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The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, translit=Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional intergovernmental organization in
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. Russia, loca ...

Eastern Europe
and
Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area of , about 30% of Earth's total lan ...

Asia
. It was formed following the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, e ...
in 1991. It covers an area of and has an estimated population of 239,796,010. The CIS encourages cooperation in economic, political and military affairs and has certain powers relating to the coordination of trade, finance, lawmaking, and security. It has also promoted cooperation on cross-border crime prevention. The CIS has its origins with the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
, which was replaced in 1917 by the
Russian Republic The Russian Republic., referred to as the Russian Democratic Federal Republic in the 1918 Constitution, was a short-lived state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publishe ...
after the
February Revolution The February Revolution ( rus, Февра́льская револю́ция, p=fʲɪvˈralʲskəjə rʲɪvɐˈlʲutsɨjə, tr. ), known in Soviet historiography Soviet historiography is the methodology of history History (from Greek , ' ...
earlier that year. Following the
October Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union, also known as the Bolshevik Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the October Uprising, the October Coup or Red October, was a revoluti ...

October Revolution
, the
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
became the leading republic in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
(USSR) upon its creation with the 1922
Treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relat ...
and
Declaration of the Creation of the USSR The Declaration on the Creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a historical document which, together with the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, formed the constitutional basis for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Re ...
along with
Byelorussian SSR The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; be, Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка, Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; russian: Белорус ...
and
Ukrainian SSR The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR or UkSSR; uk, Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, translit=Ukrainska Radianska Sotsialistychna Respublika, abbreviated ; ...
. When the USSR began to fall in 1991, the founding republics signed the
Belavezha Accords The Belavezha Accords (russian: Беловежские соглашения, link=no, be, Белавежскае пагадненне, link=no, uk, Біловезькі угоди, link=no) are accords forming the agreement that declared the U ...
on 8 December 1991, declaring that the Soviet Union would cease to exist and proclaimed the CIS in its place. A few days later the
Alma-Ata Protocol The Alma-Ata Protocols were the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, ''Sodruzhe ...
was signed, which declared that the Soviet Union was dissolved and that the
Russian Federation Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russian Federation
was to be its
successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Successor'' (film), a 1996 film including Laura Girling * ''The Successor'' (TV program), a 2007 Israeli television program Mu ...
. The
Baltic states The Baltic states ( et, Balti riigid; lv, Baltijas valstis; lt, Baltijos valstybės) or the Baltic countries, also known as the Baltic nations, and less often as the "Baltic republics", the "Baltic lands", or simply the Baltics, is a modern ...

Baltic states
(
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in . It is bordered to the north by the across from , to the west by the across from , to the south by , and to the east by and . The ter ...

Estonia
,
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...

Latvia
and
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countri ...
), which regard their membership in the Soviet Union as an illegal occupation, chose not to participate.
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
withdrew its membership in 2008 after the
Russo-Georgian War The Russo-Georgian WarThe war is known by a variety of other names, including Five-Day War, August War and Russian invasion of Georgia. was a war between Georgia (country), Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of S ...
.
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
ended its participation in CIS statutory bodies on 19 May 2018, following prolonged tensions with Russia. Eight of the nine CIS member states participate in the CIS Free Trade Area. Three organizations are under the oversight of the CIS, namely the
Collective Security Treaty Organization The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; russian: Организация Договора о коллективной безопасности, Organizatsiya Dogovora o kollektivnoy bezopasnosti) is an intergovernmental military allia ...
, the
Eurasian Economic Union The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)EAEU is the acronym is used in thorganisation’s website However, many media outlets use the acronym EEU. is an economic union of states located in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the Europea ...

Eurasian Economic Union
(alongside subdivisions, the
Eurasian Customs Union The Eurasian Customs Union (EACU) is a customs union A customs union is generally defined as a type of trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of trade pact, intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where ba ...
and the
Eurasian Economic Space The Eurasian Economic Space or Single Economic Space is a single market that provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the Eurasian Economic Union. The Single Economic Space was established in 2012 with the goal ...
, which comprises territory inhabited by over 180 million people); and the
Union State The Union State,; be, Саю́зная дзяржа́ва, ''Sajuznaja dziaržava'' also referred to as the Union State of Russia and Belarus,; be, Саюзная дзяржава Расіі і Беларусі is an international organizatio ...

Union State
. While the first and the second are military and economic alliances, the third aims to reach a
supranational union A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The term is sometimes used to describe the European Union The European Union (EU) ...
of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
and
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = , languages2_type = Recognized minority language , languages2 = , ethnic_groups = , demonym = Belarusians, Belarusi ...

Belarus
with a common government, flag, currency and so on.


