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''Casablanca'' is a 1942 American
romantic drama film Romance films or romance movies are romantic love stories recorded in visual media for broadcast in theaters and on television, TV that focus on passion (emotion), passion, emotion, and the affectionate romantic involvement of the main character ...
directed by
Michael Curtiz Michael Curtiz ( ; born Manó Kertész Kaminer; December 24, 1886 April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-born American film director, recognized as one of the most prolific directors in history. He directed classic films from the silent era and nume ...
, and starring
Humphrey Bogart Humphrey DeForest Bogart (; December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957), nicknamed Bogie, was an American film and stage actor. His performances in Classical Hollywood cinema Classical Hollywood cinema is a term used in film criticism Film c ...
,
Ingrid Bergman Ingrid Bergman (29 August 191529 August 1982) was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films, television movies, and plays.Obituary ''Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebra ...
, and
Paul Henreid Paul Henreid (10 January 1908 – 29 March 1992) was an Austrian- British- American actor, director, producer, and writer. He is best remembered for two film roles: Victor Laszlo in '' Casablanca'' and Jerry Durrance in '' Now, Voyager'', ...
. Filmed and set during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, it focuses on an American expatriate (Bogart) who must choose between his love for a woman (Bergman) and helping her and her husband (Henreid), a
Czech resistance Resistance to the German occupation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; cs, Protektorát Čechy a Morava; its territory was called by the Nazis ("the rest of Czechia"). was a partially annex ...
leader, escape from the
Vichy Vichy ( oc, Vichèi) is a city in the Allier Allier ( , , ; oc, Alèir) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hum ...
-controlled city of
Casablanca Casablanca ( ar, الدار البيضاء, ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; ber, ⴰⵏⴼⴰ, anfa) is the largest city of Morocco. Located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, it is the second largest city in the Maghreb ...

Casablanca
to continue his fight against the
Germans Germans (, ) are the natives or inhabitants of Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas ...

Germans
. The screenplay is based on ''
Everybody Comes to Rick's ''Everybody Comes to Rick's'' is an American play that was bought unproduced by Warner Brothers for a record figure of $20,000 (). It was adapted for film as ''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'' (1942), starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman. Wri ...
'', an unproduced stage play by
Murray Burnett ''Everybody Comes to Rick's'' is an American play that was bought unproduced by Warner Brothers Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (commonly known as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB) is an American diversified multinational mass media and enter ...
and
Joan Alison ''Everybody Comes to Rick's'' is an American play that was bought unproduced by Warner Brothers for a record figure of $20,000 (). It was adapted for film as ''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'' (1942), starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman. Wri ...
. The supporting cast features
Claude Rains William Claude Rains (10 November 188930 May 1967) was a British-American film and stage actor whose career spanned almost seven decades. After his American film debut as Dr. Jack Griffin in '' The Invisible Man'' (1933), he appeared in such h ...

Claude Rains
,
Conrad Veidt Hans Walter Conrad Veidt (; 22 January 1893 – 3 April 1943) was a German actor best remembered for his roles in the films ''Different from the Others'' (1919), ''The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari'' (1920), and ''The Man Who Laughs (1928 film), The M ...
,
Sydney Greenstreet Sydney Hughes Greenstreet (27 December 1879 – 18 January 1954) was a British-American actor. While he did not begin his career in films until the age of 61, he had a run of significant motion pictures in a Hollywood career lasting through ...
,
Peter Lorre Peter Lorre (born László Löwenstein; June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964) was a Hungarian-American actor. Lorre began his stage career in Vienna, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, before moving to Germany where he worked first on the stage, then ...
, and
Dooley Wilson ` Arthur "Dooley" Wilson (April 3, 1886 – May 30, 1953) was an American actor, singer and musician who is best remembered as Sam in the 1942 film, ''Casablanca Casablanca ( ar, الدار البيضاء, ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; ber, ⴰⵏⴼ ...

