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Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
(and its predecessor, the
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
), the world's most widely used
calendar era #REDIRECT Calendar era #REDIRECT Calendar era A calendar era is the period of time elapsed since one ''epoch'' of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one. For example, it is the year as per the Gregorian calendar, which numbers its year ...
. Before the Common Era (BCE) is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives to the
Dionysian The Apollonian and the Dionysian are philosophical and literary concepts represented by a duality between the figures of Apollo and Dionysus from Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, an ...
BC and AD notations, respectively. The Dionysian era distinguishes eras using the notations BC ("Before Christ") and AD ( la, Anno Domini, ). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent: " CE" and "AD " each describe the current year; "400 BCE" and "400 BC" are each the same year. The Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, and is an international standard for
civil calendar The civil calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day wi ...
s. The expression has been traced back to 1615, when it first appeared in a book by
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe as ...

Johannes Kepler
as the la, annus aerae nostrae vulgaris (), and to 1635 in English as "
Vulgar Vulgar is a Latin word meaning "common" or "pertaining to ordinary people." Language * Vulgar or common language, the vernacular speech of a region or a people * Language use characterised by vulgarity, see Vulgarism and Other uses *A vulg ...
Era". The term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as 1708, and became more widely used in the mid-19th century by Jewish religious scholars. Since the later 20th century, CE and BCE are popular in academic and scientific publications as religiously neutral terms. They are used by others who wish to be sensitive to non-Christians by not explicitly referring to
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
as "
Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion. He was a fir ...
" nor as ("Lord") through use of the other abbreviations.


History


Origins

The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk
Dionysius Exiguus Dionysius Exiguus (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...

Dionysius Exiguus
in the year 525 to replace the
Era of Martyrs The Era of the Martyrs ( la, anno martyrum), also known as the ''Diocletian era'' ( la, anno Diocletiani), is a method of numbering years used by the Church of Alexandria The Church of Alexandria ) , name = Alexa ...
system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an initial reference date ("
epoch In chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-E ...
"), an event he referred to as the
Incarnation Incarnation literally means ''embodied in flesh'' or ''taking on flesh''. It refers to the conception and birth of a sentient Sentience is the capacity to be aware of feeling Feeling was originally used to describe the physical sensation of to ...
of Jesus. Dionysius labeled the column of the table in which he introduced the new era as "''Anni Domini Nostri Jesu Christi''". This way of numbering years became more widespread in Europe with its use by
Bede Bede ( ; ang, Bǣda , ; 672/326 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, The Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable ( la, Beda Venerabilis), was an English Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sa ...

Bede
in England in 731. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus, and the practice of not using a
year zero A year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini The terms (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was in ...
. In 1422,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
became the last
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
an country to switch to the system begun by Dionysius.


Vulgar Era

The term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as "
Vulgar Vulgar is a Latin word meaning "common" or "pertaining to ordinary people." Language * Vulgar or common language, the vernacular speech of a region or a people * Language use characterised by vulgarity, see Vulgarism and Other uses *A vulg ...
Era" to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar in popular use from dates of the
regnal year A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Rom ...
, the year of the reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law. (The word 'vulgar' originally meant 'of the ordinary people', with no derogatory associations.) The first use of the Latin term discovered so far was in a 1615 book by
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe as ...

Johannes Kepler
. Kepler uses it again, as , in a 1616 table of
ephemerides In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) gives the trajectory of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky, i.e., the position (and possibly velocity) over time. T ...
, and again, as , in 1617. * Translation of title (per 1635 English edition): ''New Ephemerids for the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeeres of the Vulgar Era 1617–1636'' A 1635 English edition of that book has the title page in English – so far, the earliest-found use of ''Vulgar Era'' in English. A 1701 book edited by John LeClerc includes "Before Christ according to the Vulgar Æra, 6". A 1716 book in English by Dean
Humphrey Prideaux Humphrey Prideaux (3 May 1648 – 1 November 1724) was a Cornish churchman and orientalist, Dean of Norwich The Dean of Norwich is the head of the Chapter (religion), Chapter of Norwich Cathedral in Norwich, England. Jane Hedges (priest), Jane Hed ...