Names in other languages

*Armenian: Անկախ պետությունների Համագործակցություն (ԱՊՀ); ''Ankakh petut’yunneri Hamagortsakts’ut’yun'' (''APH'') *Azerbaijani: ''Müstəqil Dövlətlər Birliyi'' (''MDB''), ''Мүстәгил Дөвләтләр Бирлији (''МДБ'') *Belarusian: Садружнасць Незалежных Дзяржаў (СНД), ''Sadružnasć Niezaliežnych Dziaržaŭ'' (''SND'') *Kazakh: Täuelsız Memleketter Dostastyğy (TMD), ''Тәуелсіз Мемлекеттер Достастығы (ТМД)'' *Kyrgyz: Көзкарандысыз мамлекеттердин шериктештиги (КМШ), ''Közkarandısız mamleketterdin şerikteştigi'' (''KMŞ'') *Romanian: ''Comunitatea Statelor Independente'' (''CSI'') *Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ), ''Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv'' (''SNG'') *Tajik: Иттиҳоди Давлатҳои Мустақил (ИДМ), ''Ittihodi Davlathoi Mustaqil'' (''IDM'') *Uzbek: Mustaqil Davlatlar Hamdo'stligi (MDH), ''Мустақил Давлатлар Ҳамдўстлиги'' (''МДҲ'')


History


Background

In March 1991,
Mikhail Gorbachev Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician, lawyer, and statesman. The List of leaders of the Soviet Union, eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, he was the General Secretary of the C ...

Mikhail Gorbachev
, the president of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, proposed a federation by holding a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct DIRECT was a late-2000s proposed alternative super heavy lift launch vehicle A super heavy-lift launch vehicle (SHLLV) is a launch vehicle capable of lifting more than ...
to preserve the Union as the
Union of Sovereign States The Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics (russian: Союз Советских Суверенных Республик (CCCP), Soyuz Sovetskikh Suverennykh Respublik SSR}) was the proposed name of a reorganization of the Union of Soviet Socialis ...
. The new treaty signing never happened as the
Communist Party A communist party is a that seeks to realize the goals of . The term ''communist party'' was popularized by the title of ' (1848) by and . As a , the communist party guides the political education and development of the (proletariat). As the ...
hardliners staged an attempted coup in August that year. Often considered as the successors of the USSR, it is one of the largest intergovernmental organizations in Europe.


Belavezha Accords and Alma-Ata Protocol (1991–1993)

Following the events of August's failed coup, the republics of the USSR had declared their independence fearing another coup. A week after the Ukrainian independence referendum was held, which kept the chances of the Soviet Union staying together low, the Commonwealth of Independent States was founded in its place on 8 December 1991 by the
Byelorussian SSR The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; be, Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка, Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; russian: Белорус ...
, the
Russian SFSR The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
, and the
Ukrainian SSR The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR or UkSSR; uk, Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, translit=Ukrainska Radianska Sotsialistychna Respublika, abbreviated ...

Ukrainian SSR
, when the leaders of the three republics met at the Belovezhskaya Pushcha Natural Reserve, about north of
Brest Brest may refer to: Places * Brest, Belarus, a city formerly known as Brest-Litovsk * Brest, Čučer-Sandevo, a village in North Macedonia * Brest, France, a city and harbour in Brittany * Brest, Germany, a municipality * Brest, Kyustendil Province ...
in Belarus, and signed the "Agreement Establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States", known as the '' Creation Agreement'' (russian: Соглашение, translit=Soglasheniye). The CIS announced that the new organization would be open to all republics of the former Soviet Union, and to other nations sharing the same goals. The CIS charter stated that all the members were sovereign and independent nations and thereby effectively abolished the Soviet Union. On 21 December 1991, the leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics (
Armenia Armenia,, officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.The UN]classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA The World ...

Armenia
,
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
,
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to ...

Moldova
,
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a Landlocked country, landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan border, northwest, Uzbekistan to the Turkmenistan–Uzbekista ...

Turkmenistan
,
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = (state) (interethn ...

Tajikistan
and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
) signed the
Alma-Ata Protocol The Alma-Ata Protocols were the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, ''Sodruzhe ...
which can either be interpreted as expanding the CIS to these states or the proper foundation or foundation date of the CIS, thus bringing the number of participating countries to 11.Alma-Ata Declaration
: 11 countries accede to the CIS, 21 December 1991 (English translation). Russian text her

/ref>
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
joined two years later, in December 1993. At this point, 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics participated in the CIS. The three
Baltic states The Baltic states ( et, Balti riigid; lv, Baltijas valstis; lt, Baltijos valstybės) or the Baltic countries, also known as the Baltic nations, and less often as the "Baltic republics", the "Baltic lands", or simply the Baltics, is a modern ...

