interactionism Symbolic interactionism is a sociological Sociology is the study of society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial ...
, and frequently associated methods include
discourse analysis Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is an approach to the analysis of written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of sign processes (semiosis), which are any ...
and
ethnography Ethnography (from ''ethnos'' "folk, people, nation" and ''grapho'' "I write") is a branch of and the systematic study of individual s. Ethnography explores cultural phenomena from the point of view of the subject of the study. Ethnography ...

ethnography
.


Metric Empirical or Post-Positivist Epistemology

A metric empirical or post-positivist epistemology takes an axiomatic and sometimes causal view of phenomena, developing evidence about association or making predictions, and using methods oriented to measurement of communication phenomena. Post-positivist theories are generally evaluated by their accuracy, consistency, fruitfulness, and parsimoniousness. Theories characteristic of a post-positivist epistemology may originate from a wide range of perspectives, including pragmatist, behaviorist, cognitivist, structuralist, or functionalist. Although post-positivist work may be qualitative or quantitative, statistical analysis is a common form of evidence and scholars taking this approach often seek to develop results that can be reproduced by others.


Rhetorical Epistemology

A rhetorical epistemology lays out a formal, logical, and global view of phenomena with particular concern for persuasion through speech. A rhetorical epistemology often draws from Greco-Roman foundations such as the works of Aristotle and Cicero although recent work also draws from
Michel Foucault Paul-Michel Foucault (, ; ; 15 October 192625 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian of ideas Intellectual history (also the history of ideas) is the study of the history of human thought and of intellectual An intellectual is a ...

Michel Foucault
,
Kenneth Burke Kenneth Duva Burke (May 5, 1897 – November 19, 1993) was an American literary theory, literary theorist, as well as poet, essayist, and novelist, who wrote on 20th-century philosophy, aesthetics, criticism, and rhetoric, rhetorical theory. As a ...
,
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies socia ...
,
second-wave feminism Second-wave feminism was a period of feminist activity, and though it began in the United States in the early 1960s, it lasted roughly two decades. It quickly spread across the Western world with an aim to increase equality for women by gainin ...
, and
cultural studies #REDIRECT Cultural studies#REDIRECT Cultural studies Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical founda ...
.


Critical Epistemology

A critical epistemology is explicitly political and intentional with respect to its standpoint, articulating an ideology and criticizing phenomena with respect to this ideology. A critical epistemology is driven by its values and oriented to social and political change. Communication theories associated with this epistemology include
deconstructionism Deconstruction is an approach to understanding the relationship between text and meaning. It was originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), who defined the term variously throughout his career. In its simplest form it can be ...
, cultural Marxism,
third-wave feminism Third-wave feminism is an iteration of the feminist movement. It began in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily ...
, and resistance studies.


Communication Theory by Perspective/Subdiscipline

Approaches to theory also vary by perspective or subdiscipline. The communication theory as a field model proposed by Robert Craig has been an influential approach to breaking down the field of communication theory into perspectives, each with its own strengths, weaknesses, and trade-offs.


