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Clark Air Base is a
Philippine Air Force The Philippine Air Force (PAF; fil, Hukbong Himpapawid ng Pilipinas) is the service branch of the . Initially formed as part of the (), the PAF is responsible for both defending the Philippine , and conducting aerial operations throughout t ...
base on
Luzon Island Luzon (; ) is the largest and most populous List of islands in the Philippines, island in the Philippines. It is ranked List of islands by area, 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern portion of the archipelago, it is the ...
in the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
, located west of
Angeles City , anthem = Himno ning Angeles (Angeles Hymn) , subdivision_type3 = House of Representatives of the Philippines#District representation, District , subdivision_name3 = Legislative districts o ...
, about northwest of
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Po ...

Metro Manila
. Clark Air Base was previously a United States military facility, operated by the
U.S. Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphe ...
under the aegis of
Pacific Air Forces Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) is a (MAJCOM) of the and is also the air component command of the (USINDOPACOM). PACAF is headquartered at (former ), Hawaii, and is one of two USAF MAJCOMs assigned outside the Continental United States, the oth ...

Pacific Air Forces
(PACAF) and their predecessor organizations from 1903 to 1991. The base covered with a military reservation extending north that covered another . The base was a stronghold of the combined Philippine and American forces during the final months of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
and a backbone of logistical support during the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
until 1975. Following the departure of American forces in 1991 due to the eruption of Mount Pinatubo, the base became the site of
Clark International Airport Clark International Airport ( pam, Pangyatung Sulapawan ning Clark, fil, Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Clark; ) is an international airport located within the Clark Freeport Zone between Angeles and Mabalacat in the province of Pampanga Pampan ...
, as well as the
Clark Freeport Zone The Clark Freeport and Special Economic Zone (CFEZ), often shortened to Clark, refers to an area in Central Luzon, Philippines. The CFEZ in Pampanga covers portions of the cities of Angeles City, Angeles and Mabalacat and portions of the town of P ...
and the Air Force City of the
Philippine Air Force The Philippine Air Force (PAF; fil, Hukbong Himpapawid ng Pilipinas) is the service branch of the . Initially formed as part of the (), the PAF is responsible for both defending the Philippine , and conducting aerial operations throughout t ...
. In April 2016, an Air Contingent of USAF A-10s and HH-60s was deployed from U.S. air bases in Pyeongtaek and Okinawa to Clark. The Air Contingent was composed of five A-10C Thunderbolt IIs from the
51st Fighter Wing The 51st Fighter Wing (51 FW) is a wing of the United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Atmosphere of Earth, air military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight uniformed s ...

51st Fighter Wing
,
Osan AB Hanja Hanja (; Hanja: , , or Hancha) is the Korean name for a traditional writing system consisting mainly of Chinese characters () that was incorporated and used since the Gojoseon period (400 BC). More specifically, it refers to ...

Osan AB
, South Korea; three HH-60G Pave Hawks from the
18th Wing
18th Wing
, Kadena AB, Japan; and approximately 200 personnel deployed from multiple Pacific Air Force units. The primary mission of the contingent appears to be to patrol disputed South China Sea islands, "to provide greater and more transparent air and maritime domain awareness to ensure safety for military and civilian activities in international waters and airspace." The air contingent builds upon previous deployments by
U.S. Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = " Anchors Aweigh" ...
P-8 Poseidon The Boeing P-8 Poseidon (formerly Multimission Maritime Aircraft) is an American maritime patrol aircraft and a Lockheed P-3 Orion over Naval Air Station Patuxent River A maritime patrol aircraft (MPA), also known as a patrol aircraft, mar ...
aircraft to Clark.