Baltic states
did not, reflecting their governments' and people's view that the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940), post-1940 Soviet occupation of their territory was illegitimate. The CIS and Soviet Union also legally co-existed briefly with each other until 26 December 1991, when the
Soviet of the Republics The Soviet of Nationalities (russian: Совет Национальностей, ''Sovyet Natsionalnostey'') was the upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics The Soviet Union,. officially the Union o ...
formally dissolved the Soviet Union. This was followed by Ivan Korotchenya becoming Executive Secretary of the CIS on the same day.Agreement on the Establishment of the CIS
3 founding countries, 8 December 1991 (unofficial English translation). Russian text her

/ref> After the end of the dissolution process of the Soviet Union, Russia and the Central Asian republics were weakened economically and faced declines in
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
.
Post-Soviet states The post-Soviet states, also known as the former Soviet Union (FSU), the former Soviet Republics and in Russia as the near abroad (russian: links=no, ближнее зарубежье, blizhneye zarubezhye), are the 15 sovereign state A sovere ...
underwent economic reforms and
privatisation Privatization (or privatisation in British English) can mean different things including moving something from the public sector into the private sector. It is also sometimes used as a synonym for deregulation when a heavily regulated private compa ...
. The process of Eurasian integration began immediately after the break-up of the Soviet Union to salvage economic ties with Post-Soviet republics.


CIS Charter (1993 to present)

On 22 January 1993, the Charter (Statutes) of the CIS were signed, setting up the different institutions of the CIS, their functions, the rules and statutes of the CIS. The Charter also defined that all countries have ratified the Agreement on the Establishment of the CIS and its relevant (Alma-Ata) Protocol would be considered to be founding states of the CIS, as well as those only countries ratifying the Charter would be considered to be member states of the CIS (art. 7). Other states can participate as associate members or observers if accepted as such by a decision of the Council of Heads of State to the CIS (art. 8). All the founding states, apart from Ukraine and Turkmenistan, ratified the Charter of the CIS and became member states of it. Nevertheless, Ukraine and Turkmenistan kept participating in the CIS, without being member states of it. Ukraine became an associate member of the CIS Economic Union in April 1994, and Turkmenistan became an associate member of the CIS in August 2005. Georgia left the CIS altogether in 2009 and Ukraine stopped participating in 2018. During a speech at
Moscow State University Moscow State University (MSU; russian: Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, ''MGU'') is a public university, public research university locate ...

Moscow State University
in 1994, the
President of Kazakhstan The president of the Republic of Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан Республикасының Президенті, Qazaqstan Respublikasynyñ Prezidentı; russian: Президент Республики Казахстан, Prezident Respub ...
,
Nursultan Nazarbayev Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev ( kk, Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев, Nūrsūltan Äbışūly Nazarbaev, ) or Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev (russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев, link=no, ; born 6 ...
, suggested the idea of creating a "common defense" space within the CIS. Nazarbayev's idea was quickly seen as a way to bolster trade, boost investments in the region, and serve as a counterweight to the West and East Asia. Between 2003 and 2005, three CIS member states experienced a change of government in a series of
colour revolution Worldwide media use the term colour revolution (sometimes coloured revolution) to describe various protest movements and accompanying attempted or successful change of governments that took place in several countries of the Post-Soviet states, ...
s:
Eduard Shevardnadze Eduard Ambrosiyevich Shevardnadze ( ka, ედუარდ ამბროსის ძე შევარდნაძე, ''Eduard Ambrosis dze Ševardnadze''; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Georgian politician and diplomat. He served a ...
was overthrown in Georgia;
Viktor Yushchenko Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko ( uk, Віктор Андрійович Ющенко, ; born 23 February 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was the third President of Ukraine from 23 January 2005 to 25 February 2010. As an informal leader of the ...
was elected in Ukraine; and
Askar Akayev Askar Akayevich Akayev ( ky, Аскар Акаевич Акаев, script=Latn, italic=no, Asqar Aqayeviç Aqayev; ; born 10 November 1944) is a Kyrgyz politician who served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until being overthrown in the Marc ...

Askar Akayev
was toppled in Kyrgyzstan. In February 2006, Georgia withdrew from the Council of Defense Ministers, with the statement that "Georgia has taken a course to join NATO and it cannot be part of two military structures simultaneously", but it remained a full member of the CIS until August 2009, one year after officially withdrawing in the immediate aftermath of the
Russo-Georgian War The Russo-Georgian WarThe war is known by a variety of other names, including Five-Day War, August War and Russian invasion of Georgia. was a war between Georgia (country), Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of S ...
. In March 2007,
Igor Ivanov Igor Sergeyevich Ivanov (born 23 September 1945) is a Russian politician who was Foreign Minister of Russia from 1998 to 2004. Early life Ivanov was born in 1945 in Moscow to a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the ...

