NamesAside from its Ukrainian name of Chernivtsi, the city is also known by several different names in various languages, which still are used by the respective population groups much as they used to be throughout the city's history, either in connection with the rule by one country or another or independently from it: ro, Cernăuți; german: Czernowitz; pl, Czerniowce; hu, Csernovic, yi, טשערנאוויץ, russian: Черновцы́, Romanization of Russian, translit. ''Chernovtsy'' (In Russian until 1944: Чернови́цы, Romanization of Russian, translit. ''Chernovitsy''). In the times of Halych-Volyn Principality the city's name was ''Chern''. In "Documents of Western Russia" (russian: Акты Западной России) published in Saint Petersburg in 1846 (Volume 1, page 32, document #21), the city is mentioned as Chernov'tsi (russian: Черновьци).
HistoryArchaeological evidence discovered in the area surrounding Chernivtsi indicates that a population inhabited it since the Neolithic era. Later settlements included those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, the Corded Ware culture; artifacts from the Bronze Age, Bronze and Iron Ages were also found in the city. Archaeological finds in the area around Chernivtsi show that the area was inhabited by a Slavic population by the 2nd / 5th century AD. In the Middle Ages there lived the East Slavic tribes of White Croats and Tivertsi. A fortified settlement located on the left (north-eastern) shore of the Prut dating back to the time of the Galicia-Volhynia, Principality of Halych was built by Knyaz, Grand Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl in the second half of the 12th century. In the List of Ruthenian Cities Far and Near (c. 1370) there is a settlement Chern on the Prut located in the northwestern part of modern Chernivtsi. It is said that Chernivtsi owes its name to the black color of the city walls, built from dark oak layered with chernozem, local black-colored soil. Chern was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Europe by Boroldai in the 13th century. However, the remaining ramparts of the fortress were still used for defense purposes. The ruins of Chern are still preserved. In the 17th century the ramparts were augmented with several bastions, one of which is still extant. Following the destruction of the fortress, later settlements in the area centered on the right (south-western) shore of the Prut River, at a more strategically advantageous, elevated location. According to Romanian scholars, in 1325, when the Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385), Kingdom of Poland seized control of Galicia (Central Europe), Galicia, and came into contact with the early Vlachs, Vlach (Romanians, Romanian) feudal formations, a fort was mentioned under the name ''Țețina''; it was defending the ford and crossing point on the Prut River. It was part of a group of three fortifications; the other two being the fortress of Khotyn, Hotin on the Dniester to the east, and a fort on the Kolachin River, an upriver tributary of Prut. From the late 14th century until 1775 the city was part of the Moldavia, Principality of Moldavia, one of the historic provinces of Romania; the city being the administrative center of the Cernדuți County, homonymous ''ținut'' (county). In Ottoman Empire, Ottoman sources, the city was mentioned as "ַernovi", a phonetic transliteration of a Latin cognomen meaning ''new castle'' (see French Castelnau (disambiguation), Castelnau or Welsh Carno). The city of Chern, after its reconstruction, became known as ''Chernivtsi''. It is mentioned in this variation for the first time in 1408 (8 October 1408). Standing at the border between the Ukrainian/Moldavian Principality of Moldavia and Poland, the city was ran through by a trade route between Lviv and Souceava. Its earliest reference appears in the context of the collection of excise taxes (Ukrainian language, Ukrainian: ''chernovskoe myto''), in a treaty between Stephen of Moldavia and the merchants of Lviv. During the Moldavian period the city enjoyed a high degree of autonomy, in fact becoming a "Magdeburg rights, free city." The city flourished thanks to trade and international fairs. However, by the mid-16th century it went into decline to due to wars. Chernivtsi was sacked in 1497, 1509, and 1688, during the Moldavian-Polish wars, as well as during the Turkish wars (1476, 1714) and the Crimean Tatar wars (1626, 1646, 1650, 1672). In 1538 Moldavia, including Chernivtsi, succumbed to Ottoman domination. Tymofiy Khmelnytsky led the Cossacks to Chernivtsi in 1650 and 1653, and also Ivan Mazepa wintered there in 1709, in the aftermath of the defeat at Battle of Poltava, Poltava. That same year, the city was sacked by the Russians and Swedes. During the Russian-Turkish wars, the city was sacked again by the Russians (1739). The Russians kidnapped a large amount of citizens as they retreated. Conflicts and invasions caused Chernivtsi to "shrink to a small settlement" by the 18th century. In 1762 the city consisted of hardly 200 wooden buildings. Its population of 1,200 was made up of boyars, merchants, loan sharks and poor people, who often revolted against injustices, having to resort to banditry (the ''Opryshoks''). After being occupied by the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74, in 1775 the city passed to the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg Empire; part of the region known as Bukovina, the city became the region's capital. From 1786 to 1849 it was part of the crownland of Galicia (Eastern Europe), Galicia. In 1849 Bukovina was raised in status and became known as the Duchy of Bukovina, a Cisleithania#Crown lands, crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city enjoyed again Magdeburg rights. The city began to flourish in 1778 when Knight Karl von Enzenberg was appointed the chief of the Military Administration. He invited many merchants, craftsmen and entrepreneurs to help develop trade and other businesses. Saint Peter's Fairs (1–15 July) had given a new vibrant impulse to the market development from 1786. In the late 19th century the German language—due to the Habsburg and the very important Jewish influence—became the lingua franca and more and more newspapers were edited in German, also a remarkable