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The Columbine High School massacre was a
school shooting A school shooting is an attack at an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and univ ...
and attempted bombing that occurred on April 20, 1999, at
Columbine High School Columbine High School (CHS) is a State school, public Secondary education in the United States, high school in Columbine, Colorado, United States, in the Denver metropolitan area. It is part of the Jefferson County Public Schools (Colorado), ...
in
Columbine, Colorado Columbine is an Unincorporated area, unincorporated community and a Census-designated place, census-designated place (CDP) located in and governed by Jefferson County, Colorado, Jefferson and Colorado, The CDP is a part of the Denver–Aurora– ...
, United States. The perpetrators, twelfth grade (
senior Senior (shortened as Sr.) means "the elder" in Latin and is often used as a suffix As, AS, A/S or similar may refer to: Art, entertainment, and media * As (song), "As" (song), a song by Stevie Wonder * , a Spanish sports newspaper * , academic m ...
) students
Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold Eric David Harris (April 9, 1981 – April 20, 1999) and Dylan Bennet Klebold (; September 11, 1981 – April 20, 1999) were an American mass murder duo who perpetrated the Columbine High School massacre. Harris and Klebold killed 13 people ...
, murdered 12 students and one teacher. Ten students were killed in the school library, where the pair subsequently committed
suicide Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition t ...

suicide
. Twenty-one additional people were injured by gunshots, and gunfire was also exchanged with the police. Another three people were injured trying to escape. At the time, it was the deadliest high school shooting in U.S. history. The crime has inspired several copycats, including many deadlier shootings across the world, and "Columbine" has become a byword for school shootings. In addition to the shootings, Harris and Klebold planted several homemade bombs in the school, although they failed to detonate. Two bombs were set up as diversions at another location away from the school, one of which (partially) detonated. The motive remains unclear, but they had planned for around a year and hoped to massacre the most victims in U.S. history, which at the time meant exceeding the death toll of the
Oklahoma City bombing#REDIRECT Oklahoma City bombing {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation {{R from alternative name ...
. The police were slow to enter the school and were heavily criticized for not intervening during the shooting. The incident resulted in the introduction of the Immediate Action Rapid Deployment tactic, which is used in
active shooter Active shooter or active killer describes the perpetrator of a type of mass murder marked by rapidity, scale, randomness, and often suicide, usually associated with the United States. The United States Department of Homeland Security The Unit ...
situations. Columbine also resulted in an increased emphasis on school security with
zero tolerance A zero-tolerance policy is one which imposes a punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority In the fields of sociology ...
policies. Debates and
moral panic#REDIRECT Moral panic A moral panic is a feeling of fear spread among many people that some evil threatens the well-being of society. It is "the process of arousing social concern over an issue – usually the work of moral entrepreneurs and the m ...
were sparked over
guns A gun is a ranged weapon A ranged weapon is any weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficien ...
and gun control laws, high school cliques, subcultures (e. g.
goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between West ...
), outcasts, and
school bullying School bullying, like bullying upright=1.3, Banner in a campaign against bullying at Cefet-MG Bullying is the use of force, coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat ...
, as well as teenage use of pharmaceutical antidepressants, the Internet and
violence in video games Since their inception in the 1970s, video games have often been criticized for violent content. Politicians, parents, and other activists have claimed that violence in video games can be tied to violent behavior, particularly in children, and have s ...
and
movies A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These images are gen ...
. Many impromptu memorials were created after the massacre, including victims
Rachel Scott Rachel Joy Scott (August 5, 1981 – April 20, 1999) was an American student and the first fatality of the Columbine High School massacre, in which 11 other students and a teacher were also murdered by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold E ...
's car and John Tomlin's truck. Fifteen crosses for the victims and shooters were also erected on top of a hill in Clement Park. The crosses for Harris and Klebold were removed later following controversy. The
Columbine Memorial The Columbine Memorial is a memorial in Columbine, Colorado, that honors the deceased and injured victims, survivors, rescuers, and all who were affected by the Columbine High School massacre on April 20, 1999. The memorial is located in Clement ...
began planning as a permanent memorial in June 1999 and opened to the public on September 21, 2007.


Perpetrators


Eric Harris

Eric David Harris (April 9, 1981 – April 20, 1999) was born in
Wichita, Kansas Wichita ( ) is the largest city in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in N ...
. The Harris family relocated often, as Harris's father was a
U.S. Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphe ...

U.S. Air Force
transport pilot. His mother was a
homemaker Homemaking is mainly an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United ...
. The family moved from
Plattsburgh, New York Plattsburgh is a city in, and the county seat, seat of, Clinton County, New York, United States, situated on the north-western shore of Lake Champlain. The population was 19,841 at the United States Census, 2020, 2020 census. The population of ...
, to Littleton, Colorado, in July 1993, when his father retired from military service. The Harris family lived in rented accommodations for the first three years that they lived in the Littleton area. During this time, he attended Ken Caryl Middle School, and Harris met Klebold. In 1996, the Harris family purchased a house south of CHS. His older brother attended college at the
University of Colorado Boulder , mottoeng = Let Your Light Shine , established = , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This ...
.


Dylan Klebold

Dylan Bennet Klebold (; September 11, 1981 – April 20, 1999) was born in
Lakewood, Colorado The City of Lakewood is the List of municipalities in Colorado#Home rule municipality, home rule municipality that is the List of municipalities in Colorado, most populous municipality in Jefferson County, Colorado, Jefferson County, Colorado, Uni ...
.Columbine Report, His parents were
pacifists Pacifism is opposition to war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of ...
and attended a
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology ...
church with their children. Both Dylan and his older brother Byron attended
confirmation In Christian denominations that practice infant baptism Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and wi ...

confirmation
classes in accordance with the Lutheran tradition. As had been the case with his older brother, Klebold was named after a renowned poet – in his case the playwright
Dylan Thomas Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953) was a Welsh people, Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion"; the "play for voices" ''Und ...
. At the family home, the Klebolds also observed some rituals in keeping with Klebold's maternal grandfather's
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
heritage. Klebold attended Normandy Elementary in
Littleton, Colorado Littleton is a List of cities and towns in Colorado#Home rule municipality, home rule municipality city located in Arapahoe County, Colorado, Arapahoe, Douglas County, Colorado, Douglas, and Jefferson County, Colorado, Jefferson List of counties ...
for the first two grades before transferring to Governor's Ranch Elementary and became part of the CHIPS ("Challenging High Intellectual Potential Students") program. He found the transition to Ken Caryl Middle School difficult. Harris and Klebold often wore black baseball caps. As was typical in the 1990s, they wore them backwards. Harris wore a KMFDM cap, and apparently did not wear it during the massacre. Klebold's cap had a
Colorado Avalanche The Colorado Avalanche (colloquially known as the Avs) are a professional ice hockey team based in Denver. They compete in the National Hockey League (NHL) as a member of the Central Division (NHL), Central Division in the Western Conference (NH ...
logo on the front and a
Boston Red Sox The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a play ...
logo sewn onto the back.


Criminal history

In 1996, 15-year-old Eric Harris created a private website on America Online (
AOL AOL (stylized as Aol., formerly a company known as AOL Inc. and originally known as America Online) is an American web portal and online service provider based in New York City. It is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or a ...

AOL
). It was initially to host levels ( WADs) Harris created for use in the
first-person shooter First-person shooter (FPS) is a sub-genre Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or O ...
video games ''
Doom Doom is another name for damnation Damnation (from Latin '' damnatio'') is the concept of divine punishment and torment in an afterlife for actions that were committed on Earth. In Ancient Egyptian religious tradition, citizens would recite th ...
'' and ''
Doom II ''Doom II'', also known as ''Doom II: Hell on Earth'', is a first-person shooter First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre, sub-genre of shooter video games centered on gun and other weapon-based combat in a First person (video games ...
'', as well as '' Quake''. On the site, Harris began a
blog A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the f ...
. It included details about Harris sneaking out of the house to cause mischief and vandalism, such as lighting
fireworks Fireworks are a class of low explosive An explosive (or explosive material) is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion An explosion is a rapid expansion in volume associat ...

fireworks
, with his friend Dylan Klebold and others. Beginning in early 1997, the blog postings began to show the first signs of Harris's anger against society. By the end of the year, the site contained instructions on how to make explosives. Harris's site attracted few visitors and caused no concern until August 1997. Harris ended a blog post detailing murderous fantasies with "All I want to do is kill and injure as many of you as I can, especially a few people. Like Brooks Brown"; a classmate of his After Brown's parents viewed the site, they contacted the Jefferson County (Jeffco) Sheriff's Office on August 7, 1997. An investigator wrote a draft
affidavit An ( ; Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''commu ...
to request a
search warrant A search warrant is a court order that a magistrate or judge issues to authorize Police, law enforcement officers to conduct a Search and seizure, search of a person, location, or vehicle for evidence of a crime and to Confiscation, confiscate an ...
for the Harris household, but it was never submitted to a judge. On January 30, 1998, Harris and Klebold were
arrest An arrest is the act of apprehending and taking a person into custody (legal protection or control), usually because the person has been suspected of or observed committing a crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act p ...

arrest
ed for breaking into a white van parked near Littleton and stealing tools and computer equipment. They would subsequently attend a joint court hearing, where they guilty to the
felony A felony is traditionally considered a crime of high seriousness Seriousness (noun; adjective: ''serious'') is an attitude of gravitas, gravity, :wikt:solemnity, solemnity, persistence, and :wikt:earnest, earnestness toward something considered t ...
theft Theft is the taking of another person's property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of pr ...

theft
. The judge sentenced them to a juvenile
diversion program A diversion program, also known as a pretrial diversion program or pretrial intervention program, in the criminal justice system is a form of pretrial sentencing
. As a result, both delinquents attended mandatory classes such as
anger management Anger management is a psycho-therapeutic program for anger prevention and control. It has been described as deploying anger successfully.Schwarts, Gil. July 2006. Anger Management', July 2006 The Office Politic. Men's Health magazine. Emmaus, PA: ...
and talked with diversion officers. They both were eventually released from diversion several weeks early because of positive actions in the program and put on
probation Probation in criminal law Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and co ...
.


Writings

Shortly after the court hearing for the van break-in, Harris reverted his website back to just hosting user-created levels of ''Doom''. He began to write his thoughts down in a journal instead. In both of these journals, Harris and Klebold would later plot the attack. Soon after beginning his journal, Harris typed out one plan of attack which included after the massacre possibly escaping to a foreign country or hijacking an aircraft at
Denver International Airport Denver International Airport , locally known as DIA, is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities ...

Denver International Airport
and crashing it into
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. Klebold had already been keeping a personal journal since March 1997; As early as November of that year, Klebold had mentioned going on a killing spree. Klebold had used his journal to vent about his personal problems as well as what he'd wear and use during the attack. Harris also made entries on topics such as his
sexuality Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves Human sexual activity, sexually. This involves biological, erotic, Physical intimacy, physical, Emotional intimacy, emotional, social, or Spirituality, spiritual feelings and ...
on his journal where he described the desire for sex with women, especially his desire of and
torturing Torture (from Latin language, Latin ''tortus'': to twist, to torment) is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological suffering on someone by another as a punishment or in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or fo ...

torturing
them in his bedroom. Harris also expressed interest in
cannibalism Cannibalism is the act of consuming another individual of the same species as food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and con ...

cannibalism
and stated that he would like to dismember a woman with whom he could have sex with. Harris and Klebold also used their schoolwork to foreshadow the massacre. They both displayed themes of violence in their
creative writing Creative writing is any writing that goes outside the bounds of normal professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of e ...

creative writing
projects. In December 1997, Harris wrote a paper on school shootings titled "Guns in School", and a poem from the perspective of a bullet.Basement Tapes, March 15, 1999 Klebold wrote a short story about a man killing students which worried his teacher so much that she alerted his parents. Both had also actively researched war and murder. For one project, Harris wrote a paper on the
Nazis Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (german: link=no, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, or National Socia ...