Igor Ivanov
, the secretary of the Russian Security Council, expressed his doubts concerning the usefulness of the CIS, emphasizing that the
Eurasian Economic Community The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC) was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states. The organisation originated from the Commonwealth of Independent States The ...
was becoming a more competent organization to unify the largest countries of the CIS. Following the withdrawal of Georgia, the presidents of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan skipped the October 2009 meeting of the CIS, each having their own issues and disagreements with the Russian Federation. The Council of Foreign Ministers met in
Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Tajikistan. , Dushanbe had a population of 863,400 and that population was largely Tajiks, Tajik. Until 1929, the city was known in Ru ...
, Tajikistan on 11 April 2003 to discuss the
war in Iraq The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
and consider a draft program for the fight against terrorism and extremism, highlighting the particular need for an international role in post-war Iraq, to be further addressed at the May summit in
St. Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

St. Petersburg
. In May 2009, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine joined the
Eastern Partnership The Eastern Partnership (EaP) is a joint initiative of the European External Action Service The European External Action Service (EEAS) is the diplomatic service and combined Foreign ministry, foreign and Defence minister, defence ministry of ...

Eastern Partnership
, a project which was initiated by the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
(EU).


Membership

There are nine full
member states A member state is a state that is a member of an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the be ...
of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The Creation Agreement remained the main constituent document of the CIS until January 1993, when the ''CIS Charter'' (russian: Устав, ''Ustav'') was adopted.CIS Charter
22 January 1993 (unofficial English translation)
Russian text here
/ref> The charter formalized the concept of membership: a member country is defined as a country that ratifies the CIS Charter (sec. 2, art. 7). Parties to CIS Creation Agreement but not the Charter are considered to be "The Founding States" but not full members. Turkmenistan has not ratified the Charter and therefore is not formally a member of the CIS. Nevertheless, it has consistently participated in the CIS as if it were a member state. Turkmenistan changed its CIS standing to associate member as of 26 August 2005. The cited reason was to be consistent with its 1995-proclaimed, UN-recognised, international neutrality status, but experts have cited the country no longer needing Russia to provide natural gas access, as well as the country’s declining faith in the confederation's ability to maintain internal stability in light of the
Colour Revolution Worldwide media use the term colour revolution (sometimes coloured revolution) to describe various protest movements and accompanying attempted or successful change of governments that took place in several countries of the Post-Soviet states, ...
s.Decision on Turkmenistan's associate membership
CIS Executive Committee meeting in Kazan, Russia, 26 August 2005 .

, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 29 August 2005.
Although Ukraine was one of the states which ratified the Creation Agreement in December 1991, making it a Founding State of the CIS, it chose not to ratify the CIS Charter as it disagrees with Russia being the only legal
successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Successor'' (film), a 1996 film including Laura Girling * ''The Successor'' (TV program), a 2007 Israeli television program Mu ...
to the Soviet Union. Thus it has never been a full member of the CIS.Ratification status of CIS documents as of 15 January 2008
(Russian)
However, Ukraine kept participating in the CIS, despite not being a member. In 1993, Ukraine became an associate member of the Economic Union of the CIS. Following the
Russian military intervention in Ukraine The Russo-Ukrainian War ( uk, російсько-українська війна, rosiisko-ukrainska viina; russian: российско-украинская война, rossiysko-ukrainskaya voyna) is a protracted conflict between Russia ...
and annexation of Crimea, relations between Ukraine and Russia deteriorated, leading Ukraine to consider ending its participation in the CIS. As Ukraine never ratified the Charter, it could cease its informal participation in the CIS. However, to fully terminate its relationship with the CIS, it would need to legally withdraw from the Creation Agreement, as Georgia did previously. On 14 March 2014, a bill was introduced to Ukraine's parliament to denounce their ratification of the CIS Creation Agreement, but it was never approved. Following the 2014 parliamentary election, a new bill to denounce the CIS agreement was introduced. In September 2015, the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs confirmed Ukraine will continue taking part in the CIS "on a selective basis".Ukraine to selectively work as part of CIS
,
BelTA The Belarusian Telegraph Agency or BelTA ( be, Беларускае Тэлеграфнае Агенцтва, russian: link=no, Белорусское Телеграфное Агентство, БелТА) is the state-owned national news agency o ...
(21 September 2015)
Since that month, Ukraine has had no representatives in the CIS Executive Committee building. In April 2018, Ukrainian President
Petro Poroshenko Petro Oleksiyovych Poroshenko ( uk, Петро́ Олексі́йович Пороше́нко, ; born 26 September 1965) is a Ukrainian businessman and politician who served as the fifth President of Ukraine from 2014 to 2019. Poroshenko serv ...
indicated that Ukraine would formally leave the CIS. As of 1 June, the CIS secretariat had not received formal notice from Ukraine of its withdrawal from the CIS, a process that will take one year to complete, following notice being given. On 19 May 2018, President Poroshenko signed a decree formally ending Ukraine's participation in CIS statutory bodies. The CIS secretariat stated that it will continue inviting Ukraine to participate. Ukraine has further stated that it intends to review its participation in all CIS agreements and only continue in those that are in its interests. In light of Russia's support for the independence of breakaway regions within Moldova, Georgia, and Ukraine, as well as its violation of the Istanbul Agreement (see Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty), legislative initiatives to denounce the agreement on the creation of CIS were tabled in Moldova's parliament on 25 March 2014, though they were not approved. A similar bill was proposed in January 2018.