literary production in German began in this period, featuring most prominently Karl Emil Franzos. With the Austrians the city flourished, and increased its extinguishing population. By 1779, the city had passed from a thousand inhabitants to 3,200. The city continued to grow thanks to an influx of migrants (Germans, Poles, Romanians, Ukrainians, among others). Craft guilds were established and industry developed in the late 18th century. Stone buildings were erected, and in the 19th century important public buildings such as the city's gymnasium (built between 1813 and 1817), as well as private buildings of four floors and more, and several churches where built. A public park was constructed in 1830, and in 1832 a municipal council with a burgomaster at its head was created. Between then and 1877, a distillery, a brewery a steam mill, tile factory, a chamber of commerce, a stock exchange were built and telegraph communications installed. In 1866 the Lviv-Chernivtsi railroad was completed, and an electric power station was added in 1895, followed by an electric streetcar system in 1897. Sewage and water supply systems were installed in between 1895 and 1912. The Orthodox cathedral was built in this period, as well as the Armenian church, the Jesuit church, and the Jewish synagogue. In the 20th century a city theater and railway station were added. By the early 20th century the city had over 100,000 inhabitants. Two thousand five hundred employers were working in Chernivtsi's factories, and by 1910 1,400 merchants and 2,140 tradesmen were active in the city. The city was the see of the Orthodox bishop―from 1873 the metropolitan. The revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire brought an end to serfdom, which had been in use until then in Bukovina. Until 1781 there was only one elementary school in Chernivtsi, teaching in Romanian. The Austrians opened also a number of German schools in the city. The Chernivtsi University was established in 1875. In the university there were chairs in the Ukrainian language, which was introduced as a subject in 1851, and was thereupon thought at the teachers' seminary. The university attracted students from other parts of Galicia and Bukovina. 1896 saw the establishment of the Ukrainian Gymnasium of Chernivtsi in the city. By the end of its membership in the Austrian Empire, there were Ukrainian-language elementary schools in Chernivtsi, four in total. Ukrainian organizations grew in Chernivtsi in the second half of the 19th century, with the Ruska Besida in Bukovyna founded in 1869; the Ruska Rada Society, Ruska Rada society in 1870, and Soiuz, a student society, in 1875, the cultural/educational society Mishchanska Chytalnia in 1880 and the Ukrainian People’s Home society in 1884. Such prominent Ukrainian writers as Yuriy Fedkovych, Sydir Vorobkevych, and Olha Kobylianska, were all Ukrainian Bukovinians quite close to Chernivtsi. Such organizations were initially Russophile. However, Ukrainians eventually prevailed, thanks to such figures as populists (''narodovtsi'') Yerotei Pihuliak, Omelian Popovych, Stepan Smal-Stotsky, among others. The Ukrainian national movement grew rapidly thanks to them. The center of Ukrainian cultural life became the aforementioned Ukrainian People’s Home society, and in 1887 the Ukrainska Shkola was also founded here. Loan association Ruska Kasa was founded in 1896, and the Selianska Kasa, a union of agricultural credit associations, in 1903. The Women's Hromada in Bukovyna, a Bukovinian cultural and charitable association of Ukrainian women, was founded in 1906 in Chernivtsi. The sportive Sich Union was founded in 1904, and the students' residence Fedkovych Bursa in 1896. The own building of the Fedkovych Bursa was erected in 1906. Musical societies were also opened, with the Bukovynskyi Boian founded in 1895, the Mishchanskyi Khor in 1901, and the Bukovynian People's Theater in 1897. The city became one of the most important Ukrainian publishing center, with a number of newspapers, magazine, literary, teachers' and students' publications, book series, including ''Bukovinskaia zoria'' (1870–1); ''Bukovyna'' (1885–1918); ''Biblioteka dlia molodezhi, selian i mishchan'' (1885–93); ''Kreitsarova biblioteka'' (1902–8); ''Pravoslavnyi rus’kyi kalendar'' (1874–1918); ''Haslo'' (1902–3); ''Narodnyi holos'' (1909–15, 1921, 1923), ''Narodna sprava'' (1907–10), ''Hromadianyn'' (1909–11), and ''Borba'' (1908–14). The city was an important center for publishing for Jews, Romanians, Germans, and Poles. Beside Ukrainians, the city became also the center of Romanian national movement. In 1908, it was the site of the first Yiddish language conference, the Czernowitz Conference, coordinated by Nathan Birnbaum. Karl-Emile Franzos, a German writer, popularized Taras Shevchenko. Historian :de:Raimund Friedrich Kaindl, Raimund Friedrich Kaindl studied the history of Bukovina, with a focus on its Hutsuls. With the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918, both the local Romanian National Council and the Ukrainian National Council based in Galicia claimed the region. In the beginning, Bukovina joined the fledging West Ukrainian National Republic (November 1918), but it was invaded by the Romanian army immediately thereafter, against Ukrainian protests.Bukovyna
Coat of armsChernivtsi coat of arms – framed by a bronze ornamental cartouche, a red heraldic shield depicting an open stone gate with a figured trident in the middle. Under the gate, there are two crossed laurel branches, tied with ribbons. The crown of the symbol is the stone crown.
Flag of ChernivtsiThe Chernivtsi flag consists of a tree, the top, and a rectangular cloth, the front of which forms framed by a red tooth-like ornament white background with an inscription in Ukrainian in the center, over which there is inscribed in Ukrainian: "Chernivtsi". Under the coat of arms, there is the sign "1408" – the date of the first written mention of the city. On both sides of the coat of arms and all four corners of the field are filled with floral ornaments and with the addition of two beech branches with nuts and leaves. The reverse side is formed by a yellow background with the coat of arms of Ukraine in the center with frames and ornaments similar to the front side.