Nazis
and Klebold wrote a paper on
Charles Manson Charles Milles Manson ( born Maddox, November 12, 1934November 19, 2017) was an American criminal and cult In modern English, a cult is a social group that is defined by its unusual Religion, religious, spirituality, spiritual, or Philosop ...
. In a
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
class, Harris wrote he dreamed of going on a shooting spree with Klebold. Harris's journals described several experimental bomb detonations. Nearly a year before the massacre, Klebold wrote a message in Harris's 1998 yearbook: "killing enemies, blowing up stuff, killing cops!! My wrath for January's incident will be godlike. Not to mention our revenge in the commons." The commons was slang for the school cafeteria.


Tapes


Basement Tapes

Harris and Klebold were both enrolled in video production classes and kept five
video tapes Videotape is magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film Plastic film is a thin continuous polymeric material. Thicker plastic material ...
that were recorded with school video equipment. Only two of these, ''
Hitmen Contract killing is a form of murder Murder is the unlawful killing of another human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and ...
for Hire'' and ''Rampart Range'', and part of a third known as ''
Radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of s and s ...

Radioactive
Clothing'', have been released. The remaining three tapes detail their plans and reasons for the massacre, including the ways they hid their weapons and deceived their parents. Most of these were shot in the Harris family basement, and are thus known as the Basement Tapes. Thirty minutes before the attack, they made a final video saying goodbye and apologizing to their friends and families. In December 1999, before anybody else had seen them, ''Time'' magazine published an article on these tapes. The victims' family members threatened to sue Jefferson County. As a result, select victim families and journalists were allowed to see them, and they were then kept from the public indefinitely for fear of inspiring future massacres. The tapes have since been destroyed. There are only transcripts of some of the dialogue, and a short clip recorded surreptitiously by a victim's father. The pair claimed they were going to make copies of the tapes to send to news stations, but never did so. When an economics class had Harris make an ad for a business, he and Klebold made a video called ''Hitmen for Hire'' on December 8, 1998, which was released in February 2004. It depicts them as part of the
Trench Coat A trench coat or trenchcoat is variety of coat made of waterproof Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water ...
Mafia A mafia is a type of criminal organization whose central activity is the arbitration of disputes between criminals and the organization and enforcement of illicit agreements through the use of violence. Mafias often engage in secondary activities ...

Mafia
, a clique in the school who wore black trench coats, extorting money for protecting preps from bullies. They were apparently not a part of the Trench Coat Mafia, but were friends with some of its members. They wore black trench coats on the day of the massacre, and the video seemed a kind of dress
rehearsal A rehearsal is an activity in the performing arts that occurs as preparation for a performance A performance is an act of staging or presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment. It is also defined as the action or process of car ...

rehearsal
, showing them walking the halls of the school, and shooting bullies outside with fake guns. On October 21, 2003, a video was released showing the pair doing
target practice Archery target practice in US Army In the military and in shooting Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, bow, crossbow, slingshot, or blowpipe). Even the acts of launching flam ...

target practice
on March 6, 1999, in nearby foothills known as Rampart Range, with the weapons they would use in the massacre.


Nixon tape

Before the massacre, Harris left a micro cassette labeled "Nixon" on the kitchen table. On it Harris said "It is less than nine hours now," placing the recording at some time around 2:30 am. He went on to say "People will die because of me" and "It will be a day that will be remembered forever."


Weaponry


Guns

In the months prior to the attacks, Harris and Klebold acquired two 9 mm firearms and two
12-gauge A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a long-barreled firearm A firearm is any type of gun A gun is a ranged weapon designed to use a shooting tube ( gun barrel) to launch typically solid pr ...
shotguns. Harris had a Hi-Point 995 Carbine with thirteen 10-round magazines and a Savage-Springfield 67H
pump-action Pump action or slide action is a repeating firearm A repeating firearm, or repeater, is any firearm (either a handgun or long gun) that is capable of being fired repeatedly before having to manually reload new ammunition into the weapon. Un ...
shotgun A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a long gun, long-barreled firearm designed to shoot a straight-walled cartridge (firearms), cartridge known as a shotshell, which usually discharges numerous small ...

shotgun
. Klebold used a 9×19mm
Intratec Intratec was a firearm company based in Miami, Florida. The company's most famous product was the Intratec TEC-DC9, TEC-9. History Intratec began as Interdynamic USA, an offshoot of Swedish firearms manufacturer Interdynamic AB. As a result of t ...
TEC-9 The Intratec TEC-9, TEC-DC9, KG-99 and AB-10 are a line of blowback (firearms), blowback-operated semi-automatic firearm, semi-automatic pistol, pistols. They were developed by Intratec, an American subsidiary of the Swedish firearms manufactur ...
semi-automatic handgun with one 52-, one 32-, and one 28-round magazine and a Stevens 311D
double-barreled shotgun Image:ShotgunAction.JPG, A view of the break-action of a typical side-by-side double-barreled shotgun, with the Boxlock action, Anson & Deeley boxlock action open and the extractor visible. The lever and the Safety (firearms), safety catch can also ...
. Harris's shotgun was sawed-off to around and Klebold shortened his shotgun's length to , a
felony A felony is traditionally considered a crime of high seriousness Seriousness (noun; adjective: ''serious'') is an attitude of gravitas, gravity, :wikt:solemnity, solemnity, persistence, and :wikt:earnest, earnestness toward something considered t ...
under the
National Firearms Act The National Firearms Act (NFA), 73rd Congress The 73rd United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives ...
. On November 22, 1998, their friend Robyn Anderson purchased the carbine rifle and the two shotguns for the pair at the Tanner
Gun Show Image:Houston Gun Show at the George R. Brown Convention Center.jpg, 300px, Houston, Texas, Houston gun show at the George R. Brown Convention Center. In the United States, a gun show is an event where Corporate promoter, promoters generally rent ...
, as they were too young to legally purchase the guns themselves. After the attack, she told investigators that she had believed the pair wanted the items for target shooting, and that she had no prior knowledge of their plans. Anderson was not charged. Harris and Klebold both held part-time jobs at a local
Blackjack Pizza Blackjack Pizza is a Colorado-based pizza delivery chain founded in 1983 by a former Domino's Pizza employee, Vince Schmuhl, because Domino's Pizza was the only major pizza delivery company in the Geography of the United States Rocky Mountain Syste ...
. Through Philip Duran, a coworker, Klebold bought a TEC-9 handgun from Mark Manes for $500 at another gun show on January 23. Manes, Manes' girlfriend, and Duran are all in the Rampart Range video. After the massacre, Manes and Duran were both prosecuted. Each was charged with supplying a handgun to a minor and possession of a sawed-off shotgun. Manes and Duran were sentenced to a total of six years and four-and-a-half years in prison, respectively.


Explosives

In addition to the firearms, the complex and highly planned attack involved several
improvised explosive devices An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional warfare, conventional military action. It may be constructed of conventional military explosives, such as an artillery shell, attached to a ...
. Harris and Klebold constructed a total of 99 bombs.Columbine Report, These included pipe bombs, carbon dioxide cartridges filled with
gunpowder Gunpowder, also commonly known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur, carbon (in the form of charcoal) and potassium nitrate (saltpeter). The ...
(called "crickets"),
Molotov cocktails A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, gasoline bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb), fire bottle or just Molotov, sometimes shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a vari ...
, and converted to
bombs A bomb is an explosive weapon An explosive weapon generally uses high explosive An explosive (or explosive material) is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion An explosion ...
. The propane bombs were used in the cafeteria, in their cars, and in another location as a diversion. For ignition, they used kitchen matches, cannon fuse, and
model rocket A model rocket is a small rocket A rocket (from it, rocchetto, , bobbin/spool) is a spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of t ...

model rocket
igniters as well as timing devices built from clocks and batteries for the cafeteria, car, and diversion bombs. During the massacre, they carried lighters as well as match strikers taped to their forearms to light the pipe bombs and crickets. They had 45 crickets, 8 of which detonated, and 9 Molotov cocktails, 2 of which functioned. Harris also attempted to make
napalm Napalm is an aluminum soap Soap is a of a used in a variety of cleansing and lubricating products. In a domestic setting, soaps are s usually used for , , and other types of . In industrial settings, soaps are used as s, components of s ...

napalm
, and envisioned a kind of backpack and
flamethrower A flamethrower is a ranged incendiary device File:Fire-ball Veste-Coburg.jpg, A 17th century fire or light ball from Veste Coburg, GermanyIncendiary weapons, incendiary devices, incendiary munitions, or incendiary bombs are weapons designe ...
. They both attempted to get another friend and coworker Chris Morris, who was a part of the Trench Coat Mafia, to keep the napalm at his house, but he refused. Harris also tried to recruit him to be a third shooter, but would play it off as a joke when rebuked.


Pipe bombs

Harris's website contained directions on making pipe bombs, including use of
shrapnel Shrapnel may refer to: Military * Shrapnel shell, explosive artillery munitions, generally for anti-personnel use * Shrapnel (fragment), a hard loose material Popular culture *Shrapnel (Radical Comics), ''Shrapnel'' (Radical Comics) Charac ...
. Harris's parents once discovered one of his pipe bombs. Harris's journal logged the creation of 25 pipe bombs. Klebold scared his coworkers by once bringing a pipe bomb into work. They would give various nick-names to their pipe bombs. After the massacre, two pipe bombs had been left in Klebold's bedroom, one named "Vengeance" and another "
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
", presumably after the Olympic Park bombing.


Cafeteria bombs

They had in their possession 8 propane tanks all converted into bombs. The weekend before the shooting, Harris and Klebold bought two propane tanks and other supplies from a hardware store. They bought six propane tanks on the morning of the attack. Harris was caught on a
Texaco#REDIRECT Texaco Texaco, Inc. ("The Texas Company") is an American oil subsidiary of Chevron Corporation. Its flagship product is its fuel "Texaco with Techron". It also owns the Havoline motor oil brand. Texaco was an independent company until ...

Texaco
gas station security camera at 9:12 a.m. buying a Blue Rhino propane tank. Both cafeteria bombs included a single 20 pound tank, attached pipe bombs, and supporting gasoline canisters alongside.


Car bombs

Both car bombs were made from two 20-pound propane tanks, pipe bombs, and various containers filled with gasoline were spread throughout the vehicles. Eight pipe bombs were placed in Klebold's car, and one in Harris's.


Knives

Harris and Klebold were both equipped with knives, but investigators do not believe they ever used them during the massacre. Harris had a boot knife on his belt and a "Khyber-pass" machete bowie knife, taped to the back of his ankle. Both had an "R" etched into the handle, and the machete had a swastika on the sheath. Klebold had a "Cobra" knife mounted to his belt on the left side as well as a switchblade in his right pocket.