Member states


Parties of the Creation Agreement

Two states, Ukraine and Turkmenistan, have ratified the CIS Creation Agreement, making them "founding states of the CIS", but did not ratify the subsequent Charter that would make them members of the CIS. These states, while not being formal members of the CIS, were allowed to participate in CIS. They were also allowed to participate in various CIS initiatives, e.g. the
Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area (CISFTA) is a free-trade area A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free trade agreement (FTA). Such agreements involve cooperation betw ...
, which were, however, formulated mostly as independent multilateral agreements, and not as internal CIS agreements. Additionally, Ukraine became an associate member state of the CIS Economic Union in 1994 and Turkmenistan an associate member state of the CIS in 2005.


Observer states


Former member state


Politics


Executive Secretaries


Interparliamentary Assembly

The Interparliamentary Assembly was established on 27 March 1992 in
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
. On 26 May 1995 CIS leaders signed the Convention on the Interparliamentary Assembly of Member Nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States eventually ratified by nine parliaments. Under the terms of the convention, the IPA was invested with international legitimacy and is housed in the
Tauride Palace Tauride Palace (russian: Таврический дворец, translit=Tavrichesky dvorets) is one of the largest and most historic palaces in Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterb ...
in
St Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...
and acts as the consultative parliamentary wing of the CIS created to discuss problems of parliamentary cooperation and reviews draft documents of common interest and passes model laws to the national legislatures in the CIS (as well as recommendations) for their use in the preparation of new laws and amendments to existing legislation too which have been adopted by more than 130 documents that ensure the convergence of laws in the CIS to the national legislation. The Assembly is actively involved in the development of integration processes in the CIS and also sends observers to the national elections. The Assembly held its 32nd Plenary meeting in
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
on 14 May 2009.


Human rights

Since its inception, one of the primary goals of the CIS has been to provide a forum for discussing issues related to the social and economic development of the newly independent states. To achieve this goal member states have agreed to promote and protect human rights. Initially, efforts to achieve this goal consisted merely of statements of goodwill, but on 26 May 1995, the CIS adopted a Commonwealth of Independent States Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. In 1991, four years before the 1995 human rights
treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relat ...

treaty
, article 33 of the Charter of the CIS created a Human Rights Commission with its seat in Minsk, Belarus. This was confirmed by the decision of the Council of Heads of States of the CIS in 1993. In 1995, the CIS adopted a human rights treaty that includes civil and political as well as social and economic human rights. This treaty entered into force in 1998. The CIS treaty is modelled on the
European Convention on Human Rights The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR; formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international convention to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe. Drafted in 1950 by t ...
, but lacking the strong implementation mechanisms of the latter. In the CIS treaty, the Human Rights Commission has very vaguely defined authority. The Statute of the Human Rights Commission, however, also adopted by the CIS Member States as a decision, gives the commission the right to receive inter-state as well as individual communications. CIS members, especially in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area ...

Central Asia
, continue to have among the world's poorest human rights records. Many activists point to examples such as the 2005
Andijan massacre In the 13 of May, 2005, protests erupted in Andijan, Uzbekistan. At one point, troops from the Uzbek National Security Service (Uzbekistan), National Security Service (SNB) fired into a crowd of protesters. Estimates of those killed on 13 May ran ...
in Uzbekistan to show that there has been almost no improvement in human rights since the collapse of the Soviet Union in Central Asia. The consolidation of power by President
Vladimir Putin Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, (born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who is serving as the current president of Russia. He has been serving in this position since 2012, and he previously held this of ...

Vladimir Putin
has resulted in a steady decline in the modest progress of previous years in Russia. The Commonwealth of Independent States continues to face serious challenges in meeting even basic international standards.