History

Clark Air Base was originally established as
Fort Stotsenburg Fort Stotsenburg, during the World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of th ...
in
Sapang BatoSapangbato is the largest barangay (district) in Angeles, Philippines, Angeles in Pampanga province, Philippines, with a total land area of 187,694 sq. meters and a population of 9,920.2007 Official NSO Census Located northwest of Angeles near Clar ...
,
Angeles, Pampanga , anthem = Himno ning Angeles (Angeles Hymn) , subdivision_type3 = District A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, ar ...
in 1903 under control of the
U.S. Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in land areas that support agriculture ...
. A portion of Fort Stotsenburg was officially set aside for the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps and named Clark Field in September 1919 after Harold M. Clark. Clark later served as a landing field for U.S. Army Air Corps medium bombers and accommodated half of the heavy bombers stationed in the Philippines during the 1930s. It was very large for an air field of its day, and in the late summer and fall of 1941, many aircraft were sent to Clark in anticipation of a war with
Imperial Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...
. However, most of them were destroyed on the ground during an air raid nine hours after the Pearl Harbor attack. The base was overrun by Japanese forces in early January 1942 and became a major center for Japanese air operations. Japanese aircraft flying out of Clark participated in the
Battle of Leyte Gulf The Battle of Leyte Gulf (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), ...
, the largest naval battle of the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. During the war, the Allied prisoners on the Bataan Death March passed by the main gate of Clark Air Base as they followed the railway tracks north towards
Camp O'Donnell Camp O'Donnell is a former United States military reservation in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filip ...
. Clark Air Base was recaptured by Americans in January 1945, after three months of fierce fighting to liberate the Philippines. It was immediately returned to U.S. Army Air Forces control. Clark grew into a major American air base during the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
, serving as an important logistics hub during the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
. The base was closed by the United States in the early 1990s due to the refusal by the Philippine government to renew the lease on the base. After extensive damage from the
Mount Pinatubo Mount Pinatubo ( xsb, Bakil nin Pinatobo; pam, Bunduk/Bulkan ning Pinatubu, Bunduk ning Apu Malyari; pag, Palandey/Bulkan na Pinatubu; ilo, Bantay Pinatubo; tgl, Bundok/Bulkang Pinatubo ) is an active volcano, active stratovolcano in the ...

Mount Pinatubo
volcanic eruption of 1991, the Philippine government attempted to reopen base lease talks, but terms could not be reached and the lease was not extended. In November 1991, the
United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosph ...

United States Air Force
lowered the U.S. flag and transferred Clark Air Base to the Philippine government. With the United States military's withdrawal from Clark, the base was systematically looted by the local population and was left abandoned for several years. It finally became the
Clark Freeport Zone The Clark Freeport and Special Economic Zone (CFEZ), often shortened to Clark, refers to an area in Central Luzon, Philippines. The CFEZ in Pampanga covers portions of the cities of Angeles City, Angeles and Mabalacat and portions of the town of P ...
, the site of
Clark International Airport Clark International Airport ( pam, Pangyatung Sulapawan ning Clark, fil, Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Clark; ) is an international airport located within the Clark Freeport Zone between Angeles and Mabalacat in the province of Pampanga Pampan ...
(CIA) and parts of it are still owned and operated by the Philippine Air Force, retaining the same name, Clark Air Base. In June 2012, the Philippine government, under pressure from Chinese claims to their seas, agreed to the return of American military forces to Clark.


Military units

During much of the Cold War, Clark Air Base's activity largely revolved around the 405th Fighter Wing, later renumbered as the 3rd Tactical Fighter Wing in September 1974 and its fleet of
F-4 Phantom II The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is an American tandem Tandem bicycle Tandem, or in tandem, is an arrangement in which a team of machines, animals or people are lined up one behind another, all facing in the same direction. The origi ...
fighter jets. It also hosted an interceptor squadron and a flight school, all of which flew a variety of other combat aircraft. Transient aircraft of many types, especially cargo jets, were common. Fighter planes regularly visited to participate in aerial warfare exercises at about to the northwest. In November 1973, headquarters for the 374th Tactical Airlift Wing was transferred from
Ching Chuan Kang Air Base The 44th and 67th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed to Ching Chuan Kang Air Base in Taiwan, F-4 fighter pilots and ROC Air Force pilots were interviewed by reporters, 20 November 1972 Ching Chuan Kang Air Base ( zh, t=清泉崗空軍基地, ...
, Taiwan, to Clark Air Base. With this move came two squadrons of
C-130E The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed (now Lockheed Martin). Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, t ...