Information Theory

Communication theories in information theory examine the technical process of information exchange, usually using mathematics. The origins of this perspective on communication theory is linked to the development of
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
in the early 1920s. Limited information-theoretic ideas had been developed at
Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial research and scientific development company A company, abbrev ...
, all implicitly assuming events of equal probability. The history of information theory as a form of communication theory can be traced through a series of key papers during this time.
Harry Nyquist Harry Nyquist (, ; February 7, 1889 – April 4, 1976) was a Swedish physicist and electronic engineer Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering disciplin ...
's 1924 paper, ''Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed'', contains a theoretical section quantifying "intelligence" and the "line speed" at which it can be transmitted by a communication system.
Ralph Hartley Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley (November 30, 1888 – May 1, 1970) was an American electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matte ...
's 1928 paper, ''Transmission of Information,'' uses the word "information" as a measurable quantity, reflecting the receiver's ability to distinguish one sequence of symbols from any other. The natural unit of information was therefore the decimal digit, much later renamed the
hartley Hartley may refer to: Places Australia * Hartley, New South Wales * Hartley, South Australia ** Electoral district of Hartley, a state electoral district Canada * Hartley Bay, British Columbia England * Hartley, Cumbria * Hartley, Plymouth ...
in his honour as a unit or scale or measure of information.
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
in 1940 used similar ideas as part of the statistical analysis of the breaking of the German second world war
Enigma Enigma, aenigma, or The Enigma may refer to: * Riddle, someone or something that is mysterious or puzzling Biology * Aenigma (beetle), ''Aenigma'' (beetle), a genus of beetles * ''Zulunigma'' or ''Aenigma'', a genus of jumping spiders from South A ...
ciphers. The main landmark event that opened the way to the development of the information theory form of communication theory was the publication of an article by
Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such top ...
(1916–2001) in the ''
Bell System Technical Journal The ''Bell Labs Technical Journal'' is the in-house scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other conte ...
'' in July and October 1948 under the title "
A Mathematical Theory of Communication "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" is an article by mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas ...
". Shannon focused on the problem of how best to encode the information that a sender wants to transmit. He also used tools in
probability theory Probability theory is the branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are containe ...
, developed by
Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as ...

Norbert Wiener
. They marked the nascent stages of applied communication theory at that time. Shannon developed
information entropy In information theory, the entropy of a random variable is the average level of "information", "surprise", or "uncertainty" inherent in the variable's possible outcomes. The concept of information entropy was introduced by Claude Shannon in hi ...
as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing the field of information theory. "The fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point." In 1949, in a declassified version of Shannon's wartime work on the mathematical theory of
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in (''- ...

cryptography
("
Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems"Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems" is a paper published in 1949 by Claude Shannon discussing cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logy, -logia ...
"), he proved that all theoretically unbreakable ciphers must have the same requirements as the
one-time pad In cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cryptanalysis, cracked, but requires the use of a single-use pre-shared key that is no smaller than the message being sent. In this technique, a plaintext is paired ...

one-time pad
. He is also credited with the introduction of
sampling theorysampling theory may mean: * Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, digital signal processing (DSP) * Statistical sampling * Fourier sampling {{mathematical disambiguation ...
, which is concerned with representing a continuous-time signal from a (uniform) discrete set of samples. This theory was essential in enabling telecommunications to move from analog to digital transmissions systems in the 1960s and later. In 1951, Shannon made his fundamental contribution to
natural language processing Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of , , and concerned with the interactions between computers and human language, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of data. The goal is a computer capab ...
and
computational linguistics Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the computational modelling of natural language, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions. In general, computational linguistics ...
with his article "Prediction and Entropy of Printed English" (1951), providing a clear quantifiable link between cultural practice and probabilistic cognition.


Interpersonal Communication

Theories in interpersonal communication are concerned with the ways in which very small groups of people communicate with one another. Although interpersonal communication theories have their origin in mass communication studies of attitude and response to messages, since the 1970s, interpersonal communication theories have taken on a distinctly personal focus. Interpersonal theories examine relationships and their development, non-verbal communication, how we adapt to one another during conversation, how we develop the messages we seek to convey, and how deception works.


Organizational Communication

Organizational communication theories address not only the ways in which people use communication in organizations, but also how they use communication to constitute that organization, developing structures, relationships, and practices to achieve their goals. Although early organization communication theories were characterized by a so-called container model (the idea that an organization is a clearly bounded object inside which communication happens in a straightforward manner following hierarchical lines), more recent theories have viewed the organization as a more fluid entity with fuzzy boundaries. Given that its object of study is the organization, it is perhaps not surprising that organization communication scholarship has important connections to theories of management, with
Management Communication Quarterly ''Management Communication Quarterly'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified membe ...
serving as a key venue for disseminating scholarly work. However, theories in organizational communication retain a distinct identity through their critical perspective toward power and attention to the needs and interests of workers, rather than privileging the will of management. Organizational communication can be distinguished by its orientation to four key problematics: voice (who can speak within an organization), rationality (how decisions are made and whose ends are served), organization (how is the organization itself structured and how does it function), and the organization-society relationship (how the organization may alternately serve, exploit, and reflect society as a whole).