Military

The CIS Charter establishes the Council of Ministers of Defence, which is vested with the task of coordinating military cooperation of the CIS member states. To this end, the Council develops conceptual approaches to the questions of military and defence policy of the CIS member states; develops proposals aimed to prevent armed conflicts on the territory of the member states or with their participation; gives expert opinions on draft treaties and agreements related to the questions of defence and military developments; issues related suggestions and proposals to the attention of the CIS Council of the Heads of State. Also important is the council's work on the approximation of the legal acts in the area of defence and military development. An important manifestation of integration processes in the area of military and defense collaboration of the CIS member states is the creation, in 1995, of the joint CIS Air Defense System. Over the years, the military personnel of the joint CIS Air Defense System grew twofold along the western, European border of the CIS, and by 1.5 times on its southern borders. When
Boris Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin ( rus, links=no, Борис Николаевич Ельцин, a=ru-Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin.ogg, p=bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ ˈjelʲtsɨn; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian and former Soviet ...

Boris Yeltsin
became Russian Defence Minister on 7 May 1992, Yevgeny Shaposhnikov, was appointed as Commander-in-Chief of the CIS Armed Forces (), and his staff were ejected from the MOD and
General Staff A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and ...
buildings and given offices in the former
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement ...
Headquarters at 41 Leningradsky Prospekt on the northern outskirts of Moscow. Shaposhnikov resigned in June 1993. In December 1993, the CIS Armed Forces Headquarters was abolished. Instead, "the CIS Council of Defence Ministers created a CIS Military Cooperation Coordination Headquarters (MCCH) in Moscow, with 50 percent of the funding provided by Russia." General
Viktor Samsonov Viktor Nikolaevich Samsonov (russian: Виктор Николаевич Самсонов; born November 10, 1941 in Dukhovnitsky District), General of the Army (Russia), General of the Army. He was the acting Chief of the General Staff (Russia), Ch ...

Viktor Samsonov
was appointed as Chief of Staff. The headquarters has now moved to 101000, Москва, Сверчков переулок, 3/2, and 41 Leningradsky Prospekt has now been taken over by another Russian MOD agency. The chiefs of the CIS general staffs have spoken in favour of integrating their national armed forces.


Economy

In 1994, negotiations were initiated between the CIS countries on establishing a
free trade area A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free trade agreementA free trade agreement (FTA) or treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...
(FTA), but no agreement was signed. A proposed free trade agreement would have covered all twelve then CIS members and treaty parties except Turkmenistan. In 2009, a new agreement was begun to create a FTA, the CIS Free Trade Agreement (CISFTA). In October 2011, the new free trade agreement was signed by eight of the eleven CIS prime ministers; Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, and Ukraine at a meeting in St. Petersburg. Initially, the treaty was only ratified by Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine, however by the end of 2012, Kazakhstan, Armenia, and Moldova had also completed ratification. In December 2013, Uzbekistan, signed and then ratified the treaty, while the remaining two signatories, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan later both ratified the treaty in January 2014 and December 2015 respectively.
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
is the only full CIS member state not to participate in the free trade area. The free trade agreement eliminates export and import duties on several goods but also contains a number of exemptions that will ultimately be phased out. An agreement was also signed on the basic principles of currency regulation and currency controls in the CIS at the same October 2011 meeting. Corruption and bureaucracy are serious problems for trade in CIS countries. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev proposed that CIS members take up a digitization agenda to modernize CIS economies.


Common Economic Space

After a discussion about the creation of a common economic space between the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries of Russia,
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
,
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = , languages2_type = Recognized minority language , languages2 = , ethnic_groups = , demonym = Belarusians, Belarusi ...

Belarus
, and
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, agreement in principle about the creation of this space was announced after a meeting in the Moscow suburb of Novo-Ogarevo on 23 February 2003. The Common Economic Space would involve a supranational commission on trade and
tariff A tariff is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated el ...
s that would be based in
Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
, would initially be headed by a representative of
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, and would not be subordinate to the governments of the four nations. The ultimate goal would be a regional organization that would be open for other countries to join as well, and could eventually lead even to a single currency. On 22 May 2003, the ''
Verkhovna Rada The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine ( uk, Верхо́вна Ра́да Украї́ни, translit=, Verkhovna Rada Ukraïny, translation=Supreme Council of Ukraine, Ukrainian abbreviation ''ВРУ''), often simply Verkhovna Rada or just Rada, is the ...
'' (the Ukrainian Parliament) voted 266 votes in favour and 51 against the joint economic space. However, most believe that
Viktor Yushchenko Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko ( uk, Віктор Андрійович Ющенко, ; born 23 February 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was the third President of Ukraine from 23 January 2005 to 25 February 2010. As an informal leader of the ...
's victory in the Ukrainian presidential election of 2004 was a significant blow against the project: Yushchenko has shown renewed interest in Ukrainian membership in the European Union and such membership would be incompatible with the envisioned common economic space. Yushchenko's successor
Viktor Yanukovych Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych ( uk, Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич, ; ; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who served as the fourth President of Ukraine from 2010 until he was removed from office in the 2014 Ukr ...

