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Classical Latin is the form of
Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin language
recognized as a
literary Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities ...
standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of ...
by writers of the late
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
and early
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. It was used from 75 BC to the 3rd century AD, when it developed into
Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kn ...
. In some later periods, it was regarded as good or proper Latin, with following versions viewed as debased, degenerate, vulgar, or corrupted. The word ''Latin'' is now understood by default to mean "Classical Latin"; for example, modern Latin textbooks almost exclusively teach Classical Latin.
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
and his contemporaries of the late republic referred to the Latin language, in contrast to other languages such as Greek, as or . They distinguished the common
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language, normally Spoken language, spoken informally rath ...
, however, as
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is th ...
(''sermo vulgaris'' and ''sermo vulgi''), in contrast to the higher
register A register is an authoritative list of one kind of information. Register or registration may refer to: Arts entertainment, and media Music * Register (music), the relative "height" or range of a note, melody, part, instrument, etc. * ''Regis ...
that they called , sometimes translated as "Latinity". ''Latinitas'' was also called ("speech of the good families"), ''sermo urbanus'' ("speech of the city"), and in rare cases ''sermo nobilis'' ("noble speech"). Besides ''Latinitas'', it was mainly called ''latine'' (adverb for "in good Latin"), or ''latinius'' (comparative adverb for "in better Latin"). ''Latinitas'' was spoken and written. It was the language taught in schools.
Prescriptive Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to establish rules defining preferred or correct usage of language. These rules may address such Linguistics, linguistic aspects as spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax, and ...
rules therefore applied to it, and when special subjects like
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...

poetry
or
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
were taken into consideration, additional rules applied. Since spoken ''Latinitas'' has become extinct (in favor of subsequent registers), the rules of ''politus'' (polished) texts may give the appearance of an artificial language. However, ''Latinitas'' was a form of ''sermo'' (spoken language), and as such, retains spontaneity. No texts by Classical Latin authors are noted for the type of rigidity evidenced by stylized art, with the exception of repetitious abbreviations and stock phrases found on inscriptions.


Philological constructs


Classical

"Good Latin" in
philology Philology is the study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languag ...
is known as "classical"
Latin literature Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
. The term refers to the canonical relevance of literary works written in Latin in the late
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
, and early to middle
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. " at is to say, that of belonging to an exclusive group of authors (or works) that were considered to be emblematic of a certain genre." The term ''classicus'' (masculine plural ''classici'') was devised by the Romans to translate Greek ἐγκριθέντες (encrithentes), and "select" which refers to authors who wrote in a form of Greek that was considered model. Before then, the term ''classis'', in addition to being a naval fleet, was a social class in one of the diachronic divisions of Roman society in accordance with property ownership under the Roman constitution. The word is a transliteration of Greek κλῆσις (clēsis, or "calling") used to rank army draftees by property from first to fifth class. ''Classicus'' refers to those in the ''primae classis'' ("first class"), such as the authors of polished works of ''Latinitas'', or ''sermo urbanus''. It contains nuances of the certified and the authentic, or ''testis classicus'' ("reliable witness"). It was under this construct that
Marcus Cornelius Fronto Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. 100late 160s), best known as Fronto, was a Roman grammarian, rhetorician, and advocate. Of Berber origin, he was born at Cirta in Numidia. He was suffect consul for the '' nundinium'' of July-August 142 with Gaius La ...
(an
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
n-
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
lawyer and language teacher) used ''scriptores classici'' ("first-class" or "reliable authors") in the second century AD. Their works were be viewed as models of good Latin. This is the first known reference (possibly innovated during this time) to Classical Latin applied by authors, evidenced in the authentic language of their works.


Canonical

Imitating Greek grammarians, Romans such as
Quintilian Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (; 35 – 100 AD) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome ...

Quintilian
drew up lists termed ''indices'' or ''ordines'' modeled after the ones created by the Greeks, which were called ''pinakes''. The Greek lists were considered classical, or ''recepti scriptores'' ("select writers").
Aulus Gellius Aulus Gellius (c. 125after 180 AD) was a Roman author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map ...
includes authors like
Plautus Titus Maccius Plautus (; c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome ...

Plautus
, who are considered writers of
Old Latin Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin ( la, prīsca Latīnitās, lit=the Latinity of the ancients) was the Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a ...
and not strictly in the period of classical Latin. The classical Romans distinguished Old Latin as ''prisca Latinitas'' and not ''sermo vulgaris''. Each author's work in the Roman lists was considered equivalent to one in the Greek. In example,
Ennius Quintus Ennius (; c. 239 – c. 169 BC) was a writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relatio ...
was the Latin
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
,
Aeneid The ''Aeneid'' ( ; la, Aenē̆is ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
was the equivalent of
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Moder ...