Humphrey Prideaux
says, "before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation." A 1796 book uses the term "vulgar era of the nativity". The first known use of "Christian Era" is as the Latin phrase on the title page of a 1584 theology book. In 1649, the Latin phrase appeared in the title of an English almanac. A 1652 ephemeris is the first instance found so far of the English use of "Christian Era". The English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as 1708, and in a 1715 book on astronomy it is used interchangeably with "Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era". A 1759 history book uses ''common æra'' in a generic sense, to refer to the common era of the Jews. The first use found so far of the phrase "before the common era" is in a 1770 work that also uses ''common era'' and ''vulgar era'' as synonyms, in a translation of a book originally written in German. The 1797 edition of the
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
uses the terms ''vulgar era'' and ''common era'' synonymously. In 1835, in his book ''
Living Oracles The Living Oracles is a translation of the New Testament compiled and edited by the early Restoration Movement leader Alexander Campbell (clergyman), Alexander Campbell.Gary Holloway"Alexander Campbell as a Publisher" ''Restoration Quarterly'', ...
'', Alexander Campbell, wrote: "The vulgar Era, or Anno Domini; the fourth year of Jesus Christ, the first of which was but eight days", and also refers to the ''common era'' as a synonym for ''vulgar era'' with "the fact that our Lord was born on the 4th year before the vulgar era, called Anno Domini, thus making (for example) the 42d year from his birth to correspond with the 38th of the common era..." The ''
Catholic Encyclopedia The ''Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church'' (also referred to as the ''Old Catholic Encyclopedia'' and the ''Original Catholic Encyclopedia'') i ...
'' (1909) in at least one article reports all three terms (Christian, Vulgar, Common Era) being commonly understood by the early 20th century. The phrase "common era", in
lower case Letter case is the distinction between the letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or ...
, also appeared in the 19th century in a 'generic' sense, not necessarily to refer to the Christian Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews", "the common era of the Mahometans", "common era of the world", "the common era of the foundation of Rome". When it did refer to the Christian Era, it was sometimes qualified, e.g., "common era of the Incarnation", "common era of the Nativity", or "common era of the birth of Christ". An adapted translation of ''Common Era'' into
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
as (''era'' or, with a macron, being an alternative form of ; is the usual form) was adopted in the 20th century by some followers of
Aleister Crowley Aleister Crowley (; born Edward Alexander Crowley; 12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947) was an English occultist The occult, in the broadest sense, is a category of supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entit ...
, and thus the abbreviation "e.v." or "EV" may sometimes be seen as a replacement for AD.


History of the use of the CE/BCE abbreviation

Although Jews have their own
Hebrew calendar The Hebrew calendar ( Hebrew: , ), also called Jewish calendar, is a lunisolar calendar used today for Jewish religious observance, and as an official calendar of the state of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِس ...
, they often use the
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
, without the AD prefix. As early as 1825, the abbreviation VE (for Vulgar Era) was in use among Jews to denote years in the Western calendar. As of 2005, Common Era notation has also been in use for Hebrew lessons for more than a century. In 1856, Rabbi and historian
Morris Jacob RaphallMorris Jacob Raphall (October 3, 1798 – June 23, 1868) was a rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordained by another rabbi, following a course of study of Jewish texts such as the T ...
used the abbreviations CE and BCE in his book ''Post-Biblical History of The Jews''. Jews have also used the term Current Era.