The massacre

According to their journals and video tapes, it is believed by investigators that the pair intended to detonate their propane bombs in the cafeteria at the busiest lunch hour, killing hundreds of students. After this, they would shoot and stab survivors, as well as lob bombs. Bombs set in their cars in the parking lot would also eventually detonate, killing more students as well as possibly any police officers, paramedics, firemen, or reporters who had come to the school. However, this failed to occur since the bombs in the cafeteria and cars failed to detonate. Several official sources claim they planned to shoot the fleeing survivors from the parking lot, but moved to the staircase on the hill at the west side of the school when the bombs failed. Other sources claim the top of the staircase where the massacre began was their preferred spot to wait for the bombs to go off all along. A total of 188 rounds of ammunition were fired by the perpetrators during the massacre. Firing nearly twice as much as Klebold, Harris fired his carbine rifle a total of 96 times, and discharged his shotgun 25 times. Klebold fired the TEC-9 handgun 55 times, and 12 rounds from his double-barreled shotgun. Law enforcement officers fired 141 rounds during exchanges of gunfire with the shooters.


Planting the bombs

On Tuesday morning, April 20, 1999, Harris and Klebold placed two duffel bags in the cafeteria. Each bag contained propane bombs, set to detonate during the "A" lunch shift, which began at 11:15 a.m. No witness recalled seeing the duffel bags being added to the 400 or so backpacks that were already in the cafeteria.Columbine Report, The security staff at CHS did not observe the bags being placed in the cafeteria; a custodian was replacing the school security videotape at around 11:14 a.m.Columbine Report
The bombs are placed in the cafeteria
/ref> Shortly after the massacre, police speculated the bombs were placed during this "tape change". They also investigated whether the bombs were placed during the "after-prom" party held the prior weekend. Some internet sleuths claim the bomb placement can be seen on the surveillance video at around 10:58 am. Harris and Klebold are seen in the tapes planting the bombs in casual school clothes separately. Jeffco Sheriff's Deputy Neil Gardner was assigned to the high school as a full-time
school resource officerThe United States Department of Justice The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a United States federal executive departments, federal executive department of the United States government responsible ...
. Gardner usually ate lunch with students in the cafeteria, but on April 20 he was eating lunch in his patrol car at the northwest corner of the campus, watching students in the Smokers' Pit in Clement Park, a meadow adjacent to the school.Columbine Report, Two backpacks filled with pipe bombs, aerosol canisters, and small propane bombs were also placed in a field about south of CHS, and south of the fire station. The bombs were intended as a diversion to draw firefighters and emergency personnel away from the school. Only the pipe bombs and one of the aerosol canisters detonated, causing a small fire, which was quickly extinguished by the fire department. It went off after first having been moved. Bomb technicians immediately examined the bombs and relayed to police at the school the possibility of devices with motion activators. Harris and Klebold changed clothes and returned separately to CHS. Harris parked his vehicle in the junior student parking lot, and Klebold parked in the adjoining senior student parking lot. The school cafeteria was their primary bomb target; the cafeteria had a long outside window-wall, ground-level doors, and was just north of the senior parking lot. The library was located above the cafeteria in the second-story of the window-wall. Each car contained bombs. As Harris pulled into the parking lot, he encountered classmate Brooks Brown, with whom he had recently patched up a longstanding series of disputes. According to Brown, who was smoking a cigarette, he was surprised to see Harris, whom he earlier noted had been absent from a class test. Brown confronted Harris about missing the test. Harris seemed unconcerned, commenting "It doesn't matter anymore." Harris went on: "Brooks, I like you now. Get out of here. Go home." Brown, feeling uneasy, and already prepared to skip his next class, walked away down South Pierce Street. Meanwhile, Harris and Klebold armed themselves, using straps and webbing to conceal weapons beneath black
trench coat A trench coat or trenchcoat is variety of coat made of waterproof Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water ...
s (technically ). They lugged backpacks and duffel bags that were filled with pipe bombs and ammunition. Harris also had his shotgun in one of the bags. Beneath the trench coats, Harris wore a homemade
bandolier A bandolier or a bandoleer is a pocketed belt (clothing), belt for holding either individual bullets, or belt (firearms), belts, of ammunition. It is usually slung sash-style over the shoulder, with the ammunition pockets across the midriff and ...
and a white T-shirt that read "
Natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
" in black letters; Klebold wore a black T-shirt that read "Wrath" in red letters. The cafeteria bombs failed to detonate. Had these bombs exploded with full power, they could have killed or severely wounded all of the 488 students in the cafeteria, and possibly made the ceiling collapse by destroying the pillars holding it up, dropping the library into the cafeteria.


11:19 a.m.: Shooting begins

At 11:19 a.m., 17-year-old
Rachel Scott Rachel Joy Scott (August 5, 1981 – April 20, 1999) was an American student and the first fatality of the Columbine High School massacre, in which 11 other students and a teacher were also murdered by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold E ...
and her friend Richard Castaldo were having lunch and sitting on the grass next to the west entrance of the school. Klebold threw a pipe bomb towards the parking lot; the bomb only partially detonated, causing it to give off smoke. Castaldo thought it was no more than a crude senior prank. Likewise, several students during the incident first thought that they were watching a prank. A witness reported hearing "Go! Go!" before Klebold and Harris pulled their guns from beneath their trench coats and began shooting. Scott was killed instantly when she was hit four times with rounds fired from Harris'
carbine A carbine ( or ) is a long-barreled firearm whose barrel A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially ...

carbine
; one shot was to the left temple. Castaldo was shot eight times in the chest, arm, and abdomen; he fell unconscious to the ground and was left paralyzed below the chest. Harris aimed his carbine down the west staircase in the direction of three students: Daniel Rohrbough, Sean Graves, and Lance Kirklin. The students figured they were
paintball guns Paintball is a competitive sport, competitive team sport, team shooting sport in which players eliminate opponents from play by hitting them with spherical dye-filled gelatin capsules called Paintball equipment#Paintballs, paintballs that break u ...
, and were about to walk up the staircase directly below the shooters. Harris fired, killing Rohrbough, while injuring Graves and Kirklin. William David Sanders, a teacher and coach at the school, was in the cafeteria when he heard the gunfire and began warning students. The shooters turned and began firing west in the direction of five students sitting on the grassy hillside adjacent to the steps and opposite the west entrance of the school: Michael Johnson was hit in the face, leg, and arm, but ran and escaped; Mark Taylor was shot in the chest, arms, and leg and fell to the ground, where he faked death; the other three escaped uninjured. Klebold walked down the steps toward the cafeteria. He came up to Lance Kirklin, who was already wounded and lying on the ground, weakly calling for help. Klebold said, "Sure. I'll help you," then shot Kirklin in the face with his shotgun. Although gravely injured, Kirklin would survive. Graves—paralyzed beneath the waist—had crawled into the doorway of the cafeteria's west entrance and collapsed. He rubbed blood on his face and played dead. After shooting Kirklin, Klebold walked towards the cafeteria door. He then stepped over the injured Graves to enter the cafeteria. Graves remembers Klebold saying, "Sorry, dude." Klebold only briefly entered the cafeteria and did not shoot at the several people still inside. Officials speculated that Klebold went to check on the propane bombs. Harris was still on top of the stairs shooting, and severely wounded and partially paralyzed 17-year-old Anne-Marie Hochhalter as she tried to flee. Klebold came out of the cafeteria and went back up the stairs to join Harris. They shot at students standing close to a soccer field but did not hit anyone. They walked toward the west entrance, throwing pipe bombs in several directions, including onto the roof; only a few of these pipe bombs detonated. Witnesses heard one of them say, "This is what we always wanted to do. This is awesome!" Meanwhile, art teacher Patti Nielson was inside the school; she had noticed the commotion and walked toward the west entrance with student Brian Anderson. Nielson had intended to walk outside to tell the two students, "Knock it off," thinking they were either filming a video or pulling a student prank. As Anderson opened the first set of double doors, the gunmen shot out the windows, injuring him with flying glass; Nielson was hit in the shoulder with shrapnel. Anderson and Nielson ran back down the hall into the library, and Nielson alerted the students inside to the danger, telling them to get under desks and keep silent. She dialed
9-1-1 9-1-1, also written 911, is an emergency telephone number Most public switched telephone networks have a single emergency telephone number (sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or the emergency services number) that al ...
and hid under the library's administrative counter. Anderson fell to the floor, bleeding from his injuries, then hid inside the magazine room adjacent to the library.


11:22 a.m.: Police response

At 11:22 a.m., a custodian called Deputy Neil Gardner, the assigned resource officer to Columbine, on the school radio, requesting assistance in the senior parking lot. The only paved route took him around the school to the east and south on Pierce Street, where at 11:23 a.m., he heard on his
police radio Police radio is a communications radio system used by law enforcement agencies all over the world. Many such systems are encrypted to prevent eavesdroppers from listening in. Portable radios The vast majority of economically developed countries ...
that a female was down, and assumed she had been struck by a car. While exiting his
patrol car A police car (also called a police cruiser, police interceptor, patrol car, cop car, prowl car, squad car, radio car, or radio motor patrol (RMP)) is a ground vehicle used by police for transportation during patrols and to enable them to respon ...

patrol car
in the senior lot at 11:24, he heard another call on the school radio, "Neil, there's a shooter in the school." Harris, at the west entrance, immediately turned and fired ten shots from his carbine at Gardner, who was away. As Harris reloaded his carbine, Gardner leaned over the top of his car and fired four rounds at Harris from his
service pistol A service pistol, also known as a personal weapon or an ordnance weapon, is any handgun issued to regular military personnel or law enforcement officers. Typically, service pistols are revolvers or semi-automatic pistols issued to Officer (armed ...
. Harris ducked back behind the building, and Gardner momentarily believed that he had hit him. Harris then reemerged and fired at least four more rounds at Gardner (which missed and struck two parked cars), before retreating into the building. No one was hit during the exchange of gunfire. Gardner reported on his police radio, "Shots in the building. I need someone in the south lot with me." By this point, Harris had shot 47 times, and Klebold just 5. The shooters then entered the school through the west entrance, moving along the main north hallway, throwing pipe bombs and shooting at anyone they encountered. Klebold shot Stephanie Munson in the ankle, but she was able to walk out of the school. The pair then shot out the windows to the east entrance of the school. After proceeding through the hall several times and shooting toward—and missing—any students they saw, they went toward the west entrance and turned into the library hallway. Deputies Paul Smoker and Paul Magor, motorcycle
patrol A patrol is commonly a group of personnel, such as law enforcement officers A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a public-sector employee Employment is a relationship between two party (law), ...

