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An election commission is a body charged with overseeing the implementation of electioneering process of any country. The formal names of election commissions vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and may be styled an electoral commission, a central or state election commission, an election board, an electoral council or an electoral court. Election commissions can be independent, mixed, judicial or executive. They may also be responsible for electoral boundary delimitation. In federations there may be a separate body for each subnational government. The election commission has a duty to perform election related activities in an orderly manner. For election related problems, Election Commission is responsible.

Electoral models



Independent model

In the independent model the election commission is independent of the executive and manages its own budget. Countries with an independent election commission include Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, India, Jordan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the United Kingdom. In some of these countries the independence of the election commission is constitutionally guaranteed e.g. section 190 of the Constitution of South Africa.

Branch model

In the branch model the election commission is often called an electoral branch, and is usually a constitutionally-recognized separate branch of government, with its members appointed by either the executive or the legislative branch. Countries with an electoral branch include Bolivia, Costa Rica, Panama, Nicaragua and Venezuela.

Mixed model

In the mixed-model there is an independent board to determine policy, but implementation is usually a matter for an executive department with varying degrees of supervision by the independent board. Countries with such a model include Cameroon, France, Germany, Japan, Senegal and Spain.

Executive model

In the executive model the election commission is directed by a cabinet minister as part of the executive branch of government, and may include local government authorities acting as agents of the central body. Countries with this model include Denmark, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia. In the United States, elections for federal, state, and local offices are run by the executive branch of each state government - see, for example, the Division of Elections of the Florida Department of State.

Judicial model

In the judicial model the election commission is closely supervised by and ultimately responsible to a special "''electoral court''". Countries with such a model include Argentina, Brazil and Mexico.

List of election commissions

*Afghanistan: Independent Election Commission *Afghanistan: Election Complaints Commission *Albania: Central Election Commission *Argentina: **Dirección Nacional Electoral **Cámara Nacional Electoral *Australia: Australian Electoral Commission **Australian Capital Territory: Electoral Commission **New South Wales: Electoral Commission **Northern Territory: Electoral Commission **Queensland: Electoral Commission **South Australia: Electoral Commission **Tasmania: Electoral Commission **Victoria: Electoral Commission **Western Australia: Electoral Commission *Bangladesh: Election Commission *Belarus: Central Election Commission *Belize: Elections and Boundaries Commission *Bolivia: **Plurinational Electoral Organ (since 2010) **''National Electoral Court'' (defunct since 2010) *Brazil: Superior Electoral Court **Regional Electoral Courts *Canada: Elections Canada **Directeur général des élections du Québec **Elections Alberta **Elections BC **Elections Manitoba **Elections New Brunswick **Elections Newfoundland & Labrador **Elections Nova Scotia **Elections Nunavut **Elections NWT **Elections Ontario **Elections Prince Edward Island **Elections Saskatchewan **Elections Yukon *Colombia: National Electoral Council *Costa Rica: Supreme Electoral Court *Democratic Republic of the Congo: Independent National Electoral Commission * Egypt: High Elections Committee *Ethiopia: National Election Board *France: Constitutional Council *Ghana: Electoral Commission *Guyana: Elections Commission *Haiti: Provisional Electoral Council *Hong Kong: Electoral Affairs Commission *India: Election Commission *Indonesia: General Elections Commission *Iran: Guardian Council *Iraq: Independent High Electoral Commission *Israel: Israeli Central Elections Committee *Jordan: Independent Election Commission *Kazakhstan: Central Election Commission *Kenya: **Interim Independent Electoral Commission (since 2008) **''Electoral Commission'' (defunct since 2008) *Liberia: National Elections Commission *Libya: High National Election Commission *Malaysia: Election Commission *Mexico: **National Electoral Institute **Federal Electoral Tribunal *Moldova: Central Election Commission *Myanmar (Burma): Union Electoral Commission *Nepal: Election Commission *New Zealand: Electoral Commission *Nicaragua: Supreme Electoral Council *Nigeria: Independent National Electoral Commission *Norway: Norwegian Directorate of Elections *Pakistan: Election Commission *Palestine: Central Elections Commission *Philippines: Commission on Elections **Once a winner is proclaimed, only these tribunals can rule on election matters: ***Presidential Electoral Tribunal (entirely composed of the Supreme Court) ***Senate Electoral Tribunal ***House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal ***Regional Trial Courts for local officials *Puerto Rico: State Elections Commission *Russia: Central Election Commission *Singapore: Elections Department *South Africa: Independent Electoral Commission *South Korea: National Election Commission *Spain: Junta Electoral Central *Sri Lanka: Election Commission of Sri Lanka *Sweden: Election Authority *Taiwan (Republic of China): Central Election Commission *Tanzania : National Electoral Commission *Thailand: Election Commission *Tunisia: Independent High Authority for Elections *Turkey: Supreme Electoral Council of Turkey *Ukraine: Central Election Commission *United Kingdom: Electoral Commission *United States: **Election Assistance Commission, serves as a national clearinghouse and resource regarding election administration, establishes best practices, and provides financial aid to state electoral systems. **Federal Election Commission, regulates campaign finance legislation **Electoral Commission, a special commission for the 1876 presidential election **Florida: Florida Election Commission **Hawaii: Hawaii Elections Commission **Illinois: Illinois State Board of Elections **Maryland: Maryland State Board of Elections **New York: New York State Board of Elections **North Carolina: North Carolina State Board of Elections & Ethics Enforcement **Oklahoma: Oklahoma State Election Board **South Carolina: South Carolina State Election Commission **Virginia: Virginia State Board of Elections **Wisconsin: Wisconsin Elections Commission *Uruguay: Electoral Court *Venezuela: National Electoral Council *Zimbabwe: Electoral Commission

See also

*Electoral college, a body which elects a candidate to a particular office. * *Association of Central and Eastern European Election Officials *Association of African Election Authorities *Court of Disputed Returns

References



External links


Association of Asian Election AuthoritiesAssociation of European Election Officials
{{DEFAULTSORT:Election commission * Category:Elections