Contemporary usage

Some academics in the fields of
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
,
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
,
archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better underst ...
and
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
have adopted CE and BCE notation, although there is some disagreement. Several style guides now prefer or mandate its use. The style guide for the Episcopal Diocese ''Maryland Church News'' says that BCE and CE should be used. In the United States, the use of the BCE/CE notation in
textbook A textbook is a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a single customer’s sale at ...
s was reported in 2005 to be growing. Some publications have moved over to using it exclusively. For example, the 2007 World Almanac was the first edition to switch over to BCE/CE, ending a period of 138 years in which the traditional BC/AD dating notation was used. BCE/CE is used by the
College Board The College Board is an American nonprofit organization that was formed in December 1899 as the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) to expand access to higher education. While the College Board is not an association of colleges, it runs a m ...
in its history tests, and by the
Norton Anthology of English Literature ''The Norton Anthology of English Literature'' is an anthology of English literature This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that ...
. Others have taken a different approach. The US-based
History Channel History (formerly The History Channel from 1995 to 2008; stylized as HISTORY) is a pay television Pay television also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to ...
uses BCE/CE notation in articles on non-Christian religious topics such as Jerusalem and Judaism.; In 2002, an advisory panel for the religious education syllabus for
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
recommended introducing BCE/CE dates to schools, and by 2018 some local education authorities were using them. In 2018, the
National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, commonly known as the National Trust, is a charity and membership organisation for heritage conservation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. In Scotland, there is a separ ...
said it would continue to use BC/AD as its house style."National Trust tells properties to stop dropping BC and AD out of fear it might offend non-Christians"
''
The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'' (), is a national British daily broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common ne ...

The Daily Telegraph
'', by Henry Bodkin, 12 November 2018
English Heritage English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a charity that manages over 400 historic monuments, buildings and places. These include prehistoric sites, medieval castles, Roman forts and country houses. The charity states that ...
explains its era policy thus: "It might seem strange to use a Christian calendar system when referring to British prehistory, but the BC/AD labels are widely used and understood." Some parts of the BBC use BCE/CE, but some presenters have said they will not. As at October 2019, the BBC News style guide has entries for AD and BC, but not for CE or BCE. In June 2006, in the United States, the Kentucky State School Board reversed its decision to use BCE and CE in the state's new Program of Studies, leaving education of students about these concepts a matter of discretion at the local level. Also in 2011, media reports suggested that the BC/AD notation in Australian school textbooks would be replaced by BCE/CE notation. The story became national news and drew opposition from some politicians and church leaders. Weeks after the story broke, the
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens, nationality, nationals and individuals associated with the country of Australia. Between 1788 and the Second World War, the vast majority of settlers and immigrants came ...
denied the rumour and stated that the BC/AD notation would remain, with CE and BCE as an optional suggested learning activity. In 2013, the
Canadian Museum of Civilization The Canadian Museum of History (french: Musée canadien de l’histoire) is Canada's national museum of human history. It is located in the Hull area of Gatineau Gatineau (; ) is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is located on the norther ...

Canadian Museum of Civilization
(now the Canadian Museum of History) in
Gatineau Gatineau (; ) is a city in western Quebec, Canada. It is located on the northern bank of the Ottawa River, immediately across from Ottawa, Ontario, and is part of Canada's National Capital Region (Canada), National Capital Region. As of 2016, G ...

Gatineau
(opposite
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are ...

Ottawa
), which had previously switched to BCE/CE, decided to change back to BC/AD in material intended for the public, while retaining BCE/CE in academic content."Museum of Civilization putting the ‘Christ’ back in history as BC and AD return"
by Sean Kilpatrick/The Canadian Press, ''National Post'', 27 February 2013
The style guide for ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'' says, under the entry for CE/BCE: "some people prefer CE (common era, current era, or Christian era) and BCE (before common era, etc) to AD and BC, which, however, remain our style".


Rationale


Support

The use of CE in Jewish scholarship was historically motivated by the desire to avoid the implicit "Our Lord" in the abbreviation ''AD''. Although other aspects of dating systems are based in Christian origins, AD is a direct reference to Jesus as Lord. Proponents of the Common Era notation assert that the use of BCE/CE shows sensitivity to those who use the same year numbering system as the one that originated with and is currently used by
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ...