Dooley Wilson
.
Warner Bros. Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (commonly known as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB) is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Warner Bros. Studios complex in Burbank, California ...
story editor
Irene Diamond Irene Diamond (May 7, 1910 – January 21, 2003) was a Hollywood talent scout and later in life a philanthropist. Early life Irene Diamond was born Irene Levine on May 7, 1910 to Jewish immigrant parents. Career Diamond was an assistant editor ...
convinced producer
Hal B. Wallis Harold Brent Wallis (born Aaron Blum Wolowicz; October 19, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American film producer A film producer is a person who oversees film production. Either employed by a production company or working Independent film, in ...
to purchase the
film rights Film rights are rights under copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refe ...
to the play in January 1942. Brothers
Julius The gens Julia was one of the most ancient patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe ...
and Philip G. Epstein were initially assigned to write the script. However, despite studio resistance, they left to work on
Frank Capra Frank Russell Capra (born Francesco Rosario Capra; May 18, 1897 – September 3, 1991) was an Italian-born American film director, producer and writer who became the creative force behind some of the major award-winning films of the 1930 ...

Frank Capra
's ''
Why We Fight ''Why We Fight'' is a series of seven documentary film A documentary film or documentary is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a Recorded ...
'' series early in 1942. Howard Koch was assigned to the screenplay until the Epsteins returned a month later.
Principal photography Principal photography is the phase of producing a film or television show in which the bulk of shooting takes place, as distinct from the phases of pre-production and post-production. Personnel Besides the main film personnel, such as actor ...
began on May 25, 1942, ending on August 3; the film was shot entirely at Warner Bros. Studios in
Burbank Burbank may refer to: Places Australia * Burbank, Queensland, a suburb in Brisbane United States * Burbank, California, a city in Los Angeles County * Burbank, Santa Clara County, California, a census-designated place * Burbank, Illinois, a ...
,
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
with the exception of one sequence at
Van Nuys Airport : ''For the United States Air Force use of the airport (1942–1990), see Van Nuys Air National Guard Base'' Van Nuys Airport is a public airport in Van Nuys, Los Angeles, Van Nuys in the San Fernando Valley section of the Los Angeles, City of ...
in
Van Nuys, Los Angeles Van Nuys is a neighborhood in the central San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. Home to Van Nuys Airport and the Van Nuys City Hall, Valley Municipal Building, it is the most populous neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley. His ...
. Although ''Casablanca'' was an
A-list An A-list actor is a major movie star A movie star (also known as a film star or cinema star) is an actor or actress who is famous for their starring, or leading, roles in movies. The term is used for performers who are marketable stars and ...
film with established stars and first-rate writers, no one involved with its production expected it to be anything other than one of the hundreds of ordinary pictures produced by
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of An ...

Hollywood
that year. ''Casablanca'' was rushed into release to take advantage of the publicity from the
Allied invasion of North Africa Operation Torch (8 November 1942 – 13 May 1943) was an Allies of World War II, Allied invasion of French North Africa during the Second World War. While the French colonies formally aligned with Germany via Vichy France, the loyalties of t ...

Allied invasion of North Africa
a few weeks earlier. Frank Miller: "There was a scene planned, after the ending, that would have shown Rick and Renault on an Allied ship just prior to the landing at Casablanca, but plans to shoot it were scrapped when the marketing department realized they had to get the film out fast to capitalize on the liberation of North Africa." It had its world premiere on November 26, 1942, in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
and was released nationally in the United States on January 23, 1943. The film was a solid if unspectacular success in its initial run. Exceeding expectations, ''Casablanca'' went on to win the
Academy Award for Best Picture The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises ...
, while Curtiz was selected as
Best DirectorBest Director is the name of an award which is presented by various film, television and theatre organizations, festivals, and people's awards. It may refer to: Film awards * AACTA Award for Best Direction * Academy Award for Best Director * BAFTA ...
and the Epsteins and Koch were honored for writing the Best Adapted Screenplay. Its reputation has gradually grown, to the point that its lead characters, memorable lines, and pervasive theme song have all become iconic, and it consistently ranks near the top of lists of the greatest films in history. In 1989, the United States
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
selected the film as one of the first for preservation in the
National Film Registry The National Film Registry (or NFR for short) is the United States National Film Preservation Board The United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contigu ...
.