Sociocultural Communication

This line of theory examines how social order is both produced and reproduced through communication. Communication problems in the sociocultural tradition may be theorized in terms of misalignment, conflict, or coordination failure. Theories in this domain explore dynamics such as micro and macro level phenomena, structure versus agency, the local versus the global, and communication problems which emerge due to gaps of space and time, sharing some kinship with sociological and anthropological perspectives but distinguished by keen attention to communication as constructed and constitutive.


Political Communication

Political communication theories are concerned with the public exchange of messages among political actors of all kinds. This scope is in contrast to theories of political science which look inside political institutions to understand decision-making processes. Early political communication theories examined the roles of mass communication (i.e. television and newspapers) and political parties on political discourse. However, as the conduct of political discourse has expanded, theories of political communication have likewise developed, to now include models of deliberation and sensemaking, and discourses about a wide range of political topics: the role of the media (e.g. as a gatekeeper, framer, and agenda-setter); forms of government (e.g. democracy, populism, and autocracy); social change (e.g. activism and protests); economic order (e.g. capitalism, neoliberalism and socialism); human values (e.g. rights, norms, freedom, and authority.); and propaganda, disinformation, and trust. Two of the important emerging areas for theorizing about political communication are the examination of civic engagement and international comparative work (given that much of political communication has been done in the United States).


Computer-Mediated Communication

Theories of computer-mediated communication or CMC emerged as a direct response to the rapid emergence of novel mediating communication technologies in the form of computers. CMC scholars inquire as to what may be lost and what may be gained when we shift many of our formerly unmediated and entrained practices (that is, activities that were necessarily conducted in a synchronized, ordered, dependent fashion) into mediated and disentrained modes. For example, a discussion that once required a meeting can now be an e-mail thread, an appointment confirmation that once involved a live phone call can now be a click on a text message, a collaborative writing project that once required an elaborate plan for drafting, circulating, and annotating can now take place in a shared document. CMC theories fall into three categories: cues-filtered-out theories, experiential/perceptual theories, and adaptation to/exploitation of media. Cues-filtered-out theories have often treated face-to-face interaction as the gold standard against which mediated communication should be compared, and includes such theories as social presence theory, media richness theory, and the Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE). Experiential/perceptual theories are concerned with how individuals perceive the capacity of technologies, such as whether the technology creates psychological closeness (electronic propinquity theory). Adaptation/exploitation theories consider how people may creatively expand or make use of the limitations in CMC systems, including social information processing theory (SIP) and the idea of the hyperpersonal (when people make use of the limitations of the mediated channel to create a selective view of themselves with their communication partner, developing an impression that exceeds reality). Theoretical work from Joseph Walther has been highly influential in the development of CMC. Theories in this area often examine the limitations and capabilities of new technologies, taking up an 'affordances' perspective inquiring what the technology may "request, demand, encourage, discourage, refuse, and allow." Recently the theoretical and empirical focus of CMC has shifted more explicitly away from the 'C' (i.e. Computer) and toward the 'M' (i.e. Mediation).


Rhetoric and Speech

Theories in rhetoric and speech are often concerned with discourse as an art, including practical consideration of the power of words and our ability to improve our skills through practice. Rhetorical theories provide a way of analyzing speeches when read in an exegetical manner (close, repeated reading to extract themes, metaphors, techniques, argument, meaning, etc.); for example with respect to their relationship to power or justice, or their persuasion, emotional appeal, or logic.


Critical Perspectives on Media and Communication

Critical social theory in communication, while sharing some traditions with rhetoric, is explicitly oriented toward "articulating, questioning, and transcending presuppositions that are judged to be untrue, dishonest, or unjust."(p. 147) Some work bridges this distinction to form critical rhetoric. Critical theories have their roots in the
Frankfurt School The Frankfurt School (german: Frankfurter Schule) was a school of social theory and critical philosophy associated with the Institute for Social Research The Institute for Social Research ''Social Research: An International Quarterly'' is a ...
, which brought together anti-establishment thinkers alarmed by the rise of Nazism and propaganda, including the work of
Max Horkheimer Max Horkheimer (; ; 14 February 1895 – 7 July 1973) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdo ...