C-130E
transport aircraft, the 21st Tactical Airlift Squadron and the
776th Tactical Airlift Squadron The 776th Expeditionary Airlift Squadron is a provisional United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Atmosphere of Earth, air military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight u ...
. Clark was served regularly by cargo and passenger flights to and from
Andersen AFB Andersen Air Force Base (Andersen AFB, AAFB) is a United States Air Force base located primarily within the village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town ...
, Guam;
Kadena AB (IATA The International Air Transport Association (IATA ) is a trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and fund ...
, Japan;
Diego Garcia Diego Garcia is an island of the British Indian Ocean Territory, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. It is a militarised atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef A coral reef is an und ...
; Jakarta, Indonesia;
Bangkok Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern ...
and
Ubon :''Ubon Ratchathani is both a city and a province in Thailand. For the province, see Ubon Ratchathani Province.'' :''For the city administrative district and its sub-districts, see Mueang Ubon Ratchathani District.'' File:Wat Thung Si Muang ...
Thailand; and
Saigon Ho Chi Minh City ( vi, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or ), commonly and formerly officially known as Saigon ( vi, Sài Gòn; or ), is the largest city in , situated in the . In the southeastern region, the city surrounds the and covers about . P ...

Saigon
, South Vietnam (until 1975). During the 1970s, passengers arrived via Trans International
Douglas DC-8 The Douglas DC-8 (sometimes McDonnell Douglas DC-8) is a long-range narrow-body airliner A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle, permitting up to 6-abreast airline seat, seating in a airc ...

Douglas DC-8
and Braniff International DC-8s (the Pickle and the Banana) flights from
Travis AFB Travis Air Force Base is a United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace g ...
, California (via Honolulu and Guam). By 1980, the base had grown to such an extent that weekly
Flying Tigers The First American Volunteer Group (AVG) of the Republic of China Air Force A republic ( la, res publica ''Res publica'' (also spelt as ''rēs pūblica'' to indicate vowel length In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived lengt ...
Boeing 747 The Boeing 747 is a large, long–range wide-body airliner A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is an with a wide enough to accommodate two passenger s with seven or more seats abreast. The typical diameter is . ...

Boeing 747
service to St. Louis (via Kadena AB Japan; Anchorage; and Los Angeles) had begun. The 747 service was taken over by
Tower Air Tower Air was a certificated FAR 121 United States, U.S. Air charter, charter airline that also operated scheduled passenger service from 1983 until 2000 when the company declared bankruptcy and was liquidated. Scheduled flights were initially off ...
sometime in the late 1980s and was augmented with a weekly
Hawaiian Airlines Hawaiian Airlines ( haw, Hui Mokulele o Hawaii) is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is the List of largest airlines in North America, tenth-largest commercial airline in the US, and is based at Honolulu, H ...
L-1011 The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as the L-1011 (pronounced "El-ten-eleven") or TriStar, is an American medium-to-long-range, wide-body trijet A trijet is a jet aircraft A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly ...

L-1011
or
Douglas DC-8 The Douglas DC-8 (sometimes McDonnell Douglas DC-8) is a long-range narrow-body airliner A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle, permitting up to 6-abreast airline seat, seating in a airc ...

Douglas DC-8
to Guam-Honolulu-Los Angeles.


Shootings

On 29 October 1987, unidentified gunmen shot and killed three airmen. On 14 May 1990, suspected
New People's Army File:NPA.png, One of the NPA's older flags The New People's Army ( fil, Bagong Hukbong Bayan), abbreviation, abbreviated NPA or BHB, is the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), based primarily in the Philippine countrys ...
(NPA) communist rebels shot and killed two airmen.