patrol
men for the Jefferson County Sheriff's Office, were writing a traffic ticket north of the school when the "female down" call came in at 11:23 a.m. Taking the shortest route, they drove their motorcycles over grass between the athletic fields and headed toward the west entrance. When they saw Deputies Scott Taborsky, Rick Searle, and Kevin Walker following them in their patrol car, they abandoned their motorcycles for the safety of the car. The six deputies had begun to rescue two wounded students near the ball fields when another gunfight broke out at 11:26, as Harris returned to the double doors and again began shooting at Deputy Gardner, who returned fire. From the hilltop, Deputy Smoker fired three rounds from his pistol at Harris, who again retreated into the building. As before, no one was hit. Inside the school cafeteria, Dave Sanders and two custodians, Jon Curtis and Jay Gallatine, initially told students to get under the tables, then successfully evacuated students up the staircase leading to the second floor of the school. The stairs were located around the corner from the library hallway in the main south hallway. Sanders then tried to secure as much of the school as he could. By now, Harris and Klebold were inside the main hallway. Sanders and another student were down at the end of the hallway, where he gestured for students in the library to stay. They encountered Harris and Klebold, who were approaching from the corner of the north hallway. Sanders and the student turned and ran in the opposite direction. Harris and Klebold shot at them both, with Harris hitting Sanders twice in the back and neck, hitting his teeth on exit, but missing the student. The latter ran into a science classroom and warned everyone to hide. Klebold walked over towards Sanders, who had collapsed, and tossed a pipe bomb, then returned to Harris up the library hallway. Sanders struggled toward the science area, and a teacher took him into a classroom where 30 students were located. Due to his knowledge of
first aid First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person suffering from either a minor or serious illness A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement ...

first aid
, student Aaron Hancey was brought to the classroom from another by teachers despite the unfolding commotion. With the assistance of a fellow student named Kevin Starkey, and teacher Teresa Miller, Hancey administered first aid to Sanders for three hours, attempting to stem the blood loss using shirts from students in the room, and showing him pictures from his wallet to keep him talking. Using a phone in the room, Miller and several students maintained contact with police outside the school. As the shooting unfolded, pipe bombs were tossed in the hallways and down into the cafeteria. Patti Nielson in the library called 9-1-1, telling her story and urging students in the library to take cover beneath desks. According to transcripts, her call was received by a 9–1–1 operator at 11:25:18 a.m.


11:29–11:36 a.m.: Library massacre

At 11:29 a.m., Harris and Klebold entered the library. Fifty-two students, two teachers and two librarians were inside. Harris fired his shotgun twice at a desk. Student Evan Todd had been standing near a pillar when the shooters entered the library and had just taken cover behind a
copier A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine, and formerly a Genericised trade mark, Xerox Machine) is a machine that makes copies of documents and other visual images onto paper or plastic film quickly and cheaply. Most modern photocopi ...
. Todd was hit by wood splinters in the eye and lower back but was not seriously injured. He then hid behind the administrative counter. The gunmen walked into the library, towards the two rows of computers. Sitting at the north row was disabled student Kyle Velasquez. Klebold fired his shotgun, fatally hitting him in the head and back. They put down their ammunition-filled duffel bags at the south—or lower—row of computers and reloaded their weapons. They then walked between the computer rows, toward the windows facing the outside staircase. Throughout the massacre in the library, they ordered everybody to get up, saying that the library was going to explode. They said how long they had been waiting for this and seemed to be enjoying themselves, shouting things like, "Yahoo!" after shooting. While ordering the jocks to stand up, one of the two said, "Anybody with a white hat or a sports emblem on it is dead." Wearing a white baseball cap at Columbine was a tradition among sports team members. Nobody stood up, and several students tried to hide their white hats. Windows were shot out in the direction of the recently arrived police. Officers returned fire, and the gunmen retreated from the windows; no one was injured. Klebold removed his trench coat. He then fired his shotgun at a nearby table, injuring three students: Patrick Ireland, Daniel Steepleton, and Makai Hall. Harris walked toward the lower row of computer desks with his shotgun and fired a single shot under the first desk, while down on one knee. He hit 14-year-old Steven Curnow with a mortal wound to the neck. He then moved to the adjacent computer desk, injuring 17-year-old Kacey Ruegsegger with a shot which passed completely through her right shoulder, also grazing her neck and severing a major artery. When she started gasping in pain, Harris said, "Quit your bitching." Harris then walked to a table south of the lower computer table, with two students underneath:
Cassie Bernall Cassie René Bernall (November 6, 1981April 20, 1999) was a student killed in the Columbine High School massacre, where 11 more students and a teacher were killed by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, who then committed suicide. It was reported that ...
and Emily Wyant. Harris slapped the surface of the table twice as he knelt, and said "" before shooting Bernall once in the head with the shotgun, killing her. Harris at this point held the gun with one hand, and the weapon hit his face in
recoil Recoil (often called knockback, kickback or simply kick) is the rearward thrust Thrust is a described quantitatively by . When a system expels or in one direction, the accelerated mass will cause a force of equal but opposite directi ...

recoil
, injuring his nose. He told Klebold he had done so, and Klebold responded "Why'd you do that?" After fatally shooting Bernall, Harris turned toward the next table, where Bree Pasquale sat next to the table rather than under it. Harris's nose was
bleeding Bleeding, also known as a hemorrhage, haemorrhage, or simply blood loss, is blood Blood is a body fluid Body fluids, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally ...
; witnesses later reported that he had blood around his mouth. Harris asked Pasquale if she wanted to die, and she responded with a plea for her life. Harris laughed and responded "Everyone's gonna die." When Klebold said "shoot her," Harris responded "No, we're gonna blow up the school anyway." Klebold noticed Ireland trying to provide aid to Hall, who had suffered a wound to his knee. As Ireland tried to help Hall, his head rose above the table, Klebold shot him a second time, hitting him twice in the head and once in the foot. Ireland was knocked unconscious, but survived. Klebold then walked toward another table, where he discovered 18-year-old Isaiah Shoels, 16-year-old Matthew Kechter and 16-year-old Craig Scott (Rachel's younger brother), hiding underneath. Klebold called out to Harris that he found a "
nigger In the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includi ...
" and tried to pull Shoels out from under the table. Harris left Pasquale and joined him. According to witnesses, they taunted Shoels for a few seconds, making derogatory racial comments. The gunmen both fired under the table; Harris shot Shoels once in the chest, killing him, and Klebold shot and killed Kechter. Though Shoels was not shot in the head, Klebold said: "I didn't know black brains could fly that far." Meanwhile, Scott was uninjured; lying in the blood of his friends, feigning death. Harris then yelled; "Who's ready to die next?!" He turned and threw a "cricket" at the table where Hall, Steepleton, and Ireland were located. It landed on Steepleton's thigh; Hall quickly noticed it and tossed it behind them, and it exploded in mid-air. Harris walked toward the bookcases between the west and center section of tables in the library. He jumped on one and shook it, apparently attempting to topple it, then shot at the books which had fallen. Klebold walked to the east area of the library. Harris walked from the bookcase, past the central area to meet Klebold. The latter shot at a display case next to the door, then turned and shot toward the closest table, hitting and injuring 17-year-old Mark Kintgen in the head and shoulder. He then turned toward the table to his left and fired, injuring 18-year-olds Lisa Kreutz, Lauren Townsend, and Valeen Schnurr with the same shotgun blast. Klebold then moved toward the same table and fired several shots with the
TEC-9 The Intratec TEC-9, TEC-DC9, KG-99 and AB-10 are a line of blowback (firearms), blowback-operated semi-automatic firearm, semi-automatic pistol, pistols. They were developed by Intratec, an American subsidiary of the Swedish firearms manufactur ...
, killing Townsend. At this point, the seriously injured Valeen Schnurr began screaming, "Oh my God, oh my God!" In response, Klebold asked Schnurr if she believed in the existence of God; when Schnurr replied she did, Klebold asked "Why?" and commented "God is gay." Klebold reloaded but walked away from the table. Harris approached another table where two girls were hiding. He bent down to look at them and dismissed them as "pathetic". Harris then moved to another table where he fired twice, injuring 16-year-olds Nicole Nowlen and John Tomlin. Tomlin moved out from under the table. Klebold shot him repeatedly, killing him. Harris then walked back over to the other side of the table where Townsend lay dead. Behind the table, a 16-year-old girl named Kelly Fleming had, like Bree Pasquale, sat next to the table rather than beneath it due to a lack of space. Harris shot Fleming with his shotgun, hitting her in the back and killing her. He shot at the table behind Fleming, hitting Townsend, who was already dead, Kreutz again, and wounding 18-year-old Jeanna Park. The shooters moved to the center of the library, where they reloaded their weapons at a table. Harris then pointed his carbine under a table, but the student he was aiming at moved out of the way. Harris turned his gun back on the student and told him to identify himself. It was John Savage, an acquaintance of Klebold's. He asked Klebold what they were doing, to which he shrugged and answered, "Oh, just killing people." Savage asked if they were going to kill him. Possibly because of a
fire alarm A fire alarm system has a number of devices working together to detect and warn people through visual and audio appliances when smoke, fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, rel ...
, Klebold said, "What?" Savage asked again whether they were going to kill him. Klebold said no, and told him to run. Savage fled, escaping through the library's main entrance. After Savage left, Harris turned and fired his carbine at the table directly north of where he had been, hitting the ear and hand of 15-year-old Daniel Mauser. Mauser reacted by either shoving a chair at Harris or grabbing at his leg; Harris fired again and hit Mauser in the center of the face at close range, killing him. Both shooters moved south and fired randomly under another table, critically injuring two 17-year-olds, Jennifer Doyle and Austin Eubanks, and fatally wounding 17-year-old Corey DePooter, at 11:35. There were no further victims. They had killed 10 people in the library and wounded 12. At this point, Klebold was quoted as saying they might start knifing people, though they never did. They headed towards the library's main counter. Harris threw a
Molotov cocktail A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, gasoline bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb), fire bottle or just Molotov, sometimes shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a ...
toward the southwestern end of the library, but it failed to explode. They converged close to where Todd had moved after having been wounded. Klebold pulled the chair out from the desk, then he pointed his TEC-9 at Todd, who was wearing a white hat. Klebold asked if he was a jock, and when Todd said no Klebold responded "Well, that's good. We don't like jocks." Klebold then demanded to see his face; Todd partly lifted his hat so his face would remain obscured. When Klebold asked Todd to give him one reason why he should not kill him, Todd said: "I don't want trouble." Klebold responded back angrily "Trouble? You don't even know what...trouble is!" Todd tried to correct himself: "That's not what I meant! I mean, I don't have a problem with you guys. I never will and I never did." Klebold then told Harris he was going to let Todd live, but that Harris could kill him if he wanted. Harris seemed to pay little attention and said: "Let's go to the commons." Klebold fired a single shot into an open library staff break room, hitting a small television. While Harris was walking away, Klebold said, "One more thing!", then picked up the chair beside the library counter under which Patti Nielson was hiding, and slammed the chair down on top of the computer terminal and library counter. Klebold joined Harris at the library entrance. The two walked out of the library at 11:36. Cautiously, fearing the shooters' return, 10 injured and 29 uninjured survivors began to evacuate the library through the north emergency exit door, which led to the sidewalk adjacent to the west entrance. Kacey Ruegsegger was evacuated from the library by Craig Scott. Had she not been evacuated at this point, Ruegsegger would likely have bled to death from her injuries. Patrick Ireland, unconscious, and Lisa Kreutz, unable to move, remained in the building.Columbine Report, Patti Nielson crawled into the exterior break room, into which Klebold had earlier fired shots, and hid in a cupboard.