Viktor Yanukovych
stated on 27 April 2010 "Ukraine's entry into the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan is not possible today, since the economic principles and the laws of the
WTO The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. Governments use the organization to establish, revise, and enforce the rules that govern international ...
do not allow it, we develop our policy following WTO principles". Ukraine has been a WTO member since 2008.Yanukovych: Ukraine won't join Customs Union
,
Kyiv Post The ''Kyiv Post'' is Ukraine's oldest English-language newspaper. On 8 November 2021, the newspaper was temporarily shut down after the editorial staff's disagreement with planned changes to the outlet led to the owner firing all reporters. On 11 ...
(27 April 2010)
A
Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia The Eurasian Customs Union (EACU; russian: Таможенный союз ЕАЭС, Tamozhenyi soyuz) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union. The customs union is a principal task of the Eurasian Ec ...
was thus created in 2010, A
single market A single market is a type of trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of trade pact, intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and Non-tariff barriers to trade, others) are red ...
had been envisioned for 2012, but instead the customs union was renamed as the
Eurasian Customs Union The Eurasian Customs Union (EACU) is a customs union A customs union is generally defined as a type of trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of trade pact, intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where ba ...
and expanded to include Armenia and Kyrgyzstan in 2015.


Economic data


Associated organisations


Organisation of Central Asian Cooperation

Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
,
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = (state) (interethn ...

Tajikistan
,
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a Landlocked country, landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan border, northwest, Uzbekistan to the Turkmenistan–Uzbekista ...

Turkmenistan
and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
formed the OCAC in 1991 as Central Asian Commonwealth (CAC). The organisation continued in 1994 as the Central Asian Economic Union (CAEU), in which Tajikistan and Turkmenistan did not participate. In 1998 it became the Central Asian Economic Cooperation (CAEC), which marked the return of Tajikistan. On 28 February 2002, it was renamed to its current name. Russia joined on 28 May 2004. On 7 October 2005, it was decided between the member states that Uzbekistan will join the Eurasian Economic Community and that the organisations will merge. The organisations joined on 25 January 2006. It is not clear what will happen to the status of current CACO observers that are not observers to EurAsEC (
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Wester ...
and Turkey).


Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations

The post-Soviet disputed states of Abkhazia, Republic of Artsakh, Artsakh, South Ossetia, and Transnistria are all members of the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations which aims to forge closer integration among the members.


Other activities


Election monitoring

The CIS-Election Monitoring Organisation (russian: Миссия наблюдателей от СНГ на выборах) is an election monitoring body that was formed in October 2002, following a Commonwealth of Independent States heads of states meeting which adopted the ''Convention on the Standards of Democratic Elections, Electoral Rights, and Freedoms in the Member States of the Commonwealth of Independent States''. The CIS-EMO has been sending election observers to member countries of the CIS since this time.


Controversies

The election monitoring body has approved many elections which have been heavily criticised by independent observers. * The democratic nature of the final round of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election which followed the Orange Revolution and brought into power the former opposition, was questioned by the CIS while the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) found no significant problems. This was the first time that the CIS observation teams challenged the validity of an election, saying that it should be considered illegitimate. On 15 March 2005, the Ukrainian Independent Information Agency quoted Dmytro Svystkov (a spokesman of the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry) that Ukraine has suspended its participation in the CIS election monitoring organization. * The CIS praised the Uzbekistan parliamentary elections, 2005 as "legitimate, free and transparent" while the OSCE had referred to the Uzbek elections as having fallen "significantly short of OSCE commitments and other international standards for democratic elections". * Moldovan authorities refused to invite CIS observers in the 2005 Moldovan parliamentary elections, an action Russia criticised. Many dozens such observers from Belarus and Russia were stopped from reaching Moldova. * CIS observers monitored the Tajikistan parliamentary elections, 2005 and in the end declared them "legal, free and transparent." The same elections were pronounced by the OSCE to have failed international standards for democratic elections. * Soon after CIS observers hailed the 2005 Kyrgyz parliamentary elections, Kyrgyz parliamentary elections of 2005 as "well-organized, free, and fair", as large-scale and often violent demonstrations broke out throughout the country protesting what the opposition called a rigged parliamentary election. In contrast, the OSCE reported that the elections fell short of international standards in many areas. * International observers of the Interparliamentary Assembly stated the 2010 Ukrainian local elections, 2010 local elections in Ukraine were organised well.EU will not condemn the local elections in Ukraine
, Razumkov Centre (3 November 2010)
While the Council of Europe uncovered a number of problems in relation to a new electorate law approved just prior to the elections and the Obama administration criticised the conduct of the elections, saying they "did not meet standards for openness and fairness".