Culture

Clark Air Base was arguably the most urbanized military facility in history and was the largest American base overseas. At its peak around 1990, it had a permanent population of 15,000. It had a base exchange, a large commissary, a small shopping arcade, a branch department store, cafeterias, teen centers, a hotel, miniature golf, riding stables, zoo, and other concessions.


Recreation

Angeles City , anthem = Himno ning Angeles (Angeles Hymn) , subdivision_type3 = House of Representatives of the Philippines#District representation, District , subdivision_name3 = Legislative districts o ...
bars were legendary, particularly around the red-light district on Fields Avenue. As a result, Clark's servicemen's clubs were under considerable pressure to serve its members with wholesome entertainment. All three were large-scale operations: the Officer's Club (CABOOM) near the parade ground, the Top Hat Club for non-commissioned officers (NCOs) near Lily Hill, which moved to near the Silver Wing in 1986, and the Coconut Grove Airmen Open Mess (AOM) housed in a large vaulted room that contained palm trees. The officer's club featured a four star dining room, but catered to NCO's during lunchtime. The airman's club got first dibs on Broadway shows and swing bands due to an agreement that whomever paid transportation costs got priority. The NCO club came second. The airman's club had numerous theme bars and rental girls for dance partners during swing band tenures on the large dance floor. The club security (bouncers) were outfitted in formal PI wear each evening of a different hue. The PI formal wear for men was lace shirts (the barong Tagalog) with French cuffs, traditional and very elegant. The volume of enlisted troops flowing through PI to Vietnam created a large audience for AOM offerings. The NCO Club was still a very extensive operation and operated an upscale dining room, an in-house thrift shop, a pinball arcade, and a calendar of daily activities. It regularly brought major bands and artists from the United States to perform. At least a hundred sponsored clubs and organizations were active on the base, including the
Knights of Columbus The Knights of Columbus (K of C) is a global Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3&nb ...
, a Latino American club, the Civil Air Patrol, and martial arts dojos. Two major movie theaters operated daily: the Bobbitt Theater which played first-run films, and the Kelly Theater which showed older releases. By 1988 the Kelly Theater ceased showing films and was used mainly for Commander's Calls and large squadron-sized meetings. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, movies were also shown at the Bamboo Bowl, the football stadium on base. The Bamboo Bowl, later renamed Challenger Field, was used mainly for high school football games as the school did not have its own athletic field. In addition to high school football games, it also hosted recreational league football games for ages 8–18. The high school football teams were included as part of the recreational league. The base's sole high school, Wagner High, had multiple football teams. It was also used for the base's 11-man tackle football league, which not only included teams from Clark but from Subic Naval Base as well. To keep the residents entertained at home, Clark had an active broadcast center called FEN, or Far East Network Philippines, a division of
American Forces Network The American Forces Network (AFN) is a government television and radio broadcast service the U.S. military provides to those stationed or assigned overseas. Headquartered at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, s ...
. A television station broadcast on Channel 8, then Channel 17 after 1981. It showed about 20 hours per day of syndicated programs from the "big three" networks in the United States, with local news and talk programs. The content was locally syndicated until 1983 when it began airing live programming by satellite from Los Angeles. FEN had two 24-hour radio stations: an AM station which broadcast news and popular music, and stereo FM which was dedicated to easy-listening and classical music. Local Filipino TV also aired newer American shows than FEN did. Unlike the local TV stations in Europe, they were broadcast in the same format as American TV and not dubbed in
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
, the local language. Likewise, several American-styled radio stations in Manila were popular with Clark residents: one notable example in the 1980s was 99.5 DWRT-FM. Two major annual events at Clark were the annual Chili Cookoff, held near the Silver Wing recreation center around September, and the Happening on the Green ("the HOG") in February. The HOG attracted thousands of residents. Amusements and rides were built and operated not only by Filipino entertainment contractors but also by individual Air Force units seeking to boost unit morale, showcase their talents, and raise unit funds. Because of the warm climate and the large number of units, slow pitch softball tournaments were held quarterly. There were at least two gymnasiums, three walking/running tracks and seven softball fields on base. There were also tennis courts, a clubhouse with tennis merchandise, and tennis pros available for a couple of dollars per hour to hit with you at any time. They had a local tournament each year.