Honorary chain of the mayor of ChernivtsiThe mayor's honorary chain is a symbol of Chernivtsi mayor's authority, which is served on behalf of the territorial community. Founded in 1908 and restored in 2008. The symbol is a medallion with the inscription engraved on it: "From Chernivtsi community to freely elected head", on the reverse – "The foundation of a free state is a free community". The medallion is attached to a chain consisting of stylized coats of arms Ukraine, Chernivtsi region and the city of Chernivtsi. The symbol is made of gold colour metal.
Medal "To the glory of Chernivtsi"The medal "To the glory of Chernivtsi" is an honorary distinction of the Chernivtsi City Council, introduced to the 600th Anniversary of Chernivtsi (2008) in order to reward individuals who actively contributed to the prosperity of the city and its promotion in Ukraine and the world. The award is made of silver-gilt, it has a circle shape with a diameter of 28 mm. The medal's strip is white with red stripes, which corresponds to the colours of the Chernivtsi flag. At the bottom of the strip, there is a beech branch. The obverse depicts the emblem of Chernivtsi and the inscription – "To the glory of Chernivtsi". On the reverse – the official Chernivtsi logo, designed and approved for the anniversary. The medal is awarded, according to the decision of the Executive Committee of the City Council, annually during the celebration of the city day. The official motto of modern Chernivtsi, "Спільними зусиллями!", is a Ukrainian-language version of the Latin ''Viribus Unitis'' ("With United Forces"), the personal motto of Franz Joseph I of Austria, Franz Joseph, who personally bestowed the right to use it on Chernivtsi. This indicates a special attitude of the emperor to the city. Along with the capital of Bukovina, only the first naval ship of the Austro-Hungarian Navy (SMS Viribus Unitis, SMS ''Viribus Unitis'') was honoured with such honour.
Logotype of ChernivtsiThe official
Geography and climateChernivtsi is located in the historic region of Bukovina, which is currently shared between Romania (south) and Ukraine (north). Chernivtsi is located in the southwest of Ukraine, in the eastern Carpathians, on the border between the Carpathians and the East European Plain, 40 km from the border with Romania. The city lies 248 meters above sea level and is surrounded by forests and fields. The River Prut runs through the city's landscape. The city is located in the Eastern European time zone in the region of 26 meridians. Chernivtsi is located at the intersection of the transport arteries: E85, H03, and H10
ClimateThe city is located in a temperate climate zone. The climate is continental with mild winters and warm summers. The average annual temperature is +8,6 °C, the lowest in January (-2,9 °C), the highest – in July (+19,8 °C). Winter usually comes on 28 November and ends 9 March; summer begins on 20 May, and ends on 10 September. The average annual rainfall in Chernivtsi is 621 mm, with the lowest – in October and January–February, the highest – in June–July. Sometimes there are heavy rains during the summer. Snow cover is formed each winter, but its altitude is insignificant. The average wind speed ranges from 3.3 m/s in July to 4.0 m/s in January. The average annual humidity is 77%.
LandscapeThe total area of Chernivtsi within the administrative boundaries of 2013 is about . According to the functional purpose the lands of the city are divided as follows: land of residential and public buildings (64%), lands of agricultural purpose (17%), lands of industry (9%), lands of recreational and environmental purpose (5%), lands of general use (3%), commercial land (2%). The main water source of Chernivtsi is the Prut river, Prut River in its upper reaches, which divides the city in half. Besides, there are six small streams and nine lakes within the city. The relief is characterized by significant relief dip – from 150 m above sea level in the Prut valleys to 537 m in the western outskirts (Mount Tsetzino), which is caused by the location on the Chernivtsi Upland. Chernivtsi is considered to be a "green city": the large territory is occupied by parks, squares, gardens, alleys and flower gardens. Nine objects are recognized as monuments of landscape art. The city has a botanical garden at the Yuriy Fedkovych National University with a unique orangery. Among the relict plants growing in the botanical garden, a special place is occupied by a giant Sequoiadendron. Chernivtsi is located in the center of Chernivtsi Regional Park, which borders zakaznik "Thetzino" in the west and Mount Berda in the north.
State of the environmentAt the end of the twentieth century, the main pollutants of the Chernivtsi environment were industrial enterprises, including the MIC. In the 1990s much of them ceased to exist or significantly reduced production capacity and thus reduced industrial emissions. Despite this, 58 enterprises (38.4% of the total amount in the region) are the main pollutants of the environment. Approximately 1.2 tonnes of pollutants are released into the air annually (34.9% of the total area emissions). Non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide and substances in the form of solid suspended solids predominate in the structure of the emitted pollutants. In addition, carbon dioxide, which has a greenhouse effect, is periodically released into the atmosphere of the city. Emissions from stationary sources were 7.9 tonnes per of Chernivtsi territory. Each inhabitant of the regional center accounts for an average of of harmful emissions per year. In 2008, Chernivtsi established an Environmental Monitoring System (EMS), an information structure that integrates environmental monitoring organizations and industrial enterprises that pollute the environment or which may adversely affect the environment or its components. Since the late 1990s, transport is a significant factor in the negative impact on the environment. To some extent, the situation was improved with the construction of the first (2004) and the second (2010) queues of the Bypass (road), bypass road, which connected the directions "Kyiv-Chernivtsi" and "Chernivtsi-Suceava". The problem of transit transport in the city will be finally resolved after the construction of the third branch of the bypass road, which will connect the directions "Suceava-Chernivtsi" and "Chernivtsi-Lviv".