Plot

In December 1941, American
expatriate An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, eit ...
Rick Blaine owns a nightclub and gambling den in
Casablanca Casablanca ( ar, الدار البيضاء, ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; ber, ⴰⵏⴼⴰ, anfa) is the largest city of Morocco. Located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, it is the second largest city in the Maghreb ...

Casablanca
. "Rick's Café Américain" attracts a varied clientele, including
Vichy French Vichy France (french: Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State () headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. It was an independent ally of Nazi Germany until late 1942 when Berlin took full control. Evacuated fro ...
and German officials,
refugees A refugee, generally speaking, is a forced displacement, displaced person who has crossed national boundaries and who cannot or is unwilling to return home due to well-founded fear of persecution.
desperate to reach the neutral United States and those who prey on them. Although Rick professes to be neutral in all matters, he ran guns to
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the ...
during the
Second Italo-Ethiopian War The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a war of aggression A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usual ...

Second Italo-Ethiopian War
and fought on the
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
side in the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
. Petty crook Ugarte boasts to Rick of "letters of transit" obtained by murdering two German couriers. The papers allow the bearers to travel freely around
German-occupied Europe German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the con ...

German-occupied Europe
and to neutral Portugal; they are priceless to the refugees stranded in Casablanca. Ugarte plans to sell them at the club, and persuades Rick to hold them. Before he can meet his contact, Ugarte is arrested by the local police under the command of Captain Louis Renault, the unabashedly corrupt prefect of police. Ugarte dies in custody without revealing that he entrusted the letters to Rick. Then the reason for Rick's cynical nature—former lover Ilsa Lund—enters his establishment. Spotting Rick's friend and house pianist, Sam, Ilsa asks him to play " As Time Goes By". Rick storms over, furious that Sam disobeyed his order never to perform that song and is stunned to see Ilsa. She is accompanied by her husband, Victor Laszlo, a renowned, fugitive
Czech Resistance Resistance to the German occupation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; cs, Protektorát Čechy a Morava; its territory was called by the Nazis ("the rest of Czechia"). was a partially annex ...
leader. They need the letters to escape to America to continue his work; Major Strasser has come to Casablanca to thwart him. When Laszlo makes inquiries, Ferrari, an underworld figure and Rick's friendly business rival, divulges his suspicion that Rick has the letters. Privately, Rick refuses to sell at any price, telling Laszlo to ask his wife the reason. They are interrupted when Strasser leads a group of officers in singing ("The Watch on the Rhine"). Laszlo orders the house band to play . When the band looks to Rick, he nods his head. Laszlo starts singing, alone at first, then patriotic fervor grips the crowd and everyone joins in, drowning out the Germans. Strasser demands Renault close the club, which he does on the pretext of suddenly discovering there is gambling on the premises. Ilsa confronts Rick in the deserted café; when he refuses to give her the letters, she threatens him with a gun but then confesses that she still loves him. She explains that when they met and fell in love in Paris in 1940, she believed her husband had been killed attempting to escape from a
concentration camp Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in war War is an intense armed conflict between state ...
. While preparing to flee with Rick from the city during the
Battle of France The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of German ...
, she learned Laszlo was alive and in hiding. She left Rick without explanation to nurse her sick husband. Rick's bitterness dissolves. He agrees to help, letting her believe she will stay with him when Laszlo leaves. When Laszlo unexpectedly shows up, having narrowly escaped a police raid on a Resistance meeting, Rick has waiter Carl spirit Ilsa away. Laszlo, aware of Rick's love for Ilsa, tries to persuade him to use the letters to take her to safety. When the police arrest Laszlo on a trumped-up charge, Rick persuades Renault to release him by promising to set him up for a much more serious crime: possession of the letters. To allay Renault's suspicions, Rick explains that he and Ilsa will be leaving for America. When Renault tries to arrest Laszlo as arranged, Rick forces him at gunpoint to assist in their escape. At the last moment, Rick makes Ilsa board the plane to
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
with Laszlo, telling her that she would regret it if she stayed—"Maybe not today, maybe not tomorrow but soon and for the rest of your life". Strasser, tipped off by Renault, drives up alone. Rick shoots him when he tries to intervene. As the police arrive, Renault pauses, then orders them to "round up the usual suspects". He suggests to Rick that they join the
Free French Free France (french: France Libre) was the government-in-exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
in
Brazzaville Brazzaville (, kg, Kintamo, Nkuna, Kintambo, Mavula; Teke: ''Mfwa'', ''Mfoa'', ''M'fa'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in ...
. As they walk away into the fog, Rick says, "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship".