Russian language status

Russia has been urging that the Russian language receive official status in all of the CIS member states. So far Russian is an official language in only four of these states: Russia,
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = , languages2_type = Recognized minority language , languages2 = , ethnic_groups = , demonym = Belarusians, Belarusi ...

Belarus
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, and
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
. Russian is also considered an official language in the region of Transnistria, and the autonomous region of Gagauzia in
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to ...

Moldova
.
Viktor Yanukovych Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych ( uk, Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич, ; ; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who served as the fourth President of Ukraine from 2010 until he was removed from office in the 2014 Ukr ...

Viktor Yanukovych
, the Moscow-supported presidential candidate in the controversial 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, declared his intention to make Russian an official second language of Ukraine. However, the Western-supported candidate
Viktor Yushchenko Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko ( uk, Віктор Андрійович Ющенко, ; born 23 February 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was the third President of Ukraine from 23 January 2005 to 25 February 2010. As an informal leader of the ...
, the winner, did not do so. After his 2010 Ukrainian presidential election, early 2010 election as President Yanukovych stated (on 9 March 2010) that "Ukraine will continue to promote the Ukrainian language as its only state language".


Sports events

At the time of the Soviet Union's dissolution in December 1991, : National sports teams of the Soviet Union, its sports teams had been invited to or qualified for various 1992 sports events. A joint CIS team took its place in some of these. The "Unified Team at the Olympics, Unified Team" competed in the 1992 Winter Olympics and 1992 Summer Olympics, and a CIS national football team, CIS association football team competed in UEFA Euro 1992. A Commonwealth of Independent States national bandy team, CIS bandy team played some friendlies in January 1992 and made its last appearance at the 1992 Russian Government Cup, where it also played against the new Russia national bandy team. The list of Russian bandy champions, Soviet Union bandy championship for 1991–1992 was rebranded as a CIS championship. Since then, the CIS members have each competed separately in international sports. In 2017, a festival for national sports and games, known as the Festival of National Sports and Games of the Commonwealth of Independent States (russian: Фестиваль национальных видов спорта и игр государств — участников Содружества Независимых Государств) was held in Ulyanovsk. The main sports were Sambo (martial art), sambo, tug of war, mas-wrestling, gorodki, belt wrestling, Lapta (game), lapta, rink bandy, bandy (rink), kettlebell lifting, chess and archery. A few demonstration sports were also a part of the programme.


Cultural events

The CIS has also been a relevant forum to support cultural relations between former Soviet republics. In 2006, the Council of the Heads of Governments of the CIS launched the Intergovernmental Foundation for Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Cooperation (IFESCCO). IFESSCO has substantially relied on Russia's financial support since its creation and supported several multilateral cultural events, including the ‘CIS Capital of Culture’ initiative. In 2017, the Armenian city of Goris was declared the CIS Cultural Capital of the year.


See also

*
Collective Security Treaty Organization The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; russian: Организация Договора о коллективной безопасности, Organizatsiya Dogovora o kollektivnoy bezopasnosti) is an intergovernmental military allia ...
* Comecon * Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations * Eastern Bloc *
Eurasian Economic Union The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)EAEU is the acronym is used in thorganisation’s website However, many media outlets use the acronym EEU. is an economic union of states located in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the Europea ...

Eurasian Economic Union
* Lublin Triangle * Post-Soviet states#Regional organisations, Regional organisations in post-Soviet states *
Post-Soviet states The post-Soviet states, also known as the former Soviet Union (FSU), the former Soviet Republics and in Russia as the near abroad (russian: links=no, ближнее зарубежье, blizhneye zarubezhye), are the 15 sovereign state A sovere ...
* Unified Team at the Olympics, Unified Team * Republics of the Soviet Union * Visegrád Group


Notes


References


Journals


External links


CIS Executive Committee

Interparliamentary Assembly of Member Nations of the CIS

Economic Court of the CIS


* *
RZB Outlook For Commonwealth Of Independent States

Food Security in Caucasus and Republic of Moldova (FAO)
* Kembayev, Zhenis
Legal Aspects of the Regional Integration Processes in the Post-Soviet Area. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 2009
(summary and sample pages).
Belarus Leads The CIS In 2013
* Decree Of The President Of Ukraine No. 139/201
УКАЗ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА УКРАЇНИ №139/2018
{{DEFAULTSORT:Commonwealth Of Independent States Commonwealth of Independent States, Post-Soviet states Confederations Dissolution of the Soviet Union Post-Soviet alliances United Nations General Assembly observers Organizations established in 1991 1991 establishments in Asia 1991 establishments in Europe 1991 establishments in the Soviet Union