Government and subdivisionsChernivtsi is the administrative center of the Chernivtsi Oblast (Oblast, province) and the city itself has own government within the oblast under direct subordination to oblast. The territory of Chernivtsi is divided into three administrative city raions (districts): Between 1994 and 2014 the mayor of Chernivtsi was Mykola Fedoruk. The new mayor of Chernivtsi is Oleksiy Kaspruk, who has held the position since 2014.
DemographicsAccording to the latest Ukrainian Census (2001), All-Ukrainian population census in 2001, the population of Chernivtsi was approximately 240,600 people of 65 nationalities. Among them, 189,000 (79.8%) are Ukrainians; 26,700 (11.3%) Russians; 10,500 (4.4%) Romanians; 3,800 (1.6%) Moldovans; 1,400 (0.6%) Poles, Polish; 1,300 (0.6%) Jews; 2,900 (1.2%) other nationalities. Based on the last available Soviet data, the population of the city, as of 1 January 1989, was approximately 295,000 residents. Among these, there are some 172,000 Ukrainians, 46,000 Russians, 16,000 Romanians, 13,000 Moldovans, 7,000 Poles and others. The Romanian population in Chernivtsi started decreasing rapidly after 1950. Many Romanians fled to Romania or were deported to Siberia (where most of them died), and the remaining Romanian population quickly became a minority and assimilated with the majority. Nowadays, the Romanian minority in Chernivtsi is still decreasing as a result of cultural assimilation and emigration to Romania. Chernivtsi once had a Jewish community of over 50,000, less than a third of whom survived World War II. Romanian lawyer and reserve officer Theodor Criveanu, as well as the then city mayor Traian Popovici, supported by General Vasile Ionescu saved 19,689 Jewish people. Initially, Governor of Bukovina Corneliu Calotescu allowed only 190 Jewish people to stay, but Traian Popovici, after an incredible effort, obtained from the then dictator of Romania Marshal Ion Antonescu an allowance of 20,000. After World War II, the city was a key node in the Berihah network, which helped Jews to emigrate to the then Mandate Palestine from the difficult conditions after the War. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the majority of the remaining Jewish population emigrated to Israel and the United States. A famous member of this latter emigration is the actress Mila Kunis. Chernivtsi was inhabited by Ukrainians, Romanians, Poles, Ruthenians, Jews, Romani people, Roma, and Germans. During its affiliation with the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Chernivtsi enjoyed prosperity and culture as the capital of the Bukovina crown land#Austria, crown land. Until 1918, the main language of the city was German, which, in addition to the Germans, was also spoken by Jews (together they made up half the population of the city) and even partly by Ukrainians, Romanians and Poles. After World War II, the Shoah and Porajmos, and the resettlement and expulsion of the whole ethnic groups, including Germans and Romanians, this status was diminished. Today, the Ukrainians are the dominant population group. Chernivtsi's change in demographic diversity is demonstrated by the following population statistics. Once, Romanians and Ukrainians formed the majority of the population. However, after 1870, Yiddish language, Yiddish-speaking or German language, German-speaking Jews surpassed the Romanians as the largest population group of the town. After 1880, the Ukrainians surpassed the Romanians as the second-largest population group.
Language composition of the populationEthno-linguistic composition of the population of the former districts of the city (native languages according to the 2001 census).
EconomyThe total number of economic entities in the city is 25.4 thousand. On 1 January 2006, there were 6739 legal entities – business entities and almost 19,000 private entrepreneurs – individuals, primarily represented by small enterprises. The volume of sales and services provided to small enterprises is UAH 578 million or 22% of the total Chernivtsi volumes. The share of the city's tax revenues is almost 35%. The most attractive for small businesses are trade and services, restaurant and tourist business. Wholesale and retail trade, industry and construction are successfully developing in Chernivtsi. In 2005, wholesale and retail sales accounted for over 64%, industry – 23%, construction – 6%, real estate operations – 2.3%, transport and communications – more than 2%.
IndustryIn the industrial sector of the city, there are 10 branches, which have 70 large enterprises with a total number of employees over 20 thousand people or 13% of the working population of the city. The annual volume of industrial production at these enterprises is about 775 million UAH. The share of citywide tax revenues to the budgets of all levels of the industry is 21%. Defining industries in the city's industry are food, light, mechanical engineering and woodworking. Defining industries in the city's industry are food, light, mechanical engineering and woodworking. Food processing companies produce sugar, bakery products, alcohol, oil, meat and milk, fruits, vegetables and other products. In the light industry, the production of garments, knitwear, hosiery, rubber and leather footwear and textiles prevails. Mechanical engineering is represented by the production of oil and gas processing equipment and agricultural machinery. The timber industry is dominated by the production of lumber, furniture, joinery and other wood products.
Trade and servicesIn 2005, there were 1922 trade enterprises, 609 restaurants, 892 services in the city. There are 22 markets and micro-markets in the city. 10 million UAH are invested annually in their construction, reconstruction, improvement of trade conditions and creation of facilities for buyers. Chernivtsi City Shopping Complex, "Kalinivskiy Rynok" Municipal Enterprise is a modern multidisciplinary enterprise with powerful infrastructure. The average daily number of market visitors is 50,000 people, served by 9,100 entrepreneurs. The volume of services in 2005 amounted to almost UAH 23 million, more than UAH 18 million was paid into the city budget, or nearly 10% of the total revenues.