Pop culture references

In 2013, author Nick Auclair published ''Steel's Treasure'', a fictional novel set on Clark Air Base.


Education

The
Department of Defense Dependents Schools The Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS) are a network of schools, both primary and secondary, that serve the dependant, dependents of United States military and civilian United States Department of Defense (DoD) personnel in three are ...
(DoDDS) operated six schools at Clark Air Base, serving children from kindergarten to twelfth grade. * Elementary schools (kindergarten-5th grade): MacArthur Elementary School, V. I. Grissom Elementary School, and Wurtsmith Elementary School. The latter two were located in the hill housing area. Most officers and senior enlisted families attended Grissom. * Middle schools (6th–8th grade): Lily Hill Middle School, and Wagner Middle School. The latter primarily served the hill housing area and officer dependents. * High school: Wagner High School, known as Clark Dependent School in the 1950s and Wurtsmith Memorial High School in the 1960s. Clark was also home to several community colleges, namely the Pacific Far East Campus of
Central Texas College Central Texas College (CTC) is a community college in Killeen, Texas. Founded in 1965, it has branch campuses in Europe and on military installations across the U.S. History Central Texas College was established by a vote of the citizens of Ce ...
. Most classes were held in the evenings at Wagner High School.


Higher commands

Clark Air Base was assigned to the following major commands: * War Dept, 1903 * Philippine Dept, 1917 * The Adjutant General of the Army, Dept of the Philippines, 1919 * Air Forces, United States Army Forces in the Far East, 4 August 1941 * Philippines Dept Air Force, 20 September 1941 : Redesignated: Far East Air Force, 20 December 1941 * ''Occupied by the
Imperial Japanese Army The was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subsequent formation of modern . It encompassed the ...
between 20 December 1941 and 10 February 1945'' *
Sixth United States Army Sixth Army is a theater army Army Service Component Commands (ASCCs) are U.S. Army commands responsible for recommendations to the Joint Force Commander on the allocation and employment of U.S. Army forces within a combatant command or further a ...
, 16 February 1945 *
Eighth United States Army The Eighth Army is a U.S. field army A field army (or numbered army or simply army) is a military formation Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a State (polity), state so as to offe ...
, 15 May 1945 * Far East Air Force, June 1945 : Redesignated: Pacific Air Command, USA, 6 December 1945 : Redesignated: Far East Air Force, 1 January 1947 : Redesignated:
Pacific Air Forces Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) is a (MAJCOM) of the and is also the air component command of the (USINDOPACOM). PACAF is headquartered at (former ), Hawaii, and is one of two USAF MAJCOMs assigned outside the Continental United States, the oth ...

Pacific Air Forces
, 1 July 1957 – 16 December 1991


Climate

Climate at the base is characterized by two distinct seasons: a "dry season" from November through April, and a "rainy season" with monsoon rains that occur from May through October. During the dry season, winds are usually northeasterly and skies are fair. Some afternoon showers tend to appear by April. April brings the highest average temperatures of any month, though the hottest days of the year tend to occur in May.CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 81, Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days, No. 91, Pacific Islands, NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITE, DATA, AND INFORMATION SERVICE. Due to the very dry state of vegetation at this time, ash and soot often falls on Clark Air Base as farmers burn their fields for planting. During drought years, wildfires occasionally broke out in the overgrown areas west of the golf course and northeast of the airfield. Rainy season normally arrives during the month of June. July and August are wet, with many dark overcast days, and frequent afternoon and evening rains. Typhoons are common in late summer and fall, approaching from the east. They are rarely strong at Clark Air Base as the facilities are far inland, and the typhoon circulation is disrupted by the Sierra Madre mountain range on the east coast. Rain and typhoon activity diminishes sharply by November and December, when the dry season arrives once again. Temperatures are at their coolest, with nighttime lows sometimes falling to 64 °F (18 °C) or lower. From 1953 to 1991, the mean daily low was and the mean daily high was , with April being warmest and January coolest. The average annual rainfall was .