12:08 p.m.: Suicides

After leaving the library, Harris and Klebold entered the science area, where they caused a fire in an empty storage closet. It was extinguished by a teacher who had hidden in an adjacent room. The gunmen then proceeded toward the south hallway, where they shot into an empty science room. At 11:44 a.m., they were captured on the school security cameras as they re-entered the cafeteria. The recording shows Harris kneeling on the landing and firing a single shot toward one of the propane bombs left in the cafeteria, in an unsuccessful attempt to detonate it. As Klebold approached the propane bomb and examined it, Harris took a drink from one of the cups left behind. Klebold lit a
Molotov cocktail A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, gasoline bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb), fire bottle or just Molotov, sometimes shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a ...
and threw it at the propane bomb. About a minute later, the gallon of fuel attached to the bomb ignited, causing a fire that was extinguished by the
fire sprinkler A fire sprinkler or sprinkler head is the component of a fire sprinkler system that discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, such as when a predetermined temperature has been exceeded. Fire sprinklers are extensively used ...
s a few minutes later. They left the cafeteria at 11:46. After leaving the cafeteria, they returned to the main north and south hallways of the school and fired several shots into walls and ceilings as students and teachers hid in rooms. They walked through the south hallway into the main office before returning to the north hallway. At 11:56, they returned to the cafeteria, and briefly entered the school kitchen. They returned up the staircase and into the south hallway at 12:00 p.m. They re-entered the library, which was empty of survivors except for the unconscious Patrick Ireland and the injured Lisa Kreutz. Once inside, at 12:02 p.m., police were shot at again through the library windows and returned fire. Nobody was injured in the exchange. By 12:05, all gunfire from the school had ceased. By 12:08 p.m., both gunmen had killed themselves. Harris sat down with his back to a bookshelf and fired his shotgun through the ; Klebold went down on his knees and shot himself in the left temple with his TEC-9. An article by '' The Rocky Mountain News'' stated that Patti Nielson overheard them shout "One! Two! Three!" in unison, just before a loud boom, however Nielson claimed that she had never spoken with either of the writers of the article. In 2002, the ''
National Enquirer The ''National Enquirer'' is an American Tabloid journalism, tabloid newspaper. Founded in 1926, the newspaper has undergone a number of changes over the years. As of April 18, 2019, ''The Washington Post'' reported that the ''National Enquirer' ...
'' published two post-mortem photos of Harris and Klebold in the library. Klebold's gun was underneath his body and so unseen in the photo, leading to speculation that Harris shot Klebold before killing himself. However, some of Klebold's blood was on Harris' legs. Also, just before shooting himself, Klebold lit a Molotov cocktail on a nearby table, underneath which Patrick Ireland was laying, which caused the tabletop to momentarily catch fire. Underneath the scorched film of material was a piece of Harris' brain matter, suggesting Harris had shot himself by this point.


Crisis ends


SWAT response

By 12:00 p.m., were stationed outside the school, and ambulances started taking the wounded to local hospitals. A call for additional ammunition for police officers in case of a shootout came at 12:20. Authorities reported pipe bombs by 1:00, and two SWAT teams entered the school at 1:09, moving from classroom to classroom, discovering hidden students and faculty. They entered at the end of the school opposite the library, hampered by old maps and unaware a new wing had recently been added. They were also hampered by the sound of the fire alarms.


Leawood Elementary

Meanwhile, families of students and staff were asked to gather at nearby Leawood Elementary School to await information. All students, teachers, and school employees were taken away, questioned, and offered medical care in small holding areas before being bussed to meet with their family members at Leawood Elementary. Some of the victims' families were told to wait on one final school bus that never came.


The boy in the window

Patrick Ireland had regained and lost consciousness several times after being shot by Klebold. Paralyzed on his right side, he crawled to the library windows where, on live television, at 2:38 p.m., he stretched out the window, intending to fall into the arms of two SWAT team members standing on the roof of an emergency vehicle, but instead falling directly onto the vehicle's roof in a pool of blood. He became known as "the boy in the window." The team members, Donn Kraemer and John Ramoniec, were later criticized for allowing Ireland to drop more than seven feet to the ground while doing nothing to try to ensure he could be lowered to the ground safely or break his fall.


"1 bleeding to death"

At 2:15 p.m., students placed a sign in the window: "1 bleeding to death," in order to alert police and medical personnel of Dave Sanders' location in the science room. Police initially feared it was a ruse by the shooters. A shirt was also tied to the doorknob. At 2:30, this was spotted, and by 2:40, SWAT officers evacuated the room of students and called for a paramedic. Hancey and Starkey were reluctant to leave Sanders behind. By 3:00, the SWAT officers had moved Sanders to a storage room, which was more easily accessible. As they did so, a paramedic arrived and found Sanders had no
pulse In medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge) ...

pulse
. He had died of his injuries in the storage room before he could receive medical care. He was the only teacher to die in the shooting.


Suicide mission; estimated 25 dead

Lisa Kreutz, shot in the shoulder, arms, hand, and thigh, remained laying in the library. She had tried to move but became light-headed. Kreutz kept track of time by the sound of the school's bells until police arrived. Kreutz was finally evacuated at 3:22 p.m., along with Patti Nielson, Brian Anderson, and the three library staff who had hidden in the rooms adjacent to the library. Officials found the bodies in the library by 3:30.Columbine Report, SWAT By 4:00, Sheriff John P. Stone made an initial estimate of 25 dead students and teachers, fifty wounded, and referred to the massacre as a "suicide mission." President
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton ('' né'' Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and ...

Bill Clinton
later issued a statement.


Bomb squad response

Stone said that police officers were searching the bodies of the gunmen. They feared they had used their pipe bombs to
booby-trap A booby trap is a device or setup that is intended to kill, harm, or surprise a human being or an animal. It is triggered by the presence or actions of the victim and sometimes has some form of bait designed to lure the victim towards it. The trap ...
corpses, including their own. At 4:30 p.m., the school was declared safe. At 5:30, additional officers were called in, as more explosives were found in the parking lot and on the roof. By 6:15, officials had found a bomb in Klebold's car in the parking lot, set to detonate the gas tank. Stone then marked the entire school as a crime scene. At 10:40 p.m., a member of the bomb squad, who was attempting to dispose of an un-detonated pipe bomb, accidentally lit a striking match attached to the bomb by brushing it against the wall of the ordnance disposal trailer. The bomb detonated inside the trailer but no one was injured. The bomb squad disrupted the car bomb. Klebold's car was repaired and, in 2006, put up for auction.


Immediate aftermath

On the morning of April 21, bomb squads combed the high school. By 8:30 a.m., the official death toll of 15 was released. The earlier estimate was ten over the true death toll count, but close to the total count of wounded students. The total count of deaths was 12 students (14 including the shooters) and one teacher; 20 students and one teacher were injured as a result of the shootings. Three more victims were injured indirectly as they tried to escape the school. It was then the worst school shooting in U.S. history. At 10:00 a.m., the bomb squad declared the building safe for officials to enter. By 11:30 a.m., a spokesman of the sheriff declared the investigation underway. Thirteen of the bodies were still inside the high school as investigators photographed the building. At 2:30 p.m., a press conference was held by Jeffco
District Attorney In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, s ...
David Thomas and Sheriff John Stone, at which they said that they suspected others had helped plan the shooting. Formal identification of the dead had not yet taken place, but families of the children thought to have been killed had been notified. Throughout the late afternoon and early evening, the bodies were gradually removed from the school and taken to the Jeffco Coroner's Office to be identified and autopsied. By 5:00 p.m., the names of many of the dead were known. An official statement was released, naming the 15 confirmed deaths and 27 injuries related to the massacre. On April 22, the cafeteria bombs were discovered. In the days following the shootings,
Rachel Scott Rachel Joy Scott (August 5, 1981 – April 20, 1999) was an American student and the first fatality of the Columbine High School massacre, in which 11 other students and a teacher were also murdered by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold E ...
's car and John Tomlin's truck became memorials, and impromptu memorials were held in Clement Park. On April 30, carpenter Greg Zanis erected fifteen 6-foot-tall wooden crosses to honor those who had died at the school. Daniel Rohrbough's father cut down the two meant for the gunmen. There were also fifteen trees planted, and he cut down two of those as well. In November 2021, a report was leaked to
NPR National Public Radio (NPR, stylized in all lowercase, npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit media organization based in Washington, D.C. NPR is based in two locations: main NPR headquarters in Washington, D.C. (often re ...

NPR
, about that year's
National Rifle Association The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is a gun rights advocacy group based in the United States. Founded in 1871 to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA has become a prominent gun rights lobbying organization while continuing ...
's convention in Denver. In a series of audios, Wayne LaPierre and other top officials, suggested raising one million dollars for the victims' families and the cancellation of the convention was considered by some within the organization.


Search warrant press conference

Also on April 30, high-ranking officials of Jefferson County (Jeffco) and the Jeffco Sheriff's Office met to decide if they should reveal that Michael Guerra had drafted an
affidavit An ( ; Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''commu ...
for a
search warrant A search warrant is a court order that a magistrate or judge issues to authorize Police, law enforcement officers to conduct a Search and seizure, search of a person, location, or vehicle for evidence of a crime and to Confiscation, confiscate an ...
of Harris's residence more than a year before the shootings, based on his previous investigation of Harris's website and activities. Since the affidavit's contents lacked the necessary
probable cause In United States criminal law Responsibility for criminal law and criminal justice in the United States is shared between the State governments of the United States, states and the Federal government of the United States, federal government. So ...
, they decided not to disclose this information at a press conference held on April 30, nor did they mention it in any other way. Over the next two years, Guerra's original draft and investigative file documents were lost. In September 1999, a Jeffco investigator failed to find the documents during a secret search of the county's computer system. A second attempt in late 2000 found copies of the document within the Jeffco archives. Their loss was termed "troubling" by a
grand jury A grand jury is a jury A jury is a sworn body of people (the jurors) convened to render an impartial Impartiality (also called evenhandedness or fair-mindedness) is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objectivi ...
convened after the file's existence was reported in April 2001. It was concealed by the Jeffco Sheriff's Office and not revealed until September 2001, resulting from an investigation by the TV show ''
60 Minutes ''60 Minutes'' is an American television news magazine '' 2512'', a monthly news magazine published in Réunion. A news magazine is a typed, printed, and published magazine, radio or television program, usually published weekly, consisting ...
''. The documents were reconstructed and released to the public, but the original documents are still missing. The final grand-jury investigation was released in September 2004.


Christian martyrdom

In the wake of the shooting, victims
Rachel Scott Rachel Joy Scott (August 5, 1981 – April 20, 1999) was an American student and the first fatality of the Columbine High School massacre, in which 11 other students and a teacher were also murdered by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold E ...
and
Cassie Bernall Cassie René Bernall (November 6, 1981April 20, 1999) was a student killed in the Columbine High School massacre, where 11 more students and a teacher were killed by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, who then committed suicide. It was reported that ...
came to be regarded as
Christian martyr In Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose coming as the was in the (c ...
s by
Evangelical Christians Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity that maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel Gospel originally meant the Chr ...
. Christian churches used the ''martyr'' narrative of Scott's and Bernall's deaths to promote themselves and recruit members. The closest living witness to Scott's death, Richard Castaldo, has stated Harris asked Scott if she believed in God, and murdered her after she answered "You know I do," but this has been questioned and Castaldo later stated he was not sure. Considerable media attention focused upon Bernall, who had been killed by Harris in the library and who Harris was reported to have asked, "Do you believe in God?" immediately prior to her murder. Bernall was reported to have responded "Yes" to this question before her murder. Emily Wyant, the closest living witness to Bernall's death, denied that Bernall and Harris had such an exchange. Joshua Lapp thought Bernall had been queried about her belief, but was unable to correctly point out where Bernall was located, and was closer to survivor Valeen Schnurr during the shootings. Likewise, another witness, Craig Scott, claimed the discussion was with Bernall. However, when asked to indicate where the conversation had been coming from, he pointed to where Schnurr was shot. Schnurr herself claims that she was the one questioned as to her belief in God.