Health careAlmost all health care establishments of the region are concentrated in Chernivtsi. 39 medical establishments (hospitals, clinics, and polyclinics) provide citizens of Chernivtsi with necessary medical care. Medical services are provided by 4.47 thousand people, of which – 1102 doctors, 1902 – average health workers, 1473 – junior and support staff. Municipal medical establishments provide the following medical services: * Emergency care (emergency care station); *Dispensary and polyclinic care (5 municipal polyclinics, a municipal children polyclinic, polyclinics of two maternity houses, a polyclinic of preventive examination and Municipal Dentistry Association, which includes two dentist clinics); *Specialized medical care (3 hospitals, 2 maternity houses, a tuberculosis hospital and a municipal children hospital); *Disease-prevention and anti-epidemic services (a municipal sanitary and epidemiological station).
CultureThroughout centuries Chernivtsi, as the center of Bukovina, Bukovyna, was forming as a multinational city with tolerance atmosphere which became the cradle of artists representing different cultures The city has 2 theaters, a philharmonic, organ hall (in the Armenian Catholic Church, Armenian Catholic Church), more than 10 museums, 6 cinemas, 31 libraries, central palace of culture, 4 music schools and fine arts school. The city has more than 100 religious organizations and diocesan authorities, 4 religious institutions. More than a dozen of active non-profit cultural organizations operate in Chernivtsi, including Adam Mickiewicz, A.Mickiewicz Polish Culture Society, Mihai Eminescu, M.Eminescu Romanian Culture Society, Society of Austrian and German Culture. Since 1997 Chernivtsi has hosted an international art event under "Days of European Culture Heritage" project. Every year "Bukovynian Meetings" folklore festival is held during the City Day in which art groups from Poland, Hungary, Romania and Germany take part. Important part of Chernivtsi cultural life is Malanka Fest, Ukraine's main carnival timed to the religious St. Melania ("Malanka") Day and St. Basil Day. Respectively, this is usually conducted on 14 January, although this date may be moved a bit to match the weekend. During the Festival groups from different towns and settlements of Bukovyna compete in the artistic ingenuity. One of the biggest literary festival in Ukraine is the Meridian Czernowitz International Poetic Festival. The purpose of the festival is to return Chernivtsi to the cultural map of Europe and to develop a dialogue between contemporary Ukrainian poets and their foreign colleagues. The participants of Meridian Czernowitz are famous and interesting poets from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Great Britain, United States, Denmark, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine and others.
Museums*Chernivtsi Regional Museum (O. Kobylyanska St., 28) has the largest collection of materials and artefacts of the nature, history, and culture of Bukovina, Northern Bukovina: a collection of old printed books with a unique Ostrog Bible, Ostroh Bible, printed by Ivan Fyodorov (printer), Ivan Fedorov in 1581; numismatic collection with more than 3 thousand coins; an interesting collection of weapons; an archaeological collection of more than 12,000 museum objects. The pride of the museum is a collection of works of fine and decorative arts, the basis of which consists of icons of the XVI–XVIII centuries, works of prominent Bukovyna artists. The natural collection includes nearly 10,000 natural specimens (stuffed animals, wet preparations, herbarium, entomological collections, etc.); *Chernivtsi Art Museum (Central Square, 10). The building itself has artistic value: in its design masterfully combined sculpture, painting, stained glass, artistic metal. The total number of exhibits in the museum exceeds 8400. A collection of unique Bukovyna folk images and icons on glass of the XIX–XX centuries, Bukovyna folk rugs of the XIX–XX centuries, Bukovina and Hutsuls, Hutsul pysankas are saved here, as well as such rare monuments as the composition " Last Judgment ", Bukovynian icons of the XVII–XX centuries. and old printed books, including "The Apostle (book), The Apostle" 1632. The paintings of the Art Museum feature, in general, rare canvases belonging to the brushes of famous Bukovyna painters who worked predominantly in a classical manner. *History and Culture Museum of Bukovinian Jews (Theater Square, 10). Located in the former Jewish People's House (now the Central City Palace of Culture). The main concept of the museum is to reflect and emphasize the characteristics of Bukovina Jewry – the Bukovina phenomenon of the XIX – early XX, which differed significantly from the phenomena of neighbouring Galician, Bessarabian and Podolian Jewry. *Museum of the Bukovina Diaspora (Josef Hlávka St., 1); *Chernivtsi Regional Museum of Folk Architecture and Life (Svitlovodska Street, 2) is an architectural and landscape complex consisting of monuments of folk architecture of the late XVIII – first half of XX centuries. An ancient village of Bukovina is open to the sky, where you can get acquainted with the folk architecture and way of life of Bukovinians from different regions and ethnographic groups. The exposition of the museum includes about 35 structures, transported from different parts of the region and reconstructed in original form with appropriate natural surroundings. *Olga Kobylyanska Literary Memorial Museum (Okunevska St., 5); *Yuriy Fedkovich Literary Memorial Museum (Soborna Square, 10); *Volodymyr Ivasyuk Memorial Museum (Mayakovsky St., 40/1); *Aviation and Space Museum.