Iliad
, etc. The lists of classical authors were as far as the Roman grammarians went in developing a
philology Philology is the study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languag ...
. The topic remained at that point while interest in the ''classici scriptores'' declined in the medieval period as the best form of the language yielded to
medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share ...
, inferior to classical standards. The
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
saw a revival in Roman culture, and with it, the return of Classic ("the best") Latin. Thomas Sébillet's ''Art Poétique'' (1548), "les bons et classiques poètes françois", refers to
Jean de Meun Jean de Meun (or de Meung, ) () was a French author best known for his continuation of the ''Roman de la Rose''. Life He was born Jean Clopinel or Jean Chopinel at Meung-sur-Loire. Tradition asserts that he studied at the University of Paris. He w ...
and
Alain Chartier Alain Chartier (1430) was a French poet and political writer. Life Alain Chartier was born in Bayeux Bayeux () is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old Fre ...

Alain Chartier
, who the first modern application of the words. According to Merriam Webster's ''Collegiate Dictionary'', the term classical (from ''classicus)'' entered modern English in 1599, some 50 years after its re-introduction to the continent. In Governor William Bradford's ''Dialogue'' (1648), he referred to
synod A synod () is a council of a Ecclesia (church), church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. The word ''wikt:synod, synod'' comes from the meaning "assembly" or "meeting" and is analogous with the L ...

synod
s of a
separatist Separatism is the advocacy of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. As with secession, separatism conventionally refers to full political separation. Groups simply seeking greater ...

separatist
church as "classical meetings", defined by meetings between "young men" from New England and "ancient men" from Holland and England. In 1715,
Laurence Echard Laurence Echard (c. 1670–1730) was an English historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies and writes about the p ...

Laurence Echard
's ''Classical Geographical Dictionary'' was published. In 1736, Robert Ainsworth's ''Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Compendarius'' turned English words and expressions into "proper and classical Latin." In 1768,
David Ruhnken David Ruhnken (2 January 172314 May 1798) was a Netherlands, Dutch classical scholar of German people, German origin. Origins Ruhnken was born in Bydlino, Bedlin (today Bydlino) near Słupsk, Stolp, Pomerania Province (1653-1815), Pomerania Provi ...
's ''Critical History of the Greek Orators'' recast the molded view of the classical by applying the word "canon" to the ''pinakes'' of orators after the
Biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of Religious text, texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as authoritative scripture. The English word ''Canon (basic principle), canon'' comes from ...
, or list of authentic books of the Bible. In doing so, Ruhnken had secular
catechism A catechism (; from grc, κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine Doctrine (from la, doctrina, meaning "teaching, instruction") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught pri ...
in mind.


Ages of Latin

In 1870,
Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel
Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel
's ''Geschichte der Römischen Literatur'' (''A History of Roman Literature'') defined the philological notion of classical Latin through a typology similar to the
Ages of Man The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories conce ...
, setting out the Golden and Silver Ages of classical Latin. Wilhem Wagner, who published Teuffel's work in German, also produced an English translation which he published in 1873. Teuffel's classification, still in use today (with modifications), groups classical Latin authors into periods defined by political events rather than by style. Teuffel went on to publish other editions, but the English translation of ''A History of Roman Literature'' gained immediate success. In 1877,
Charles Thomas Cruttwell Charles Thomas Cruttwell (1847–1911) was an English cleric, headmaster and classical scholar, known as a historian of Roman literature. Life He was born in London on 30 July 1847, eldest son of Charles James Cruttwell, barrister-at-law, of the In ...
produced a similar work in English. In his preface, Cruttwell notes "Teuffel's admirable history, without which many chapters in the present work could not have attained completeness." He also credits Wagner. Cruttwell adopts the time periods found in Teuffel's work, but he presents a detailed analysis of style, whereas Teuffel was more concerned with history. Like Teuffel, Cruttwell encountered issues while attempting to condense the voluminous details of time periods in an effort to capture the meaning of phases found in their various writing styles. Like Teuffel, he has trouble finding a name for the first of the three periods (the current
Old Latin Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin ( la, prīsca Latīnitās, lit=the Latinity of the ancients) was the Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a ...
phase), calling it "from
Livius ''Livius'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...
to
Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Roman general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infan ...