Christians
, but who are not themselves Christian. Former
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
Secretary-General Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social intera ...
Kofi Annan Kofi Atta Annan (; 8 April 193818 August 2018) was a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations The secretary-general of the United Nations (UNSG or SG) is the chief administrative officer of the Uni ...

Kofi Annan
has argued:
e Christian calendar no longer belongs exclusively to Christians. People of all faiths have taken to using it simply as a matter of convenience. There is so much interaction between people of different faiths and cultures – different civilizations, if you like – that some shared way of reckoning time is a necessity. And so the Christian Era has become the Common Era.
Adena K. Berkowitz, in her application to argue before the
United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the Federal judiciary of the United States, federal judiciary of the United States of America. It has ultimate and largely Procedures of the Supreme Court of the United ...

United States Supreme Court
, opted to use BCE and CE because "Given the multicultural society that we live in, the traditional Jewish designations – B.C.E. and C.E. – cast a wider net of inclusion".


Opposition

Some oppose the Common Era notation for explicitly religious reasons. Because the BC/AD notation is based on the traditional year of the conception or birth of Jesus, some
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ...

Christians
are offended by the removal of the reference to him in era notation. The
Southern Baptist Convention The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct Religion, religious body within Christianity that comprises all Church (congregation), church congregations of the same kind, identifia ...
supports retaining the BC/AD abbreviations.
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
priest and writer on interfaith issues
Raimon Panikkar Raimon Panikkar Alemany, also known as Raimundo Panikkar and Raymond Panikkar (November 2, 1918 – August 26, 2010), was a Spanish Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civili ...

Raimon Panikkar
argued that the BCE/CE usage is the less inclusive option as, in his view, using the designation BCE/CE is a "return... to the most bigoted Christian colonialism" towards non-Christians, who do not necessarily consider the time period following the beginning of the calendar to be a "common era". There are also secular concerns. In 1993 the English-language expert Kenneth G. Wilson speculated in his style guide that "if we do end by casting aside the AD/BC convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system hat is, the method of numbering yearsitself, given its Christian basis." The short-lived
French Republican Calendar The French Republican calendar (french: calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary calendar (), was a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of ...
, for example, began with the first year of the
French First Republic In the history of France, the First Republic (French: ''Première République''), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the dec ...
and rejected the
seven-day week A week is a time unit equal to seven day A day is approximately the period during which the Earth completes one rotation around its axis, which takes around 24 hours. A solar day is the length of time which elapses between the Sun reaching ...
(with its connections to the
Book of Genesis The Book of Genesis,, "''Bərēšīṯ''", "In beginning" the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, is an account of the Genesis creation narrative, creation of the world, the early history of humanity, Israel' ...

Book of Genesis
) for a ten-day week.


Conventions in style guides

The abbreviation BCE, just as with BC, always follows the year number. Unlike AD, which still often precedes the year number, CE always follows the year number (if context requires that it be written at all). Thus, the current year is written as in both notations (or, if further clarity is needed, as CE, or as AD ), and the year that
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Greece, largest city of Greece. Athens domi ...

Socrates
died is represented as 399 BCE (the same year that is represented by 399 BC in the BC/AD notation). The abbreviations are sometimes written with small capital letters, or with (e.g., "B.C.E." or "C.E."). The US-based
Society of Biblical Literature The Society of Biblical Literature (SBL), founded in 1880 as the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis, is an American-based learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) ...
style guide for academic texts on religion prefers BCE/CE to BC/AD.


Similar conventions in other languages

* In
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
, Jews in
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
seem to have already been using words translating to "(before the) common era" in the 18th century, while others like
Moses Mendelssohn Moses Mendelssohn (6 September 1729 – 4 January 1786) was a German-Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the ''Haskalah'', the 'Jewish Enlightenment' of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is indebted. Born to a poor Jewish family in Dessa ...