See also

*
Clark Freeport Zone The Clark Freeport and Special Economic Zone (CFEZ), often shortened to Clark, refers to an area in Central Luzon, Philippines. The CFEZ in Pampanga covers portions of the cities of Angeles City, Angeles and Mabalacat and portions of the town of P ...
*
Clark International Airport Clark International Airport ( pam, Pangyatung Sulapawan ning Clark, fil, Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Clark; ) is an international airport located within the Clark Freeport Zone between Angeles and Mabalacat in the province of Pampanga Pampan ...
*
Clark Veterans Cemetery Clark Veterans Cemetery is located in Clark Freeport Zone, Philippines. The cemetery is the burial place for thousands of mainly American veterans and Philippine Scouts, Filipino Scouts who served in the United States Army, and who died in confli ...
''Other United States Air Force installations in the Philippines:'' *
Camp O'Donnell Camp O'Donnell is a former United States military reservation in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filip ...
*
Crow Valley Range Complex A crow is a bird of the genus ''Corvus'', or more broadly a synonym for all of ''Corvus''. The word "crow" is used as part of the common name of species including: * ''Corvus albus'' – pied crow (Central African coasts to southern Africa) * ''Cor ...
*
John Hay Air Base John Hay Air Station, more commonly known as Camp John Hay, was a military installation in Baguio, Philippines. The site was a major hill station used for rest and recreation, or R&R (military), R&R, for personnel and dependents of the United ...
*
Mactan Air Base Mactan-Benito Ebuen Air Base is located on Mactan Island Mactan is a densely populated island located a few kilometres (~1 mile) from Cebu Island in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the ...

Mactan Air Base
* Wallace Air Station General: *
Geography of the Philippines The Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Fili ...
*
Military History of the Philippines The military history of the Philippines is characterized by wars between Philippine kingdoms and its neighbors in the precolonial era and then a period of struggle against colonial powers such as Spain and the United States, occupation by the Empire ...
*
Military History of the United States The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries. During those years, the United States evolved from a newly formed nation fighting the Kingdom of Great Britain for American Revolutionary War, independence (1775– ...
*
United States Army Air Forces in the South West Pacific Theatre United may refer to: Places * United, Pennsylvania United is located in Mount Pleasant Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. It is a community located near Norvelt, Pennsylvania. History In 1881, the United Coal Company, United Coal & Co ...


References


Bibliography

* Fletcher, Harry R. (1989) Air Force Bases Volume II, Active Air Force Bases outside the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. * Mandocdoc, M. and David, C.P. 2008. Dieldrin Contamination of the Groundwater in a Former US Military Base (Clark Air Base, Philippines). CLEAN Air, Soil, Water Journal 36 (10–11), 870–874. * Martin, Patrick (1994). Tail Code: The Complete History of USAF Tactical Aircraft Tail Code Markings. Schiffer Military Aviation History. . * Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. . * Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 1947–1977. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. . * Rogers, Brian (2005). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. Hinkley, England: Midland Publications. . * Auclair, Nick (2013). Steel's Treasure. On The Fence Writers. . *


Further reading

*


External links


Clark Air Base website
– contains numerous maps and diagrams
Clark Field Baptist Church
- history of Clark Field Baptist Church
''Steels Treasure'' website
- fiction novel set on Clark Air Base {{Authority control Installations of the United States Air Force in the Philippines 1903 establishments in the Philippines Military facilities in Pampanga Air force installations of the Philippines History of Pampanga Buildings and structures in Angeles City Buildings and structures in Mabalacat