Sulla
." He says the language "is marked by immaturity of art and language, by a vigorous but ill-disciplined imitation of Greek poetical models, and in prose by a dry sententiousness of style, gradually giving way to a clear and fluent strength..." These abstracts have little meaning to those not well-versed in Latin literature. In fact, Cruttwell admits "The ancients, indeed, saw a difference between
Ennius Quintus Ennius (; c. 239 – c. 169 BC) was a writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relatio ...
,
Pacuvius Marcus Pacuvius (; 220 – c. 130 BC) was an ancient Roman In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a ...
, and Accius, but it may be questioned whether the advance would be perceptible by us." In time, some of Cruttwell's ideas become established in Latin philology. While praising the application of rules to classical Latin (most intensely in the Golden Age, he says "In gaining accuracy, however, classical Latin suffered a grievous loss. It became cultivated as distinct from a natural language... Spontaneity, therefore, became impossible and soon invention also ceased... In a certain sense, therefore, Latin was studied as a dead language, while it was still a living." Also problematic in Teuffel's scheme is its appropriateness to the concept of classical Latin. Cruttwell addresses the issue by altering the concept of the classical. The "best" Latin is defined as "golden" Latin, the second of the three periods. The other two periods (considered "classical") are left hanging. By assigning the term "pre-classical" to Old Latin and implicating it to post-classical (or post-Augustan) and silver Latin, Cruttwell realized that his construct was not accordance with ancient usage and assertions: " e epithet classical is by many restricted to the authors who wrote in it olden Latin It is best, however, not to narrow unnecessarily the sphere of classicity; to exclude
Terence Publius Terentius Afer (; – ), better known in English as Terence (), was a Roman African playwright A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * P ...
on the one hand or
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
and
Pliny Pliny may refer to: People from antiquity * Pliny the Elder (AD 23–79), ancient Roman nobleman, scientist, historian, and author of ''Naturalis Historia'' (''Pliny's Natural History'') * Pliny the Younger (died 113), ancient Roman statesman, ...

Pliny
on the other, would savour of artificial restriction rather than that of a natural classification." The contradiction remains—Terence is, and is not a classical author, depending on the context.


Authors of the Golden Age

Teuffel's definition of the "First Period" of Latin was based on inscriptions, fragments, and the literary works of the earliest known authors. Though he does use the term "Old Roman" at one point, most of these findings remain unnamed. Teuffel presents the Second Period in his major work, ''das goldene Zeitalter der römischen Literatur'' (''Golden Age of Roman Literature''), dated 671–767 AUC (83 BC – 14 AD), according to his own recollection. The timeframe is marked by the dictatorship of
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman who won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history, and became the first man of the republic to seize power through force. He had the ...
and the death of the emperor
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
. Wagner's translation of Teuffel's writing is as follows: The Ciceronian Age was dated 671–711 AUC (83–43 BC), ending just after the death of Marcus Tullius Cicero. The Augustan 711–67 AUC (43 BC – 14 AD) ends with the death of Augustus. The Ciceronian Age is further divided by the consulship of Cicero in 691 AUC (63 BC) into a first and second half. Authors are assigned to these periods by years of principal achievements. The Golden Age had already made an appearance in German philology, but in a less systematic way. In a translation of Bielfeld's ''Elements of universal erudition'' (1770):
The Second Age of Latin began about the time of Caesar is ages are different from Teuffel's and ended with Tiberius. This is what is called the Augustan Age, which was perhaps of all others the most brilliant, a period at which it should seem as if the greatest men, and the immortal authors, had met together upon the earth, in order to write the Latin language in its utmost purity and perfection... and of Tacitus, his conceits and sententious style is not that of the golden age...
Evidently, Teuffel received ideas about golden and silver Latin from an existing tradition and embedded them in a new system, transforming them as he thought best. In Cruttwell's introduction, the Golden Age is dated 80 BC – 14 AD (from
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
to
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom ...

Ovid
), which corresponds to Teuffel's findings. Of the "Second Period," Cruttwell paraphrases Teuffel by saying it "represents the highest excellence in prose and poetry." The Ciceronian Age (known today as the "Republican Period") is dated 80–42 BC, marked by the
Battle of Philippi The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman poli ...
. Cruttwell omits the first half of Teuffel's Ciceronian, and starts the Golden Age at Cicero's consulship in 63 BC—an error perpetuated in Cruttwell's second edition. He likely meant 80 BC, as he includes Varro in Golden Latin. Teuffel's Augustan Age is Cruttwell's Augustan Epoch (42 BC – 14 AD).