Max Horkheimer
and Theodor Adorno. Modern critical perspectives often engage with emergent social movements such as post-colonialism and queer theory, seeking to be reflective and emancipatory. One of the influential bodies of theory in this area comes from the work of Stuart Hall, who questioned traditional assumptions about the monolithic functioning of mass communication with his Encoding/Decoding Model of Communication and offered significant expansions of theories of discourse, semiotics, and power through media criticism and explorations of linguistic codes and cultural identity.


References


Further reading

* Chandler, Daniel
Transmission Model of Communication
(1994). Daniel Chandler, 1994. Web. October 10, 2009. * Cooren, F. (2012). Communication theory at the center: Ventriloquism and the communicative constitution of reality, Journal of Communication, Volume 62, Issue 1, 1 February 2012, 1–20. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01622.x * Dainton, M., Zelley, E. D. (2019). Applying communication theory for professional life: A practical introduction. 4th ed., Page 17. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=NjtEDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Dainton+2004+Communication+Theory+Sage+Publication&ots=ZFKmtfQg9W&sig=7tuPShBWxhvF1cbSQRKrmaK3Jik#v=onepage&q&f=false * Goffman, Erving. ''The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.'' New York, NY: Anchor/Doubleday, 1959. 73. * Lanham, Richard A. ''Analyzing Prose 2nd (2003): 7, 10. * Littlejohn, S. W.,''Theories of human communication''. 7th edition, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2002. * Emory A Griffin, ''A first look at communication theory''. 3rd edition, New York:
McGraw-Hill McGraw Hill is an American learning company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for through . The company also provides reference and for the medical, busines ...
, 1997. * Miller, K., Communication Theories: Perspectives, processes, and contexts. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. * Pierce, T., Corey, A. M., ''The Evolution of Human Communication: From Theory to Practice''. 2nd edition, Ontario: Etrepress, 2019. Retrieved from https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/evolutionhumancommunication/chapter/chapter-1/ * Werner, E., "Cooperating Agents: A Unified Theory of Communication and Social Structure", ''Distributed Artificial Intelligence'', Vol. 2, L. Gasser and M. Huhns, eds.,
Morgan Kaufmann Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is a Burlington, Massachusetts (San Francisco, California until 2008) based publisher specializing in computer science and engineering content. Since 1984, Morgan Kaufmann has published content on information technology ...
and Pitman Press, 1989
Abstract
* Werner, E., "Toward a Theory of Communication and Cooperation for Multiagent Planning", ''Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge: Proceedings of the Second Conference'', Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pp. 129–143, 1988
PDF
* Robert, Craig T. "Communication." Encyclopedia of Rhetoric (2001): 125. * Rothwell, J. Dan. "In the Company of Others: an introduction to communication." 3rd Edition, New York, NY; Oxford University Press, 2010. 11–15. * A First Look At Communication Theory by Em Griffin (Published by McGraw-Hill) * Communication Theory: Epistemological Foundations by James A. Anderson * Communication Theories: Origins, Methods and Uses in the Mass Media (5th Edition) by Werner J. Severin and James W. Tankard * Theories of Human Communication (9th Edition) by Stephen W. Littlejohn and Karen A. Foss * Communication: Theories and Applications by Mark V. Redmond * Communication Theories: Perspectives, Processes, and Contexts by Katherine Miller * Communication Theory: Media, Technology and Society by David Holmes * Building Communication Theory by Dominic A. Infante, Andrew S. Rancer, and Deanna F. Womack * The Communication Theory Reader by Paul Cobley * Clarifying Communications Theories: A Hands-On Approach by Gerald Stone, Michael Singletary, and Virginia P. Richmond * An Introduction to Communication Theory by Don W. Stacks, Sidney R. Hill, and Mark, III Hickson * Introducing Communication Theory by Richard West and Lynn H. Turner


External links


American Communication AssociationAssociation for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Central States Communication AssociationEastern Communication AssociationInternational Communication AssociationNational Communication AssociationSouthern States Communication Association
{{Authority control, state=expanded Communication Communication theory