ArchitectureThere are many places which attract citizens of Chernivtsi and the visitors: Drama Theatre, Regional Philharmonic Society, Organ and Chamber Music Hall, puppet-theatre, Museum of Local Lore, History and Economy, Museum of Fine Arts, Bukovynian Diaspora Museum, Museum of Folk Architecture and Way of Life, memorial museums of writers, the Central Palace of Culture, the Star Alley in Teatralna Square. The city of Chernivtsi has a lot of architecturally important buildings. Many historic buildings have been preserved, especially within the city's center. However, after years of disrepair and neglect, the buildings are in need of major restoration. As Chernivtsi was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it was closely related to the empire's culture, including architecture. Main architectural styles present within the city include Vienna Secession and Neoclassicism, Baroque architecture, Baroque, late Gothic architecture, and fragments of traditional Moldavian and Hungarian architecture, Byzantine architecture as well as Cubism. During the Interwar Romanian administration, a great number of buildings in the Neo-Romanian and Art Deco architectural styles were also built.The city is sometimes dubbed ''Little Vienna'', because its architecture is reminiscent of the Austro-Hungarian capital Vienna. The main architectural attractions of the city include: the Chernivtsi Drama Theater (1905); the Chernivtsi University—List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Ukraine, UNESCO World Heritage Site (1882); the Regional Museum of Fine Arts—the former savings bank (1900); the Regional Council—former Palace of Justice (1906); and the Chernivtsi Palace of Culture—former Jewish National House (1908); among many others. The magnificent Moorish Revival Czernowitz Synagogue was heavily damaged by fire in 1941, the walls were used to create the "Chernivtsi" movie theater. The Czechs, Czech architect Josef Hlávka designed, in 1864–1882, the buildings that currently house the Chernivtsi University, Chernivtsi State University. They were originally the residence of the Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans. The Romanesque and Byzantine architecture is embellished with Motif (visual arts), motifs of Ukrainian folk art; for example, the tile roof patterns duplicate the geometric designs of traditional Ukrainian embroidery.
Polish National House in ChernivtsiThe history of the Polish community in Chernivtsi dates back to the late 18th century, when authorities of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg Empire encouraged Poles to move to Bucovina. By the mid-19th century, several Polish organizations existed in the city, including Bratnia Pomoc and Czytelnia Polska. On the initiative of publishers of the Gazeta Polska daily newspaper, collection of money for the construction of Polish House was initiated. In early 20th century, two Polish activists, doctor Tadeusz Mischke and judge Jakub Simonowicz purchased a house. In 1904, its expansion was initiated. It was carried out by architect Franciszek Skowron, interior decorator Konrad Górecki and sculptors from Zakopane, Skwarnicki and Gerasimowicz. The expansion was completed in 1905, and Polish House operated until World War II. In 1945, Soviet authorities opened here a cinema, later a music school. Currently, the complex houses Adam Mickiewicz Association of Polish Culture. Apart from the Polish House, Chernivtsi also has German, Romanian and Jewish Houses.
German National House in ChernivtsiIt was built in the early 20th century by the union of the German community in Chernivtsi, which became the center of German cultural and social life in Chernivtsi and Bukovina. The German House was built in 1908–1910 according to plans developed by architect Gustav Fric. The building measures 1700 square metres, 25000 cubic metres. built as a profitable house and a partnership house for 700,000 kroons on the site of the old German school building. The German House also had its own bank, and its own printing house, where various books, brochures, newspapers, and magazines were published, including the newspaper "German diary", which was popular at the time.
Jewish National House in ChernivtsiThe house was built in 1908 by the Jewish community and until the Second World War, it was the centre of Jewish life in Chernivtsi and home to various Jewish associations and organisations. At least 45,000 Jews from the Bukovina region fell victim to mass shootings, forced labour and deportations beginning in 1941. With the advent of the Soviet government (1944), the building was transferred to the City House of Culture. Today it is the Central Palace of Culture of Chernivtsi
Religion* Cathedral of the Holy Spirit (Svyatodukhivsky Cathedral) is a cathedral of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) in Chernivtsi. The first stone in its foundation was laid in July 1844. The construction was carried out under the supervision of local engineer A. Marin and Viennese architect A. Röll. In 1860 the facade of the temple was rebuilt under the design of Josef Hlávka, Josef Hlavka. Twenty years after the work began in July 1864, Bishop Yevgeny Hakman consecrated the cathedral. However, interior decoration work continued until the end of the century. In 1892–1896 a group of artists from Vienna painted the walls. It was built in the style of the Italian Renaissance, and one of the projects of the St. Isaac's Cathedral, which was presented to Bishop Yevgeny Hakman during his pilgrimage to the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius. * The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church has a large number of believers in Chernivtsi who are increasing every year. Currently, several temples have been built in the city. The main temple representing the UGCC in Bukovina is the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which was recently 190 years old. It also bears the title of the oldest temple built in Bukovina over the last several centuries. On 12 September 2017, Pope Francis confirmed the decision of the Synod of Bishops of the UGCC to establish a separate Chernivtsi eparchy and to appoint its Bishop Yosafat Moschych. *The Armenian Church, Chernivtsi, Armenian Church of Chernivtsi is the existing Armenian Catholic Church, Armenian Catholic Church of the Eastern Rite of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul in the city of Chernivtsi. The temple was built and consecrated in 1875. He functioned intermittently during the Soviet rule in Bukovina. The temple is included in the list of city buildings protected by the law of Ukraine. *Basilica of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Chernivtsi) is a Roman Catholic church with the status of a small basilica, the first stone building of the city. Its history begins when Bukovina joined Austria in 1774. At the time of Bukovina's annexation to Austria, there were no Roman Catholic temples in the province. The first holy mass was held at the wooden house of Gabriel Anton, Baron Splény de Miháldy, General Gabriel von Spleny, the first Austrian governor of Bukovina, attended by only a small number of Roman Catholics. In 1778 the building of the first church in Chernivtsi was completed. The architectural structure of the Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross is characterized by classic features. There are also numerous chapels and churches in different districts of the city. The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans is included in the List of World Heritage Sites in Ukraine, UNESCO list of Architectural Heritage.