Republican

The literary histories list includes all authors from Canonical to the Ciceronian Age—even those whose works are fragmented or missing altogether. With the exception of a few major writers, such as Cicero, Caesar, Virgil and Catullus, ancient accounts of Republican literature praise jurists and orators whose writings, and analyses of various styles of language cannot be verified because there are no surviving records. The reputations of Aquilius Gallus,
Quintus Hortensius Hortalus Quintus Hortensius Hortalus (114–50 BC) was a famous Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *' ...
, Lucius Licinius Lucullus, and many others who gained notoriety without readable works, are presumed by their association within the Golden Age. A list of canonical authors of the period whose works survived in whole or in part is shown here: *
Marcus Terentius Varro Marcus Terentius Varro (; 116–27 BC) was one of ancient Rome's greatest scholars and a prolific author. He is sometimes called Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus. Biography Varro was born in or near ...
(116–27 BC), highly influential grammarian *
Titus Pomponius Atticus Titus Pomponius Atticus ( – 31 March 32 BC; also known as Quintus Caecilius Pomponianus) was a Roman editor, banker, and patron of letters, best known for his correspondence and close friendship with prominent Roman statesman Marcus Tullius ...
(112/109 – 35/32), publisher and correspondent of Cicero *
Marcus Tullius Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient ...

Marcus Tullius Cicero
(106–43 BC), orator, philosopher, essayist, whose works define golden Latin prose and are used in Latin curricula beyond the elementary level *
Servius Sulpicius RufusServius Sulpicius Rufus (c. 105 BC – 43 BC), was a Roman orator and jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily with a fo ...
(106–43 BC), jurist, poet *
Decimus Laberius Decimus Laberius (c. 105 BC43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman Equestrian order, eques and writer of Theatre of ancient Rome#Roman comedy, mimes (farces). Biography Laberius seems to have been a man of caustic wit, who wrote for his own pleasure. In ...
(105–43 BC), writer of mimes *
Marcus Furius Bibaculus Marcus Furius Bibaculus (103 BC? BC), was a Ancient rome, Roman poet, who flourished during the last century of the Roman Republic, Republic. Life According to Jerome, he was born at Cremona, and probably lived to a great age. He wrote satirical ...
(1st century BC), writer of ''ludicra'' *
Gaius Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the Roman Republic, the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Rom ...

Gaius Julius Caesar
(100–44 BC), general, statesman, historian *
Gaius Oppius Gaius Oppius was an intimate friend of Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the Roman Republic, the events that led to th ...
(1st century BC), secretary to Julius Caesar, probable author under Caesar's name * Gaius Matius (1st century BC), public figure, correspondent with Cicero *
Cornelius Nepos Cornelius Nepos (; c. 110 BC – c. 25 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'' ...
(100–24 BC), biographer *
Publilius Syrus __NOTOC__ Publilius Syrus (fl. ''Floruit'' (), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally flor.), Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spok ...
(1st century BC), writer of mimes and maxims * Quintus Cornificius (1st century BC), public figure and writer on rhetoric *
Titus Lucretius Carus Titus Lucretius Carus ( , ; 99 – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform the ...
(Lucretius; 94–50 BC), poet, philosopher * Publius Nigidius Figulus (98–45 BC), public officer, grammarian *
Aulus Hirtius Aulus Hirtius (; – 43 BC) was consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around R ...
(90–43 BC), public officer, military historian * Gaius Helvius Cinna (1st century BC), poet *
Marcus Caelius Rufus Marcus Caelius Rufus (28 May 82 BC – after 48 BC) was an orator An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled. Etymology Recorded in English c. 1374, with a meaning of "one who pleads or argues for a cau ...
(87–48 BC), orator, correspondent with Cicero * Gaius Sallustius Crispus (86–34 BC), historian * Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (Cato the Younger; 95–46 BC), orator * Publius Valerius Cato (1st century BC), poet, grammarian *
Gaius Valerius Catullus Gaius Valerius Catullus ( ; ; c. 84 – c. 54 BC) was a Latin poetry, Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote chiefly in the neoteric style of poetry, focusing on personal life rather than classical heroes. Poetry of Catullus, His surv ...
(Catullus; 84–54 BC), poet * Gaius Licinius Macer Calvus (82–47 BC), orator, poet


Augustan

The Golden Age is divided by the assassination of
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
. In the wars that followed, a generation of Republican literary figures was lost. Cicero and his contemporaries were replaced by a new generation who spent their formidable years under the old constructs, and forced to make their mark under the watchful eye of a new emperor. The demand for great orators had ceased, shifting to an emphasis on poetry. Other than the historian
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
, the most remarkable writers of the period were the poets
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Virgil
,
Horace Quintus Horatius Flaccus (; 8 December 65 – 27 November 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace (), was the leading Roman Empire, Roman Lyric poetry, lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian). The rhetoricia ...