We are Columbine

Classes at Columbine were held at nearby Chatfield Senior High for the remaining three weeks of the 1999 school year. In August 1999, students returned to the school, and principal Frank DeAngelis led a rally of students clad in "We are Columbine" shirts.


Secondary casualties

Six months after the shootings, Anne Marie Hochhalter's mother killed herself. Several former students and teachers suffer from
PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the '' Terminology'' section in this article. is a mental disorder that one can develop after exposure to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, ...
. Greg Barnes, a 17-year-old student who had witnessed Sanders' shooting, committed suicide in May 2000. Survivor Austin Eubanks, who was injured during the shooting, became heavily medicated, developing an
opioid addiction Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a substance use disorder Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matte ...
. Eventually overcoming and later speaking publicly about the addiction, Eubanks died from an accidental overdose in 2019 at the age of 37.


Motive

The shooting was planned as a
terrorist attack Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilianIn gen ...
that would cause "the most deaths in U.S. history", but the motive has never been ascertained with any degree of certainty. In a letter provided with the May 15 report on the Columbine attack, Sheriff John Stone and Undersheriff John A. Dunaway wrote they "cannot answer the most fundamental question—why?" In the days following the event media speculation regarding the killers' motive was rife. Media reports were disseminated suggesting various motives of the killers, although all theories were largely unsubstantiated and turned out to be myths. These reports included blaming bullying, goth culture, video games,
Marilyn Manson Brian Hugh Warner (born January 5, 1969), known professionally as Marilyn Manson, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, actor, painter, and writer. He is known for his controversial stage personality and image as the lead singer ...

Marilyn Manson
, and targeting jocks and minorities. Other rumours were spread in the local area but not largely disseminated by the media, such as the false claim spread by some students that the killers were bullied because they were
homosexual Homosexuality is Romance (love), romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or Human sexual activity, sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is "an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic ...

homosexual
.


Mental disorder


FBI's theory

The FBI concluded that the killers were victims of
mental illness A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing In internal medici ...
, that Harris was a
clinical Clinical may refer to: Healthcare * Of or about a clinic, a healthcare facility * Of or about the practice of medicine Other uses * Clinical (film), ''Clinical'' (film), a 2017 American horror thriller See also

* * * Clinical chemistry, the ana ...
psychopath Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is characterized by persistent Anti-social behaviour, antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and Boldness, bold, Disinhibition, disinhibited, and Egotism, egotistical Be ...
, and Klebold was depressive. Dr. Dwayne Fuselier, the supervisor in charge of the Columbine investigation, would later remark: "I believe Eric went to the school to kill and didn't care if he died, while Dylan wanted to die and didn't care if others died as well." In April 1998, a year prior to the shooting, Harris wrote a letter of apology to the owner of the van as part of his diversion program. Around the same time, he derided him in his journal, stating that he believed himself to have the right to steal something if he wanted to. By far the most prevalent theme in Klebold's journals is his wish for suicide and private at his lack of success with women, which he refers to as an "infinite sadness." Klebold had repeatedly documented his desires to kill himself, and his final remark in the Basement Tapes, shortly before the attack, is a resigned statement made as he glances away from the camera: "Just know I'm going to a better place. I didn't like life too much." The FBI's theory was used by Dave Cullen for his 2009 book ''
Columbine Columbine may refer to: Places * Columbine, Colorado Columbine is an unincorporated community File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota An unincorpor ...
''. Harris was depicted as the mastermind, having a messianic-level
superiority complex Superiority complex is a term coined by Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (; ; 7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist Psychotherapy (also psychological therapy or talking therapy) is the use of Psychology, ps ...
and hoping to demonstrate his superiority to the world. Klebold was a
follower Follower or variants may refer to: People and roles * Follower (Australian rules football) In Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football" or "foot ...

follower
who primarily participated in the massacre as a means to simply end his life. This theory has been met with criticism. Critics cite the fact that Klebold, not Harris, was the first to mention a killing spree in his journal. They also cite evidence that Harris was depressed as well, such as his prescription for
antidepressants Antidepressants are medication A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug Uncoated tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along with a minor amount o ...
mentioned below.


Medication

Opponents of contemporary
psychiatry Psychiatry is the specialty (medicine), medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perceptions. See glossary of psyc ...
like
Peter Breggin Peter Roger Breggin (born May 11, 1936) is an United States, American psychiatrist and critic of Shock therapy (psychiatry), shock treatment and psychiatric medication. In his books, he advocates replacing psychiatry's use of drugs and electroconv ...
claim that the
psychiatric medication A psychiatric or psychotropic medication is a psychoactive drug taken to exert an effect on the chemical makeup of the brain and nervous system. Thus, these medications are used to treat Mental disorder, mental illnesses. Usually prescribed in ps ...
s prescribed to Harris may have exacerbated his
aggressiveness Aggression is overt or covert, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other harm upon another individual. It may occur either reactively or without provocation. In humans, aggression can be caused by various ...
. Harris had complained of
depression Depression may refer to: Mental health * Depression (mood), a state of low mood and aversion to activity * Mood disorders characterized by depression are commonly referred to as simply ''depression'', including: ** Dysthymia ** Major depressive ...
, anger, and
suicidal thoughts Suicidal ideation (or suicidal thoughts) is thinking about, considering, or planning suicide Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death (1906) Death is the permanent, Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of al ...
, for which he was prescribed
antidepressant Antidepressants are medications used to treat major depressive disorder, some anxiety disorders, some chronic pain conditions, and to help manage some addictions. Common Side effect, side-effects of antidepressants include Xerostomia, dry mouth, ...
s.
Toxicology Toxicology is a scientific discipline Discipline is action ACTION is a bus operator in Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federation of the colonies of Austral ...

Toxicology
reports confirmed that Harris had in his
bloodstream The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system An organ system is a biological system A biological system is a complex biological network, network which connects several biologically ...
at the time of the shootings, whereas Klebold had no medications in his system. Harris continued his scheduled meetings with his psychologist until a few months before the massacre.


Media speculation


Bullying

Early stories following the massacre charged that school administrators and teachers at Columbine had long condoned bullying by jocks and this explained the motive. The link between bullying and school violence has attracted increasing attention since. Accounts from various parents and school staffers reported bullying in the school. Reportedly, Harris and Klebold were regularly called " faggots." Klebold said on the Basement Tapes, "You've been giving us shit for years." And when talking to his father about jocks had stated, "They sure give Eric hell." Brown also noted Harris was born with mild . This made him reluctant to take his shirt off in gym class, and other students would laugh at him. Nathan Vanderau, a friend of Klebold, and Alisa Owen, who knew Harris, noted they were picked on. Vanderau recalled that a "cup of fecal matter" was thrown at them.''Investigative Reports: Columbine: Understanding Why''. A&E. 2002 It has been alleged that Harris and Klebold were once both confronted by a group of students at CHS who sprayed them with ketchup while referring to them as "faggots" and "
queer ''Queer'' is an for people who are not or are not . Originally meaning "strange" or "peculiar", ''queer'' came to be used ly against those with same-sex desires or relationships in the late 19th century. Beginning in the late 1980s, queer ac ...

queer
s." Klebold told his mother it had been the worst day of his life. According to Brown, "That happened while teachers watched. They couldn't fight back. They wore the ketchup all day and went home covered with it." According to classmate Chad Laughlin, it involved seniors pelting Klebold with "ketchup-covered
tampon A tampon is a menstrual product designed to absorb blood and vaginal secretions by insertion into the vagina In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract. In humans, it extends from the Vulval vestibule ...
s" in the commons. Laughlin also stated "A lot of the tension in the school came from the class above us...There were people fearful of walking by a table where you knew you didn't belong, stuff like that. Certain groups certainly got preferential treatment across the board." A similar theory was expounded by Brooks Brown in his book on the massacre, ''No Easy Answers''; he noted that teachers commonly ignored bullying and that whenever Harris and Klebold were bullied by the jocks at CHS, they would make statements such as: "Don't worry, man. It happens all the time!" Cullen and others dispute the theory of "revenge for bullying" as a motivation. While acknowledging the pervasiveness of bullying in high schools including CHS, Cullen claimed they were not victims of bullying. He noted Harris was more often the perpetrator than victim of bullying. In a fact check published on April 19, 2019, on the eve of the commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the massacre, Gillian Brockell in ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...

The Washington Post
'' underscored that, contrary to the popular view, their attack was not revenge for being bullied. Peter Langman also argues against bullying being the cause of the attack. Other researchers have also argued against the bullying hypothesis.


Isolation

Rejection was also highlighted as a cause. Social
cliques A clique ( AusE, CanE Cane or caning may refer to: *Walking stick or walking cane, a device used primarily to aid walking *Assistive cane, a walking stick used as a mobility aid for better balance *White cane, a mobility or safety device used by ...
within high schools such as the Trench Coat Mafia were widely discussed. One perception formed was that Harris and Klebold were both outcasts who had been isolated from their classmates, prompting feelings of , insecurity, and depression, as well as a strong need for power and attention. Harris's last journal entry reads, "I hate you people for leaving me out of so many fun things,"Harris journal, April 3, 1999 while Klebold wrote "The lonely man strikes with absolute rage." In an interview, Brown described them as the school's worst outcasts, "the losers of the losers." This concept too has been questioned, as both Harris and Klebold had a close circle of friends and a wider informal social group. Cullen and Brockell both also say they were not in the Trench Coat Mafia and were not isolated outcasts or loners. Peter Langman concurs by also arguing against the pair being loners and outcasts.


Political terrorism

Though neither perpetrator mentioned either as the reason for the date of attack, the attack occurred on April 20 (the birthday of
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
), and there is some evidence to suggest the attack was supposed to have occurred on April 19—the date of the
Oklahoma City Bombing#REDIRECT Oklahoma City bombing {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation {{R from alternative name ...
, which led to media speculation that the attack was political. Some peers, such as Robyn Anderson, stated that the pair were not interested in
Nazism Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...

Nazism
, and they did not worship or admire Hitler in any way. However, in retrospect, Anderson also stated that there were many things the pair did not tell friends. Harris at least did revere the Nazis, often praising them in his journal. Sociologist
Ralph Larkin Ralph Wild Larkin (born May 27, 1940) is an American sociologist and research consultant. He is the author of ''Suburban Youth in Cultural Crisis'' (1979), ''Beyond Revolution: A New Theory of Social Movements'' (1986), and ''Comprehending Columb ...
has theorized that the massacre was to trigger a revolution of outcast students and the dispossessed: " an overtly political act in the name of oppressed students victimized by their peers.… The Columbine shootings redefined such acts not merely as revenge but as a means of protest of bullying, intimidation, social isolation, and public rituals of humiliation." In contrast with the theory that attack was political, one author argues Columbine was only increasingly linked to terrorism after the September 11 attacks.