EducationChernivtsi is a known scientific and educational center in Western Ukraine. Research Institutes of Thermoelectricity, the Institute of Medical and Ecological Problems of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine, Chernivtsi National University, Bukovinian State Medical University, Trade and Economics Institute, Institute of Economics and Law, Bukovinian State Institute for Finance and Economics. Secondary education in Chernivtsi is provided by: * 46 high schools with the Ukrainian language of study – 97.3% of students; * 4 high schools with the Romanian language of study – 2.7%; *2 private schools: Hope and Harmony. *3 lyceums and 7 gymnasium. There are 5 gymnasiums, 3 lyceums, and 3 sport schools, the Municipal Center of Science, "Young Technicians" Club, "GERDAN" Theatre-Studio. There are 15 higher educational institutions (universities, institutes, colleges). Among them: *University of Chernivtsi, Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University (19227 students) – one of the few classic universities in the country. It was opened on 4 October 1875, according to the decree of the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, Frans Joseph. At that time the university consisted of three faculties: philosophical, theological and law. Today, 16 faculties and the Chernivtsi Pedagogical College within the ChNU are functioning at the university. Almost 13,000 students study in 61 specialities; the main areas of preparation are the natural sciences, and the humanities. This is the only university in the country where civilian theologians are trained. *Bukovinian State Medical University (4321 students). The teaching process at the 42 departments is provided by 75 doctors and 321 candidates of sciences. The teaching staff provides training for 4,474 students, including 675 students from 35 countries. Foreign students are taught in English. The Faculty of Postgraduate Education trains about 800 interns and over 2000 attending physicians; the university provides continuity and continuity of higher medical education: junior specialist, bachelor, doctor-specialist, master, graduate student. BSMU prepares specialists in the specialties "Medical Affairs", "Pediatrics", "Dentistry", "Medical Psychology", "Clinical Pharmacy", "Pharmacy", "Nursing", "Laboratory diagnostics". * Chernivtsi Trade-Economics Institute of the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics (2315 students). The university trains specialists in the field of internal and foreign trade, restaurant business, state financial system and law, customs service, antitrust activity, business economics, banking and insurance, tax and accounting and control, audit, tourism, hospitality, household and other links in the infrastructure. *Bukovinian University (the first private higher educational institution in the region) – 1,273 students. *Bukovynskyi State Institute for Finance and Economics – 1,268 students. *Chernivtsi Branch of the Interregional Academy of Personnel Management.
SportsThe most popular kinds of sports in Chernivtsi include archery, judo, field hockey, karate, power-lifting and orienteering. Chernivtsi's baseball, ice hockey, and association football, football clubs (FC Bukovyna Chernivtsi) are participants in the Ukrainian national championships. Chernivtsi has a large number of sports establishments and facilities, including five stadiums, 186 sports grounds, two tennis courts, eleven Association football pitch, football fields, five ice rink, skating rinks, 21 shooting galleries, three swimming pools, 69 gyms, 62 gyms with special training equipment, and an international motorcycle racing track. Over 7,950 inhabitants are members of sport clubs within the city, and more than 50,000 people participate in various sport activities. Currently, eight sportsmen from the city are members of national teams and twelve are members of national youth teams. Three athletes from Chernivtsi were prize-winners in various world tournaments, two were winners of European and 42 of national championships in 2002. Chernivtsi has been host to the Sidecarcross world championship, Sidecross World Championship a number of times, most recently in June 2010.
TransportChernivtsi public transport divides on two groups: trolleys and buses. All modes of transport are very cheap – 0.20 $. In 2018, Chernivtsi has begun testing its innovative hybrid trolleybuses. The new trolleybuses are designed to improve the public transport system of Chernivtsi by making it more energy-efficient, as well as covering the part of the town which currently has no trolleybus lines.
RailThere are three railway stations in Chernivtsi: Central Station (38 Gagarina Street., north from the centre), Chernivtsi-Pivnichna Railway station (Zavods'ka str., 13 (northwest ) and Chernivtsi-Pivdenna Railway station (Malovokzalna str., 21 (south )
AirChernivtsi is served by the Chernivtsi International Airport (CWC) located south of the city centre (Chkalova Str., 30). Flights to Kyiv, Athens, Istanbul and Naples among others.
RoadChernivtsi has access to the Highway M19 (Ukraine), M19 highway, which is part of the European route E85, which links it to Bucharest (south) and Ternopil and Lutsk (north). Moreover, the Highway H03 (Ukraine), H03 and Highway H10 (Ukraine), H10 highways link Chernivtsi to other cities in Ukraine, the former connecting it to the capital city of Kyiv, which is located about north-east of Chernivtsi.
Twin towns—Sister citiesThe first international contacts with the city were established on 20 July 1989, when then-Mayor of Chernivtsi City Council Pavel Kaspruk, signed a twinning agreement with the Mayor of Salt Lake City (USA) – Lowell Turner. To commemorate this event, the Cradle of Peace was erected in Chernivtsi. Chernivtsi is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: In February 2016 the Chernivtsi city council terminated its twinned relations with the Russian cities Bryansk and Podolsk due to the Ukrainian crisis.