Horace
, and
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom ...

Ovid
. Although Augustus evidenced some toleration to republican sympathizers, he exiled Ovid, and imperial tolerance ended with the continuance of the
Julio-Claudian dynasty , native_name_lang=Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Rom ...
. Augustan writers include: *
Publius Vergilius Maro Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Publius Vergilius Maro
(Virgil, spelled also as Vergil; 70 – 19 BC), *
Quintus Horatius Flaccus Quintus Horatius Flaccus (; 8 December 65 – 27 November 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace (), was the leading Roman Empire, Roman Lyric poetry, lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian). The rhetorician ...

Quintus Horatius Flaccus
(65 – 8 BC), known for lyric poetry and satires *
Sextus Aurelius Propertius
Sextus Aurelius Propertius
(50 – 15 BC), poet *
Albius Tibullus Albius Tibullus ( BC19 BC) was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...
(54–19 BC), elegiac poet *
Publius Ovidius Naso Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom h ...

Publius Ovidius Naso
(43 BC – AD 18), poet *
Titus Livius Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
(64 BC – AD 12), historian * Grattius Faliscus (a contemporary of Ovid), poet *
Marcus Manilius Marcus Manilius (fl. 1st century AD) was a Roman poet, astrologer, and author of a poem in five books called ''Astronomica (Manilius), Astronomica''. The ''Astronomica'' The author of ''Astronomica'' is neither quoted nor mentioned by any anc ...
(1st century BC and AD), astrologer, poet *
Gaius Julius Hyginus Gaius Julius Hyginus (; 64 BC – AD 17) was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
(64 BC – AD 17), librarian, poet, mythographer *
Marcus Verrius Flaccus Marcus Verrius Flaccus (c. 55 BCAD 20) was a Ancient Rome, Roman grammarian and teacher who flourished under Augustus Caesar, Augustus and Tiberius. Life He was a freedman, and his manumitter has been identified with Verrius Flaccus, an authority ...
(55 BC – AD 20), grammarian, philologist, calendarist *
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') is ...

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
(80-70 BC — after 15 BC), engineer, architect *
Marcus Antistius Labeo Marcus Antistius Labeo (d. 10 or 11 AD) was an Ancient Roman In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on ...
(d. AD 10 or 11), jurist, philologist * Lucius Cestius Pius (1st century BC & AD), Latin educator *
Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus also anglicized as was a Gallo-Roman The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanization (cultural), Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptat ...
(1st century BC), historian, naturalist * Marcus Porcius Latro (late 1st century BC), rhetorician * Gaius Valgius Rufus (consul 12 BC), poet


Authors of the Silver Age

In his second volume, ''Imperial Period'', Teuffel initiated a slight alteration in approach, making it clear that his terms applied to Latin and not just to the period. He also changed his dating scheme from AUC to modern BC/AD. Though he introduces ''das silberne Zeitalter der römischen Literatur'', (The Silver Age of Roman Literature) from the death of Augustus to the death of
Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Trajan
(14–117 AD), he also mentions parts of a work by
Seneca the Elder Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Elder (; c. 54 BC – c. 39 AD), also known (less correctly) as Seneca the Rhetorician, was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
, a ''wenig Einfluss der silbernen Latinität'' (a slight influence of silver Latin). It's clear that his mindset had shifted from Golden and Silver Ages to Golden and Silver Latin, also to include ''Latinitas'', which at this point must be interpreted as Classical Latin. He may have been influenced in that regard by one of his sources E. Opitz, who in 1852 had published ''specimen lexilogiae argenteae latinitatis'', which includes Silver Latinity. Though Teuffel's First Period was equivalent to
Old Latin Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin ( la, prīsca Latīnitās, lit=the Latinity of the ancients) was the Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a ...
and his Second Period was equal to the Golden Age, his Third Period ''die römische Kaiserheit'' encompasses both the Silver Age and the centuries now termed
Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kn ...
, in which the forms seemed to break loose from their foundation and float freely. That is, men of literature were confounded about the meaning of "good Latin." The last iteration of Classical Latin is known as Silver Latin. The Silver Age is the first of the Imperial Period, and is divided into ''die Zeit der julischen Dynastie (''14–68); ''die Zeit der flavischen Dynastie'' (69–96), and ''die Zeit des Nerva und Trajan'' (96–117). Subsequently, Teuffel goes over to a century scheme: 2nd, 3rd, etc., through 6th. His later editions (which came about towards the end of the 19th century) divide the Imperial Age into parts: 1st century (Silver Age), 2nd century ( the
Hadrian Hadrian (; la, Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family, which settled in Spain from the Italian city of Atri, Abruzzo, Atri in Picenum. Hi ...