Marilyn Manson

In the late 1990s,
Marilyn Manson Brian Hugh Warner (born January 5, 1969), known professionally as Marilyn Manson, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, actor, painter, and writer. He is known for his controversial stage personality and image as the lead singer ...

Marilyn Manson
and his eponymous band established themselves as a household name, and as one of the most controversial rock acts in music history. Their two album releases prior to the massacre were both critical and commercial successes, and by the time of their
Rock Is Dead Tour Rock Is Dead was a worldwide arena tour by American rock band A rock band or pop band is a small musical ensemble that performs rock music, pop music, or a related genre. A four-piece band is the most common configuration in rock and pop music. ...
in 1999, the frontman had become a culture war iconoclast and a rallying icon for alienated youth. Immediately after the massacre, a significant portion of blame was directed at the band and, specifically, at its outspoken frontman. In the weeks following the shootings, media reports about Harris and Klebold portrayed them and the Trench Coat Mafia as part of a gothic cult. Early media reports alleged that the shooters were fans, and were wearing the group's T-shirts during the massacre. Although these claims were later proven to be false, news outlets continued to run sensationalism, sensationalist stories with headlines such as "Killers Worshipped Rock Freak Manson" and "Devil-Worshipping Maniac Told Kids To Kill." Speculation in national media and among the public led many to believe that Manson's music and imagery were the shooter's sole motivation, despite reports that revealed that the two were not big fans. Despite this, Marilyn Manson were widely criticized by religious, political, and entertainment-industry figures. Under mounting pressure in the days after Columbine, the group postponed their last five North American tour dates out of respect for the victims and their families. Manson published his response to these accusations in an op-ed piece for ''Rolling Stone'', titled "Columbine: Whose Fault Is It?", in which he castigated Gun culture in the United States, America's gun culture, the political influence of the
National Rifle Association The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is a gun rights advocacy group based in the United States. Founded in 1871 to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA has become a prominent gun rights lobbying organization while continuing ...
, and the media's irresponsible coverage, which he said facilitated the placing of blame on a scapegoat. After concluding the European and Japanese legs of their tour on August 8, the band withdrew from public view to work on their next album, 2000's ''Holy Wood (In the Shadow of the Valley of Death)'' as an artistic rebuttal to the allegations leveled against them.


Video games

Violent video games were also blamed. Parents of some of the victims filed several unsuccessful lawsuits against video game manufacturers. Jerald Block believes their immersion in a virtual world best explains the massacre. While Brooks Brown disagrees that video games caused the massacre, he agrees elements of their plan came from video games. Harris and Klebold were both fans of shooter video games such as ''
Doom Doom is another name for damnation Damnation (from Latin '' damnatio'') is the concept of divine punishment and torment in an afterlife for actions that were committed on Earth. In Ancient Egyptian religious tradition, citizens would recite th ...
'', '' Quake'', ''Duke Nukem 3D'' and ''Postal (video game), Postal''. A file on Harris's computer read the massacre will "be like the 1992 Los Angeles riots, LA riots, the Oklahoma City bombing, Oklahoma bombing, World War II, WWII, Vietnam War, Vietnam, ''Duke'' and ''Doom'' all mixed together." In his last journal entry, Harris wished to "Get a few extra Glossary of video game terms#frag, frags on the scoreboard." After the massacre, it was alleged Harris created ''Doom'' and ''Duke Nukem 3D'' levels resembling CHS, but these were never found.


''Doom''

They were avid fans of ''Doom'' especially. Harris said of the massacre, "It's going to be like...''Doom''." He also wrote "I must not be sidetracked by my feelings of sympathy...so I will force myself to believe that everyone is just another monster from ''Doom''." In Harris's yearbook, Klebold wrote "I find a similarity between people and ''Doom'' zombies." Harris named his shotgun Arlene after a character in the Doom (novel series), ''Doom'' novels. The
TEC-9 The Intratec TEC-9, TEC-DC9, KG-99 and AB-10 are a line of blowback (firearms), blowback-operated semi-automatic firearm, semi-automatic pistol, pistols. They were developed by Intratec, an American subsidiary of the Swedish firearms manufactur ...
Klebold used resembled an AB-10, a weapon from the ''Doom'' novels that Harris referenced several times. Harris spent a great deal of time creating a large WAD, named Tier (German for 'animal', and a Sehnsucht (Rammstein album), song by Rammstein), calling it his "life's work."Basement Tapes, March 18, 1999 The WAD was uploaded to the Columbine school computer and to
AOL AOL (stylized as Aol., formerly a company known as AOL Inc. and originally known as America Online) is an American web portal and online service provider based in New York City. It is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or a ...

AOL
shortly before the attack, but appears to have been lost.


''Duke Nukem 3D''

The other game mentioned specifically by Harris for what the massacre would be like was ''Duke Nukem 3D''. The game has pipe bombs and one of the enemies is the "pig cop." Brooks Brown wrote that pipe bombs were set in the halls of the school with the intention of causing a chain reaction, because that's what happens in ''Duke Nukem 3D''. Brown also wrote they shot wildly because it works in ''Duke Nukem 3D''.


Legacy

Following the Columbine shooting, schools across the United States instituted new security measures such as see-through backpacks, metal detectors, school uniforms, and security guards. Some schools implemented the numbering of school doors in order to improve public safety response. Several schools throughout the country resorted to requiring students to wear computer-generated IDs. Schools also adopted a zero tolerance approach to possession of weapons and threatening behavior by students. Despite the effort, several social science experts feel the zero tolerance approach adopted in schools has been implemented too harshly, with unintended consequences creating other problems. Despite the safety measures that were implemented in the wake of the tragedy at Columbine, school shootings continued to take place in the United States, including shootings at Virginia Tech shooting, Virginia Tech, Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Sandy Hook Elementary School, and Stoneman Douglas High School shooting, Stoneman Douglas High School. Some schools renewed existing anti-bullying policies. Rachel's Challenge was started by Rachel Scott's parents, and lectures schools about bullying and suicide.


Police tactics

Police departments reassessed their tactics and now train for Columbine-like situations after criticism over the slow response and progress of the SWAT teams during the shooting. Police followed a traditional tactic at Columbine: surround the building, set up a perimeter, and contain the damage. That approach has been replaced by a tactic known as the Immediate action rapid deployment, Immediate Action Rapid Deployment tactic. This tactic calls for a four-person team to advance into the site of any ongoing shooting, optimally a diamond-shaped wedge, but even with just a single officer if more are not available. Police officers using this tactic are trained to move toward the sound of gunfire and neutralize the shooter as quickly as possible. Their goal is to stop the shooter at all costs; they are to walk past wounded victims, as the aim is to prevent the shooter from killing or wounding more. Dave Cullen has stated: "The active protocol has proved successful at numerous shootings... At Virginia Tech shooting, Virginia Tech alone, it probably saved dozens of lives."


Lawsuits

After the massacre, many survivors and relatives of deceased victims filed lawsuits. Under Colorado state law at the time, the maximum a family could receive in a lawsuit against a government agency was $600,000. Most cases against the Jeffco police department and school district were dismissed by the federal court on the grounds of government immunity. The case against the sheriff's office regarding the death of Dave Sanders was not dismissed due to the police preventing paramedics from going to his aid for hours after they knew the gunmen were dead. The case was settled out of court in August 2002 for $1,500,000. In April 2001, the families of more than 30 victims received a $2,538,000 settlement in their case against the families of Harris, Klebold, Manes, and Duran. Under the terms of the settlement, the Harrises and the Klebolds contributed $1,568,000 through their homeowners' policies, with another $32,000 set aside for future claims; the Manes contributed $720,000, with another $80,000 set aside for future claims; and the Durans contributed $250,000, with an additional $50,000 available for future claims. The family of victim Shoels rejected this settlement, but in June 2003 were ordered by a judge to accept a $366,000 settlement in their $250-million lawsuit against the shooters' families. In August 2003, the families of victims Fleming, Kechter, Rohrbough, Townsend, and Velasquez received undisclosed settlements in a wrongful death suit against the Harrises and Klebolds. Parents of some of the victims filed several unsuccessful lawsuits against film companies, over films such as ''The Basketball Diaries (film), The Basketball Diaries'', which includes a dream sequence with a student shooting his classmates in a trench coat. In the Basement Tapes, they debate on whether or not Steven Spielberg or Quentin Tarantino are appropriate choices to direct films about the massacre. Their home videos also show inspiration taken from ''Pulp Fiction''. Both were fans of the film ''Lost Highway (film), Lost Highway''. ''Apocalypse Now'' was found in Harris's Videocassette recorder, VCR.


Memorials

Many impromptu memorials were created after the massacre, including victims
Rachel Scott Rachel Joy Scott (August 5, 1981 – April 20, 1999) was an American student and the first fatality of the Columbine High School massacre, in which 11 other students and a teacher were also murdered by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold E ...
's car and John Tomlin's truck. In 2000, youth advocate Melissa Helmbrecht organized a remembrance event in Denver featuring two surviving students, called "A Call to Hope." The library where most of the massacre took place was removed and replaced with an atrium. In 2001, a new library, the HOPE memorial library, was built next to the west entrance. On February 26, 2004, thousands of pieces of evidence from the massacre were put on display at the Jeffco fairgrounds in Golden, Colorado, Golden. A permanent memorial began planning in June 1999. A permanent memorial "to honor and remember the victims of the April 20, 1999 shootings at Columbine High School" began planning in June 1999, and was dedicated on September 21, 2007, in Clement Park. The memorial fund raised $1.5 million in donations over eight years of planning. Designing took three and a half years and included feedback from victims' families, survivors, the high school's students and staff, and the community. Soon after the massacre, music students at University of Colorado Boulder, CU Boulder raised money to Commission (art), commission a piece of music to honor Columbine. The university band turned to Frank Ticheli, who responded by composing the Concert band, wind ensemble work ''An American Elegy''. The following year, the Columbine band premiered the piece at CU Boulder's Macky Auditorium, concert hall. As of 2019, Ticheli's sheet music publisher estimates ''An American Elegy'' has been performed 10000 times.


Gun control

The shooting resulted in calls for more gun control measures. The gun show loophole and background checks became a focus of a national debate. It was the deadliest mass shooting during the era of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban. Victim Daniel Mauser's father Tom Mauser has become a gun control advocate. In 2000, federal and state legislation was introduced that would require safety locks on firearms as well as ban the importation of high-capacity ammunition magazines. Though laws were passed that made it a crime to buy guns for criminals and minors, there was considerable controversy over legislation pertaining to background checks at gun shows. There was concern in the gun lobby over restrictions on Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, Second Amendment rights in the United States. Frank Lautenberg introduced a proposal to close the gun show loophole in federal law. It was passed in the United States Senate, Senate, but did not pass in the United States House of Representatives, House. Michael Moore's 2002 documentary ''Bowling for Columbine'' focused heavily on the American obsession with handguns, its grip on Jeffco, and its role in the shooting. In 2019, the MyLastShot Project was launched as a student-led gun violence prevention resource. The campaign was created by students from Columbine High School, and involves students placing stickers on their driver's licenses, student ID's, or phones that states their wishes to have the graphic photos of their bodies publicized if they die in a shooting.


