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A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a
chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the IUPAC nomenclature for organic transformations, chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the posit ...

chemical reaction
; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.William L. Masterton, Cecile N. Hurley, "Chemistry: Principles and Reactions", 6th edition. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, 2009, p.1
(Google books)
/ref> Simply speaking, chemical properties cannot be determined just by viewing or touching the substance; the substance's internal structure must be affected greatly for its chemical properties to be investigated. When a substance goes under a chemical reaction, the properties will change drastically, resulting in
chemical change Chemical changes occur when a substance combines with another to form a new substance, called chemical synthesis or, alternatively, chemical decomposition into two or more different substances. These processes are called chemical reactions and, i ...
. However, a
catalytic that utilizes a low-temperature oxidation catalyst to convert carbon monoxide to less toxic carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is a colorless gas with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide molecules ...

catalytic
property would also be a chemical property. Chemical properties can be contrasted with
physical properties A physical property is any property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing. In the context of this article, it is on ...
, which can be discerned without changing the substance's structure. However, for many properties within the scope of
physical chemistry Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments. It is the opposite of microscopi ...
, and other disciplines at the boundary between
chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and i ...

chemistry
and
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scien ...

physics
, the distinction may be a matter of researcher's perspective.
Material properties A material's property (or material property) is an intensive propertyIn grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. Intensives are us ...

Material properties
, both physical and chemical, can be viewed as
supervenient In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, lang ...
; i.e., secondary to the underlying reality. Several layers of superveniency are possible. Chemical properties can be used for building
chemical classificationChemical classification systems attempt to classify chemical element, elements or chemical compound, compounds according to certain chemical functional or chemical structure, structural properties. Whereas the structural properties are largely intrin ...
s. They can also be useful to identify an unknown substance or to separate or purify it from other substances.
Materials science The Interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering, covers the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids. The intellectual origins of materials science ste ...
will normally consider the chemical properties of a substance to guide its applications.


Examples

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Heat of combustion The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composi ...
*
Enthalpy of formationThe standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system A thermodynamic system is a body of matter and/or radiation, confined in space by walls, wi ...
*
Toxicity Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacteria, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a ...

Toxicity
*
Chemical stability In chemistry, chemical stability is the thermodynamic stability of a chemical system. Thermodynamics, Thermodynamic stability occurs when a system is in its lowest energy level, energy state, or in chemical equilibrium with its environment. This ma ...
in a given environment *
Flammability , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , g ...
(the ability to burn) * Preferred
oxidation state The oxidation state, or oxidation number, is the hypothetical charge Charge or charged may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Charge, Zero Emissions/Maximum Speed'', a 2011 documentary Music * Charge (David Ford album), ''Charge' ...
(s) * ability to
Corrode Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide of rutile. Ti(IV) centers are grey; oxygen centers are red. Notice that oxygen forms three bonds to titanium and titanium forms six bon ...
*
Combustibility , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , g ...
*
acidity An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion H+) (a Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Brønsted–Lowry acid), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid). The fir ...
and
basicity In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases and Lewis bases. All definitions agree that bases are substances which react with acids as originally proposed by Guillaume-Fra ...
of a substance


See also

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Chemical structure A chemical structure determination includes a chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin ''alchemist'') is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific re ...
*
Material properties A material's property (or material property) is an intensive propertyIn grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. Intensives are us ...

Material properties
*
Biological activity In pharmacology Pharmacology is a branch of medicine and pharmaceutical sciences concerned with drug or medication action, where a drug may be defined as any artificial, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a bio ...
*
Quantitative structure–activity relationshipQuantitative structure–activity relationship models (QSAR models) are regression analysis, regression or classification models used in the chemical and biological sciences and engineering. Like other regression models, QSAR regression models relat ...
(QSAR) * Lipinski's Rule of Five, describing molecular properties of drugs


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Chemical Property *