Hadrian
and the Antonines), and the 3rd through 6th centuries. Of the Silver Age proper, Teuffel points out that anything like freedom of speech had vanished with
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Tiberius
: The content of new literary works was continually proscribed by the emperor, who exiled or executed existing authors and played the role of literary man, himself (typically badly). Artists therefore went into a repertory of new and dazzling mannerisms, which Teuffel calls "utter unreality." Cruttwell picks up this theme: In Cruttwell's view (which had not been expressed by Teuffel), Silver Latin was a "rank, weed-grown garden," a "decline." Cruttwell had already decried what he saw as a loss of spontaneity in Golden Latin. Teuffel regarded the Silver Age as a loss of natural language, and therefore of spontaneity, implying that it was last seen in the Golden Age. Instead, Tiberius brought about a "sudden collapse of letters." The idea of a decline had been dominant in English society since
Edward Gibbon Edward Gibbon (; 8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval En ...

Edward Gibbon
's ''Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire''. Once again, Cruttwell evidences some unease with his stock pronouncements: "The ''Natural History'' of Pliny shows how much remained to be done in fields of great interest." The idea of Pliny as a model is not consistent with any sort of decline. Moreover, Pliny did his best work under emperors who were as tolerant as Augustus had been. To include some of the best writings of the Silver Age, Cruttwell extended the period through the death of
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a vari ...

Marcus Aurelius
(180 AD). The philosophic prose of a good emperor was in no way compatible with either Teuffel's view of unnatural language, or Cruttwell's depiction of a decline. Having created these constructs, the two philologists found they could not entirely justify them. Apparently, in the worst implication of their views, there was no such thing as Classical Latin by the ancient definition, and some of the very best writing of any period in world history was deemed stilted, degenerate, unnatural language. The Silver Age furnishes the only two extant Latin novels: Apuleius's ''
The Golden Ass The ''Metamorphoses'' of Apuleius Apuleius (; also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages ...
'' and Petronius's ''
Satyricon The ''Satyricon'', ''Satyricon'' ''liber'' (''The Book of Satyrlike Adventures''), or ''Satyrica'', is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was ...

Satyricon
''. Writers of the Silver Age include:


From the Ides of March to Trajan

*
Aulus Cremutius Cordus Aulus Cremutius Cordus (died 25 AD) was a Roman historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies and writes about the pas ...
(died AD 25), historian *
Marcus Velleius Paterculus Marcus Velleius Paterculus (; c. 19 BC – c. AD 31) was a Roman historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies and ...
(19 BC – 31 AD), military officer, historian *
Valerius Maximus Valerius Maximus () was a 1st-century Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...

Valerius Maximus
(20 BC – 50 AD), rhetorician *
Masurius Sabinus Masurius Sabinus, also Massurius, was a Roman jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily with a formal qualification in ...
(1st century AD), jurist * Phaedrus (15 BC – AD 50), fabulist *
Germanicus Julius Caesar Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a popular and prominent general of the Roman Empire, known for his campaigns in Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera ...
(15 BC – AD 19), royal family, imperial officer, translator *
Aulus Cornelius Celsus Aulus Cornelius Celsus ( 25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a let ...