Moses Mendelssohn
opposed this usage as it would hinder the integration of Jews into German society. The formulation seems to have persisted among German Jews in the 19th century in forms like (before the common chronology). In 1938
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
the use of this convention was also prescribed by the
National Socialist Teachers League The National Socialist Teachers League ( German: , NSLB), was established on 21 April 1929. Its original name was the Organization of National Socialist Educators. Its founder and first leader was former schoolteacher Hans Schemm, the Gauleiter ...
. However, it was soon discovered that many German Jews had been using the convention ever since the 18th century, and ''Time'' magazine found it ironic to see "
Aryan Aryan or Arya (, Indo-Iranian *''arya'') is a term originally used as an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other ...

Aryan
s following Jewish example nearly 200 years later". * In
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, common forms used for "BC" are and (for "", "before Christ"), with variations in punctuation and sometimes the use of () instead of . The
Real Academia Española The Royal Spanish Academy ( es, Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a Romance languages, Romance la ...
also acknowledges the use of () and (). In scholarly writing, is the equivalent of the English "BCE", "" or "Before the Common Era". * In
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
, OC can be expanded to equivalents of both AD () and CE (); for dates before the Common Era, CC (traditionally, ) is used exclusively, as would abbreviate to a mild obscenity. * In
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
since the
October Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence ...

October Revolution
(1917) , lit. ''before our era'') and lit. ''of our era'') are used almost universally. Within Christian churches , i.e. ''before/after the birth of Christ'', equivalent to la,
Ante Christum natum The term ''ante Christum natum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...
) remains in use. *In
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
, upon the foundation of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
, the Government in Nanking adopted the
Republic of China calendar The Republic of China calendar () or Minguo calendar () is one of the calendars used in the Greater China "Greater China" is an informal geographical area that shares commercial and cultural ties with the Han Chinese. The notion of "Greater ...
with 1912 designated as year 1, but used the Western calendar for international purposes. The translated term was 西元 ("xī yuán", "Western Era"), which is still used in
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
in formal documents. In 1949, the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
adopted 公元 (gōngyuán, "Common Era") for both internal and external affairs in
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
. This notation was extended to Hong Kong in 1997 and Macau in 1999 (de facto extended in 1966) through Annex III of
Hong Kong Basic Law The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is a national law of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of mo ...
and
Macau Basic Law The Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ( zh, 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區基本法, pt, Lei Básica da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China) is t ...
, thus eliminating the ROC calendar in these areas. BC is translated into Chinese as 公元前(gōngyuánqián, "Before the Common Era"). * In
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
, the "n. l." ( which translates as ''of our year count'') and "př. n. l." or "před n. l." ( meaning ''before our year count'') is used, always after the year number. The direct translation of AD (, abbreviated as ''L. P.'') or BC (, abbreviated as ''př. Kr.'') is seen as archaic. *In
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
the common form used for ''BC'' and ''AD'' are ''pr. Kr.'' (''prije Krista'', "before Christ") and ''p. Kr.'' (''poslije Krista'', ''after Christ''). The abbreviations ''pr. n. e.'' (''prije nove ere'', ''before new era'') and ''n. e.'' (''nove ere'', ''(of the) new era'') have also recently been introduced.


See also

*
Astronomical year numbering Astronomical year numbering is based on AD/ CE year numbering, but follows normal decimal The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing ...
*
Before Present Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural ...
*
Calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is al ...

Calendar
*
Calendar reform Calendar reform or calendrical reform is any significant revision of a calendar system. The term sometimes is used instead for a proposal to switch to a different calendar design. Principles The prime objective of a calendar is to unambiguou ...
* Holocene Era * List of calendars


Notes


References


External links

* * {{Portal bar, History 1615 introductions Calendar eras Chronology Linguistic controversies Secularism 17th-century neologisms