Natives* Sophia Agranovich, American classical concert pianist, Centaur Records recording artist and music educator * Aharon Appelfeld (1932–2018), Jewish writer * Ninon Hesse, Ninon Ausländer (1895–1966), History of art, art historian and wife of Hermann Hesse * Rose Ausländer (1901–1988), Jewish German-language writer * Elyakim Badian (1925–2000), Israeli politician * Charles K. Bliss (1897–1985), inventor of Blissymbolics * Ion Bostan (film director), Ion Bostan (1914–1992), Romanian film director * Octav Botnar (1913–1998), Romanian businessman, philanthropist, billionaire * Josef Burg (writer), Josef Burg (1912–2009), last Yiddish poet in Chernivtsi * Paul Celan (1920–1970), German-language poet and translator * Erwin Chargaff (1905–2002), Jewish biochemist * Eugen Ehrlich (1862–1922), Jewish jurist, pioneer of the field of sociology of law * Natalia Fedner (born 1983), Ukrainian-American fashion designer * Moysey Fishbeyn (1947-2020), a Ukrainian poet * Rudolf Gerlach-Rusnak (1895–1960), German operatic and concert lyrical tenor * Max Glücksmann (1875–1946), Argentine Jewish pioneer of the music and film industries * George Grigorovici (1871-1950), Romanian politician * Radu Grigorovici (1911–2008), Romanian physicist * Dmytro Hnatyuk (1925–2016), a Ukrainian baritone opera singer * Frederick John Kiesler (1890–1965), a theater designer, artist, theoretician and architect * Ruth Klieger Aliav (1914–1979), Romanian-Israeli Jewish activist * Sam Kogan (1946–2004), stage director, actor and founding principal of the Academy of the Science of Acting and Directing in London * Mila Kunis (born 1983), American actressМіла Куніс зіграє у трилері "Чорний лебідь"
Residents* Moyshe Altman (1890–1981), Yiddish writer * Hermann Bahr * Nicolae Bălan (1882–1955), Romanian cleric, a metropolitan bishop of the Romanian Orthodox Church * Grigore Vasiliu Birlic (1905–1970), Romanian actor * Nathan Birnbaum * Charles K. Bliss * Nikolay Bogolyubov * Traian Brăileanu (1882–1947), Romanian sociologist and politician * Romulus Cândea (1886–1973), Romanian ecclesiastical historian * Erwin Chargaff * Nicolae Cotos (1883–1959), Romanian theologian * Mihai Eminescu (1850–1889), Romanian poet, novelist and journalist * Iancu Flondor (1865–1924), Romanian activist who advocated Bukovina's unification with the Kingdom of Romania * Jacob Frank (1726–1791), Polish rabbi and founder of Frankism * Ivan Franko * Karl Emil Franzos (1848–1904), Jewish writer and publicist, grew up in Chernivtsi and wrote a literary memorial of the Jewish ghetto, ''The Jews of Barnow'' * Constantin Isopescu-Grecul (1871–1938), Romanian jurist, politician and journalist * Gala Galaction (1879–1961), Romanian writer * Abraham Goldfaden, active here * Zygmunt Gorgolewski * Ion Grămadă (1886—1917) Romanian writer, historian and journalist * Maximilian Hacman (1877–1961), Romanian jurist * Hans Hahn (mathematician), Hans Hahn * Eudoxiu Hurmuzachi (1812-1874), Romanian historian, politician (List of Landeshauptmann of Bukovina, Landeshauptmann of Bukovina) and patriot * Volodymyr Ivasyuk * Joseph Kalmer * Leonid Kravchuk * Olha Kobylyanska * Zvi Laron * Vasile Luca (1898-1963), Soviet and Romanian communist politician * Anastasiya Markovich (born 1979), painter * Karol Mikuli (1821–1892), Romanian pianist and composer, student of Frédéric Chopin * Ivan Mykolaychuk (1941–1987) * Grigore Nandriș (1895–1968), Romanian linguist, philologist and memoirist * Miron Nicolescu (1903–1975), Romanian mathematician * Ion Nistor (1876–1962), Romanian historian and politician * Aurel Onciul * Dimitrie Onciul (1856–1923), Romanian historian * Dimitrie Petrino * Israel Polack * George Popovici (1863–1905), Romanian agrarian politician, jurist and poet * Ciprian Porumbescu (1853–1883), Romanian composer * Aron Pumnul (1818–1866), Romanian philologist and teacher, national and revolutionary activist * Sextil Pușcariu * Florin Piersic (born 1936), Romanian actor and TV personality * Wilhelm Reich (1897–1957), Jewish psychoanalyst and sexologist, born in Dobrzanica, went to school in Chernivtsi * Eric Roll, Baron Roll of Ipsden (1907–2005), * Sofia Rotaru (born 1947), Romanian-Ukrainian pop singer * Wojciech Rubinowicz * Ion G. Sbiera (1836–1916), Romanian folklorist and historian * Josef Schmidt (1904–1942) singer, actor and cantor * Fritz von Scholz (1896–1944), SS officer * Joseph Schumpeter (1883–1950), economist and Minister of Finance, 1909–1911, professor in Chernivtsi * Wilhelm Stekel (1868–1940), Jewish psychoanalyst and sexologist, born in Boiany, Bukowina, grew up in Chernivtsi and attended the Gymnasium (grammar school) * Benno Straucher * Vasile Tărâțeanu (born 1945), Romanian journalist and writer * Georg Wassilko von Serecki * Salo Weisselberger * Nazariy Yaremchuk (1951–1995), Hutsul singer * Léon d'Ymbault (c.1700-1781), mayor
See also* List of people from Chernivtsi