Aulus Cornelius Celsus
(25 BC – AD 50), physician, encyclopedist *
Quintus Curtius Rufus Quintus Curtius Rufus () was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New ...
(1st century AD), historian *
Cornelius BocchusLucius Cornelius Bocchus was a Lusitanians, Lusitanian from Roman Empire, Roman Hispania who wrote about natural history. Ancient authors mention his writings, which are otherwise lost. Pliny the Elder provides an excerpt from the chronicle of Corn ...
(1st century AD), natural historian *
Pomponius Mela Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer ;Pre-Hellenistic Classical Greece *Homer *Anaximander *Hecataeus of Miletus *Massaliote Periplus *Scylax of Caryanda (6th century BC) *Herodotus ;Hellenistic period *Pyt ...
(d. AD 45), geographer *
Lucius Annaeus Seneca Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (; AD65), usually known as Seneca, was a Ancient Rome, Roman Stoicism, Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and, in one work, satirist, from the post-Augustan age of Latin literature. Seneca was born in Có ...
(4 BC – AD 65), educator, imperial advisor, philosopher, man of letters *
Titus Calpurnius Siculus Titus Calpurnius Siculus was a Roman bucolic poet. Eleven eclogue An eclogue is a poem in a classical antiquity, classical style on a pastoral subject. Poems in the genre are sometimes also called bucolics. Overview The form of the word "eclogue" ...
(1st century AD or possibly later), poet *
Marcus Valerius Probus Marcus Valerius Probus, also known as M. Valerius Probus Berytius or Probus the Berytian ) or Laodicea in Canaan (2nd century to 64 BCE) , image = St. George's Cathedral, Beirut.jpg , image_size = , alt = , caption ...
(1st century AD), literary critic *
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
(10 BC – AD 54), emperor, man of letters, public officer *
Gaius Suetonius Paulinus Gaius Suetonius Paulinus (fl. AD 41–69) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comun ...
(1st century AD), general, natural historian *
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella
(AD 4 – 70), military officer, agriculturalist * Quintus Asconius Pedianus (9 BC – 76 AD), historian, Latinist *
Gaius Musonius Rufus
Gaius Musonius Rufus
(AD 20 – 101), stoic philosopher * Quintus Marcius Barea Soranus (1st century AD), imperial officer and public man * Pliny the Elder, Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 – 79), imperial officer and encyclopedist * Gaius Valerius Flaccus (1st century AD), epic poet * Tiberius Catius Silius Italicus (AD 28 – 103), epic poet * Gaius Licinius Mucianus (d. AD 76), general, man of letters * Lucilius Junior (1st century AD), poet * Aulus Persius Flaccus (34–62 AD), poet and satirist * Quintilian, Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (35–100 AD), rhetorician * Sextus Julius Frontinus (AD 40 – 103), engineer, writer * Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (AD 39 – 65), poet, historian * Publius Juventius Celsus Titus Aufidius Hoenius Severianus (1st and early 2nd centuries AD), imperial officer, jurist * Aemilius Asper (1st and 2nd centuries AD), grammarian, literary critic * Marcus Valerius Martialis (AD 40 – 104), poet, epigrammatist * Publius Papinius Statius (AD 45 – 96), poet * Decimus Junius Juvenalis (1st and 2nd centuries AD), poet, satirist * Florus, Publius Annaeus Florus (1st and 2nd centuries AD), poet, rhetorician and probable author of the epitome of Livy * Velius Longus (1st and 2nd centuries AD), grammarian, literary critic * Flavius Caper (1st and 2nd centuries AD), grammarian * Tacitus, Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (AD 56 − 120), imperial officer, historian and in Teuffel's view "the last classic of Roman literature." * Pliny the Younger, Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus (AD 62 – 114), historian, imperial officer and correspondent


Through the death of Marcus Aurelius, 180 AD

Of the additional century granted by Cruttwell to Silver Latin, Teuffel says: "The second century was a happy period for the Roman State, the happiest indeed during the whole Empire... But in the world of letters the lassitude and enervation, which told of Rome's decline, became unmistakeable... its forte is in imitation." Teuffel, however, excepts the jurists; others find other "exceptions", recasting Teuffels's view. * Suetonius, Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (70/75 – after 130 AD), biographer * Justin (historian), Marcus Junianus Justinus (2nd century AD), historian * Salvius Julianus, Lucius Octavius Cornelius Publius Salvius Julianus Aemilianus (AD 110–170), imperial officer, jurist * Sextus Pomponius (2nd century AD), jurist * Quintus Terentius Scaurus (2nd century AD), grammarian, literary critic *
Aulus Gellius Aulus Gellius (c. 125after 180 AD) was a Roman author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map ...
(AD 125 – after 180), grammarian, polymath * Lucius Apuleius Platonicus (123/125–180 AD), novelist *
Marcus Cornelius Fronto Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. 100late 160s), best known as Fronto, was a Roman grammarian, rhetorician, and advocate. Of Berber origin, he was born at Cirta in Numidia. He was suffect consul for the '' nundinium'' of July-August 142 with Gaius La ...
(AD 100–170), advocate, grammarian * Gaius Sulpicius Apollinaris (2nd century AD), educator, literary commentator * Granius Licinianus (2nd century AD), writer * Lucius Ampelius (2nd century AD), educator * Gaius (jurist), Gaius (AD 130–180), jurist * Lucius Volusius Maecianus (2nd century AD), educator, jurist * Marcus Minucius Felix (d. AD 250), apologist of Christianity, "the first Christian work in Latin" (Teuffel) * Sextus Julius Africanus (2nd century AD), Christian historian *
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a vari ...