Popular culture

"Columbine" has since become a euphemism for a school shooting, rather like "going postal" is for workplace violence. Columbine students Jonathan and Stephen Cohen wrote a song called ''Friend of Mine (Columbine)'', which briefly received airplay in the US after being performed at a memorial service broadcast on nationwide television. The song was pressed to CD, with the proceeds benefiting families affected by the massacre, and over 10,000 copies were ordered. Shortly following the release of the CD single, the song was also featured on the ''Lullaby for Columbine'' CD. Since the advent of social media, a fandom for shooters Harris and Klebold has had a documented presence on social media sites, especially Tumblr. Fans of Harris and Klebold refer to themselves as "Columbiners." An article published in 2015 in the ''Journal of Transformative Works'', a Academic journal, scholarly journal which focuses on the sociology of fandoms, noted that Columbiners were not fundamentally functionally different from more mainstream fandoms. Columbiners create fan art and fan fiction, even cosplaying the pair, and have a scholarly interest in the shooting. A video game called ''Super Columbine Massacre RPG!'' was based on the massacre. The Flash game ''Pico's School'' was also inspired by it.


Film and television

* The 1999 black comedy, ''Duck! The Carbine High Massacre'' is inspired by the Columbine massacre. * The first documentary on the massacre may have been the TLC (TV network), TLC documentary ''Lost Boys'' in 2000. * The 2002 Michael Moore documentary film ''Bowling for Columbine'' won several awards. * Also in 2002, A&E made "Columbine: Understanding Why". * The 2003 Gus Van Sant film ''Elephant (2003 film), Elephant'' depicts a fictional school shooting, but is based in part on the Columbine massacre. * The 2003 Ben Coccio film ''Zero Day (2003 film), Zero Day'' was also based on the massacre. * In 2004, the shooting was dramatized in the documentary ''Zero Hour (2004 TV series), Zero Hour.'' Most of the cafeteria scenes for the episode that dramatized the incident were filmed in the actual location. * In 2005, Lifetime produced Dawn Anna. * In 2007, the massacre was documented in an episode of the National Geographic Channel documentary series ''The Final Report''. * The 2009 film ''April Showers (2009 film), April Showers'', written and directed by Andrew Robinson (actor), Andrew Robinson, who was a senior at CHS during the shooting, was based on Columbine. * The 2013 film ''Kids for Cash'' about the kids for cash scandal detail it as part of the "zero-tolerance" policy in the wake of the Columbine shootings. * The 2016 biographical film ''I'm Not Ashamed'', based on the journals of
Rachel Scott Rachel Joy Scott (August 5, 1981 – April 20, 1999) was an American student and the first fatality of the Columbine High School massacre, in which 11 other students and a teacher were also murdered by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold E ...
. *The 2020 action film ''Run Hide Fight'' is inspired by the Columbine massacre.


Copycats

The Columbine shootings influenced subsequent
school shooting A school shooting is an attack at an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and univ ...
s, with several such plots mentioning it. Fear of Copycat crime, copycats has sometimes led to the closing of entire school districts. Since Columbine, over 74 copycat cases have been reported, 21 of which resulted in attacks, while the rest were thwarted by law enforcement. In many of them, the perpetrators cited Harris and Klebold as heroes or martyrs.


Analysis

Harris and Klebold have become what the ''Napa Valley Register'' have called "cultural icons" for Troubled youths, troubled youth. According to psychiatrist E. Fuller Torrey of the Treatment Advocacy Center, a legacy of the Columbine shootings is its "allure to disaffected youth." Sociologist
Ralph Larkin Ralph Wild Larkin (born May 27, 1940) is an American sociologist and research consultant. He is the author of ''Suburban Youth in Cultural Crisis'' (1979), ''Beyond Revolution: A New Theory of Social Movements'' (1986), and ''Comprehending Columb ...
examined twelve major school shootings in the US in the following eight years and found that in eight of those, "the shooters made explicit reference to Harris and Klebold." Larkin wrote that the Columbine massacre established a "Play (theatre), script" for shootings. "Numerous post-Columbine rampage shooters referred directly to Columbine as their inspiration; others attempted to supersede the Columbine shootings in body count." A 2015 investigation by CNN identified "more than 40 people...charged with Columbine-style plots." A 2014 investigation by ABC News identified "at least 17 attacks and another 36 alleged plots or serious threats against schools since the assault on Columbine High School that can be tied to the 1999 massacre." Ties identified by ABC News included online research by the perpetrators into the Columbine shooting, clipping news coverage and images of Columbine, explicit statements of admiration of Harris and Klebold, such as writings in journals and on social media, in video posts, and in police interviews, timing planned to an anniversary of Columbine, plans to exceed the Columbine victim counts, and other ties. In 2015, journalist Malcolm Gladwell writing in ''The New Yorker'' magazine proposed a threshold model of school shootings in which Harris and Klebold were the triggering actors in "a slow-motion, ever-evolving riot, in which each new participant's action makes sense in reaction to and in combination with those who came before." In February 2016, after Klebold's mother, Sue Klebold, surfaced to speak out on mental health and suicide prevention, she was condemned by then Attorney General of Colorado, Cynthia Coffman (politician), Cynthia Coffman, who tweeted that Klebold had been "irresponsible and inflammatory" for her interview with Diane Sawyer, she also added on a follow-up tweet that Klebold had been "selfish" and that her interview could have "very negative consequences". Coffman's remarks were condemned by Ted Zocco-Hochhalter, father of a student paralyzed in the attack, who said there was nothing wrong with Klebold coming up as a remorseful mother trying to spark awareness on mental issues. Other mental health organizations echoed Zocco-Hochhalter's remarks.


Timeline

The first copycat may have been the W. R. Myers High School shooting, just eight days after Columbine, when a 14-year-old Canadian student went into his school at lunchtime with a sawed-off .22 rifle under his dark blue trench coat, and opened fire, killing one student. A month after the massacre, Heritage High School (Conyers, Georgia), Heritage High School in Conyers, Georgia had a shooting which Attorney General Janet Reno called a Columbine "copycat". A friend of Harris and Klebold, Eric Veik, was arrested after threatening to "finish the job" at CHS in October 1999. In 2001, Charles Andrew Williams, the perpetrator of the Santana High School shooting, reportedly told his friends that he was going to "pull a Columbine," though none of them took him seriously and played it off as a joke. In 2005, Jeff Weise, a teenager wearing a trench coat, killed his grandfather, who was a police officer, and his grandfather's girlfriend. He took his grandfather's weapon and his squad car, and drove to his former high school in Red Lake and Red Lake shootings, murdered several students before killing himself. In an apparent reference to Columbine, he asked one student if they believed in God. The perpetrator of the Dawson College shooting wrote a note praising Harris and Klebold. Convicted students Brian Draper and Torey Adamcik of Pocatello High School in Idaho, who Murder of Cassie Jo Stoddart, murdered their classmate Cassie Jo Stoddart, mentioned Harris and Klebold in their homemade videos, and were reportedly planning a "Columbine-like" shooting. The perpetrator of the Emsdetten school shooting praised Harris in his diary. In November 2007, Pekka-Eric Auvinen imitated Columbine with a Jokela school shooting, shooting in Jokela in Tuusula, Finland. He wore a shirt that said "Humanity is Overrated" and attempted to start a fire inside the school but failed. In December 2007, a man 2007 Colorado YWAM and New Life shootings, killed two at a Youth with a Mission center in Arvada, Colorado and another two at the New Life Church in Colorado Springs before killing himself. He quoted Harris prior to the attack under the heading "Christianity is YOUR Columbine". In a self-made video recording sent to the news media by Seung-Hui Cho prior to his committing the Virginia Tech shootings in 2007, the deadliest school and campus shooting, he referred to the Columbine massacre as an apparent motivation. In the recording, he wore a backwards baseball cap and referred to Harris and Klebold as "martyrs." Adam Lanza, the perpetrator of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in 2012, the deadliest shooting at a primary school in U. S. history, had "an obsession with mass murders, in particular, the April 1999 shootings at Columbine High School in Colorado." In April 2014, shortly before the 15th anniversary, a 16-year-old boy Franklin Regional High School stabbing, went on a stabbing rampage at his school in Pennsylvania, injuring 24 people, including himself. The boy said he was inspired by Columbine and that he intended to attack on the date of the anniversary but that due to the fact that there were no classes on that day, he chose Eric Harris's birthday to carry out his actions. In June 2014, a married young couple 2014 Las Vegas shootings, killed two Las Vegas Police Department officers and a civilian before being confronted by police. The man was fatally shot by police and the woman committed suicide. They were later quoted as wanting to commit the "next Columbine" and reportedly idolized Harris and Klebold. The Tumblr fandom of the Columbine shooters gained widespread media attention in February 2015 after three of its members Halifax mass shooting plot, conspired to commit a mass shooting at a Halifax mall on Valentine's Day. In 2017, two 15-year-old school boys from Northallerton in England were charged with conspiracy to murder after becoming infatuated with the crime and "hero-worshipping" Harris and Klebold. The Santa Fe High School shooting, in which ten people were killed, strongly resembled the Columbine massacre; the perpetrator, Dimitrios Pagourtzis, used a pump-action shotgun and homemade explosives, wore similar clothing as Harris and Klebold (including a black trench coat and combat boots) and reportedly yelled "Surprise!" to a victim during the shooting, a possible reference to the library massacre at Columbine. The Kerch Polytechnic College massacre appears to be a copycat crime. The shooter wore a white shirt which said "Hatred" (in Russian), one fingerless glove, planted bombs, and committed suicide with a shotgun in the library. In September 2021, two teens were arrested in Lee County, Florida and were accused of plotting a school shooting. A search conducted of the teen's homes showed a map of the school with security cameras labeled. Several knives and a gun were also found. The Sheriff Department said the teens had a "particular interest in Columbine" and that they had been ordered to undergo mental evaluation before possible charges being filed. Additionally four teenagers were charged in Pennsylvania, after a police investigation found detailed evidence of a plan to target Dunmore High School outside of Scranton, Pennsylvania on April 20, 2024 on the 25th anniversary of the attack. Text messages between the students planning the attack, claiming "dibs" on certain potential victims, and that they wanted everything to go down like Columbine. In October 2021, a 15-year-old girl was arrested in Weber County, Utah for planning a "mass casualty incident like Columbine" at her school. She was charged with use of a weapon of mass destruction, a first-degree felony.


See also

* Folie à deux * Gun politics in the United States * Gun violence in the United States * Mass shootings in the United States * List of attacks related to secondary schools * List of school-related attacks * List of school shootings in the United States


Notes


References


Citations


Bibliography


Cited works

* * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * * * * * * *
Are Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris’s parents to blame for the Columbine shooting?
− Interview by Susan Greene to author Dave Cullen on the responsibility by Harris's and Klebold's parents on the ''Colorado Independent'' on February 10, 2016.


Primary sources

* *
Eric Harris's journal
called "The Book of God", , ''acolumbinesite.com''
Another transcriptionDylan Klebold's journal
called "The Book of Existences"
Another transcription, includes yearbook
*


Videos

*


External links


Video of the evacuation in progressSecond video of the evacuation
(KUSA-TV (9News) news coverage via CNN)
FBI file on the Columbine massacre


* – index of articles from the ''Rocky Mountain News'' * – index of articles from ABC News
The Lullaby for Columbine Project
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