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The Colony of New South Wales was a
colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the ''metropole, metropol ...

colony
of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
from 1788 to 1901, when it became a
State State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
of the
Commonwealth of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from ...
. At its greatest extent, the colony of New South Wales included the present-day Australian states of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
,
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...
,
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
,
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
, and
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...
, the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, ...
as well as
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...
. The first "responsible" self-government of New South Wales was formed on 6 June 1856 with Sir Stuart Alexander Donaldson appointed by Governor
Sir William Denison
Sir William Denison
as its first Colonial Secretary.


History


Formation

On 18 January 1788, the
First Fleet The First Fleet was a fleet of 11 ships A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, r ...
led by Captain
Arthur Phillip Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer ...

Arthur Phillip
founded the first British settlement in
Australian history The history of Australia is the story of the land and peoples of the continent of Australia. Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland and many of its i ...
as a
penal colony A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer t ...
. Having set sail on 13 May 1787, Captain Arthur Phillip assumed the role of governor of the settlement upon arrival. On 18 January 1788, the first ship of the First Fleet, HMS ''Supply'', with Phillip aboard, reached
Botany Bay Botany Bay (Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****A ...
. However, Botany Bay was found to be unsuitable by Phillip. After Phillip led the exploration of
Port Jackson Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour Middle Harbour (or ''Warring-Ga''), a semi–mature tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple ...

Port Jackson
, he sailed and reached
Sydney Cove Sydney Cove, officially dual-named with its original Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, i ...

Sydney Cove
on night of 25 January 1788. On the morning of 26 January, men on board this ship went ashore and started clearing land for a camp. In the afternoon-evening, they erected a flag pole, raised the Union Jack, and the officers ashore made toasts to the Royal Family and the success of the colony. Likely, some, or all, ships of the First Fleet were present for the flag raising. On the morning of 27 January, all the fit male convicts, marines, and likely some ships' crew went ashore to establish the camp and find food. The female convicts came ashore on 6 February 1788. About midday on 7 February 1788, the convicts, marines and others who were staying, were gathered by the Governor for the reading of the proclamation of New South Wales and a long reading of the rights of the convicts and others. Thus, the Colony of NSW was founded on 7 February 1788. Before that, British naval administration applied. However, at this time it was still a Penal Colony. It was not formally constituted as a
Crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original coun ...
until 11 August 1824.
/ref>


Separation of Van Diemen's Land

Ralph Darling, Major-General Ralph Darling was appointed Governor of New South Wales in 1825, and in the same year he visited
Hobart Hobart () is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

Hobart
Town, and on 3 December proclaimed the establishment of the independent colony, of which he was Governor for three days.


Separation of South Australia

In 1834, the British Parliament passed the ''
South Australia Act 1834 The ''South Australia Act 1834'', or ''Foundation Act 1834'', List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1820–1839, 4 & 5 Wm. IV, c. 95, are short titles of an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed ...
'', which enabled the province of
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
to be established.


Separation of New Zealand

On 16 November 1840, the British government issued the Charter for Erecting the
Colony of New Zealand The Colony of New Zealand was a British colony that existed in New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ...
. The Charter stated that the Colony of New Zealand would be established as a Crown colony separate from New South Wales on 1 July 1841.


Separation of Victoria

On 1 July 1851, writs were issued for the election of the first
Victorian Legislative Council The Victorian Legislative Council (VLC) is the upper house of the bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature divided into two separate Deliberative assembly, assemblies, chambers, or houses, known as a bicameral legislatu ...

Victorian Legislative Council
, and the absolute independence of
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
from New South Wales was established proclaiming a new
Colony of Victoria In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of politics, political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and ...
.


Separation of Queensland

A public meeting was held in 1851 to consider
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
's proposed separation from New South Wales. On 6 June 1859, Queen Victoria signed
Letters Patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
to form the separate
Colony of Queensland The Colony of Queensland was a colony of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or ...
. Brisbane was named as the capital city. On 10 December 1859, a proclamation was read by British author
George Bowen Sir George Ferguson Bowen (; 2 November 1821 – 21 February 1899), was an Irish author and colonial administrator whose appointments included postings to the Ionian Islands, Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Au ...
, whereby Queensland was formally separated from the state of New South Wales. As a result, Bowen became the first Governor of Queensland. On 22 May 1860 the first Queensland election was held and
Robert Herbert Sir Robert George Wyndham Herbert, (12 June 1831 – 6 May 1905), was the first Premier Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments. A second in command to a premier is designated as a ...

Robert Herbert
, Bowen's private secretary, was appointed as the first
Premier of Queensland The premier of Queensland is the head of government in the Australian state of Queensland. By convention the premier is the leader of the party with a parliamentary majority in the unicameral Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The premier is ap ...
. Queensland also became the first Australian colony to establish its own parliament rather than spending time as a Crown Colony.


Federation

The
Federation of Australia The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies In the British Empire, a self-governing colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of fo ...
was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the
Commonwealth of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from ...
, establishing a system of federalism in Australia. This effectively changed New South Wales from being a colony to a state of Australia.


Australia Act

In the
Australia Act 1986 The Australia Act 1986 is the short title of each of a pair of separate but related pieces of legislation: one an Act of the Commonwealth (i.e. federal) Parliament of Australia The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parl ...

Australia Act 1986
, Australia gained full independence from the United Kingdom, which includes that colonial laws – including those of New South Wales – would no longer be subject to disallowance or suspension by the
Queen Queen may refer to: Monarchy * Queen regnant, a female monarch of a Kingdom ** List of queens regnant * Queen consort, the wife of a reigning king * Queen dowager, the widow of a king * Queen mother, a queen dowager who is the mother of a reigni ...

Queen
(section 8 of the Act) – a power that, anomalously, remains for Commonwealth legislation (Constitution sections 59 and 60). Thus the Australia Act represents the final stage of complete integration of the Former Colony of NSW into the jurisdiction of the sovereign state of Australia.


See also

*
History of New South Wales The history of New South Wales refers to the history of the Australian states and territories of Australia, state of New South Wales and the area's preceding Indigenous Australians, Indigenous and Crown colony, British colonial societies. The Lak ...
*
History of Australia (1788–1850) The history of Australia from 1788 to 1850 covers the early colonial period of Australia's history, from the arrival in 1788 of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney, who established the penal colony, the European land exploration of Aust ...
*
History of Australia (1851–1900) The History of Australia (1851–1900) refers to the history of the indigenous and colonial peoples of the Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of ...


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:New South Wales Former British colonies and protectorates in Oceania Former penal colonies Australian penal colonies 1788 establishments in Australia 1901 disestablishments in Australia