Marcus Aurelius
Antoninus Augustus (121–180 AD, stoic philosopher, Emperor in Latin, essayist in ancient Greek, role model of the last generation of classicists (Cruttwell)


Stylistic shifts

Style (fiction), Style of language refers to repeatable features of speech that are somewhat less general than the fundamental characteristics of a language. The latter provides unity, allowing it to be referred to by a single name. Thus Old Latin, Classical Latin,
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is th ...
, etc., are not considered different languages, but are all referred to by the term, Latin. This is an ancient practice continued by moderns rather than a philological innovation of recent times. That Latin had case endings is a fundamental feature of the language. Whether a given form of speech prefers to use prepositions such as ''ad'', ''ex'', ''de,'' for "to," "from" and "of" rather than simple case endings is a matter of style. Latin has a large number of styles. Each and every author has a style, which typically allows his prose or poetry to be identified by experienced Latinists. Problems in comparative literature have risen out of group styles finding similarity by period, in which case one may speak of Old Latin, Silver Latin, Late Latin as styles or a phase of styles. The ancient authors themselves first defined style by recognizing different kinds of ''sermo'', or "speech". By valuing Classical Latin as "first class", it was better to write with ''Latinitas'' selected by authors who were attuned to literary and upper-class languages of the city as a standardized style. All ''sermo'' that differed from it was a different style. Thus, in rhetoric, Cicero was able to define sublime, intermediate, and low styles within Classical Latin. St. Augustine recommended low style for sermons. Style was to be defined by deviation in speech from a standard. Teuffel termed this standard "Golden Latin". John Edwin Sandys, who was an authority in Latin style for several decades, summarizes the differences between Golden and Silver Latin as follows: Silver Latin is to be distinguished by: * "an exaggerated conciseness and point" * "occasional archaic words and phrases derived from poetry" * "increase in the number of Greek words in ordinary use" (the Emperor Claudius in Suetonius refers to "both our languages," Latin and GreekSuetonius, Claudius, 24.1.) * "literary reminiscences" * "The literary use of words from the common dialect" (''dictare'' and ''dictitare'' as well as classical ''dicere'', "to say")


See also

* Classic * Classical antiquity * Classics * Ecclesiastical Latin *
Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kn ...
* Latin *
Latin literature Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
* Medieval Latin * New Latin * Social class in ancient Rome


Notes


References


Citations


General sources

* * * * * * *


Further reading

* Allen, William Sidney. 1978. ''Vox Latina: A Guide to the Pronunciation of Classical Latin''. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * * Dickey, Eleanor. 2012. "How to Say 'Please' in Classical Latin". ''The Classical Quarterly'' 62, no. 2: 731–48. . * Getty, Robert J. 1963. "Classical Latin meter and prosody, 1935–1962". ''Lustrum'' 8: 104–60. * Levene, David. 1997. "God and man in the Classical Latin panegyric". ''Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society'' 43: 66–103. * Lovric, Michelle, and Nikiforos Doxiadis Mardas. 1998. ''How to Insult, Abuse & Insinuate In Classical Latin''. London: Ebury Press. * Rosén, Hannah. 1999. ''Latine Loqui: Trends and Directions In the Crystallization of Classical Latin''. München: W. Fink. * Spevak, Olga. 2010. ''Constituent Order In Classical Latin Prose''. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins. *


External links


The Latin Library
The Latin Library, Public domain Latin texts
Latin Texts
at the Perseus Project, Perseus Collection
Greek and Roman Authors on LacusCurtius

Classical Latin Texts
at the Packard Humanities Institute
Latin Texts
at Attalus
A collection of Latin and Greek texts
at the Schola Latina {{Ancient Rome topics , collapsed Classical Latin literature, 1st-century BC establishments in the Roman Republic 3rd-century disestablishments Classical languages, Latin Forms of Latin, 2 Classical Languages attested from the 1st century BC Languages extinct in the 3rd century Latin language in ancient Rome es:Latín clásico