Cast

The play's cast consisted of 16 speaking parts and several extras; the film script enlarged it to 22 speaking parts and hundreds of extras. The cast is notably international: only three of the credited actors were born in the United States (Bogart, Dooley Wilson, and Joy Page). The top-billed actors are: *
Humphrey Bogart Humphrey DeForest Bogart (; December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957), nicknamed Bogie, was an American film and stage actor. His performances in Classical Hollywood cinema Classical Hollywood cinema is a term used in film criticism Film c ...
as Rick Blaine *
Ingrid Bergman Ingrid Bergman (29 August 191529 August 1982) was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films, television movies, and plays.Obituary ''Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebra ...
as Ilsa Lund. Bergman's official website calls Ilsa her "most famous and enduring role". The Swedish actress's Hollywood debut in ''
Intermezzo In music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated conc ...
'' had been well received, but her subsequent films were not major successes until ''Casablanca''. Film critic
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...

Roger Ebert
called her "luminous", and commented on the chemistry between her and Bogart: "she paints his face with her eyes". Other actresses considered for the role of Ilsa included
Ann Sheridan Clara Lou Sheridan (February 21, 1915 – January 21, 1967), known professionally as Ann Sheridan, was an American actress and singer. She worked regularly, first in film and later in television, from 1934 until her death. Notable roles include '' ...
,
Hedy Lamarr Hedy Lamarr (; born Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler; November 9, 1914 January 19, 2000) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Easte ...

Hedy Lamarr
,
Luise Rainer Luise Rainer (, ; 12 January 1910 – 30 December 2014) was a German-American-British film actress. She was the first thespian to win multiple Academy Awards and the first to win back-to-back; at the time of her death, thirteen days shy of her 1 ...
, and
Michèle Morgan Michèle Morgan (; née Simone Renée Roussel; 29 February 1920 – 20 December 2016) was a French film actress, who was a leading lady for three decades in both French cinema and Hollywood features. She is considered to have been one of the g ...
. Producer
Hal Wallis Harold Brent Wallis (born Aaron Blum Wolowicz; October 19, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American film producer A film producer is a person who oversees film production. Either employed by a production company or working Independent film, inde ...
obtained the services of Bergman, who was contracted to
David O. Selznick David O. Selznick (May 10, 1902June 22, 1965) was an American film producer A film producer is a person who oversees film production. Either employed by a production company or working Independent film, independently, producers plan and coordi ...
, by lending
Olivia de Havilland Dame Olivia Mary de Havilland (; July 1, 1916July 26, 2020) was a British-American actress. The major works of her cinematic career spanned from 1935 to 1988. She appeared in 49 feature films and was one of the leading actors of her time. At ...

Olivia de Havilland
in exchange. *
Paul Henreid Paul Henreid (10 January 1908 – 29 March 1992) was an Austrian- British- American actor, director, producer, and writer. He is best remembered for two film roles: Victor Laszlo in '' Casablanca'' and Jerry Durrance in '' Now, Voyager'', ...
as Victor Laszlo. Henreid, an Austrian actor who had emigrated in 1935, was reluctant to take the role (it "set as a stiff forever", according to
Pauline Kael Pauline Kael (; June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art Th ...
), until he was promised top billing along with Bogart and Bergman. Henreid did not get on well with his fellow actors; he considered Bogart "a mediocre actor"; Bergman called Henreid a "prima donna". The second-billed actors are: *
Claude Rains William Claude Rains (10 November 188930 May 1967) was a British-American film and stage actor whose career spanned almost seven decades. After his American film debut as Dr. Jack Griffin in '' The Invisible Man'' (1933), he appeared in such h ...

Claude Rains
as Captain Louis Renault *
Conrad Veidt Hans Walter Conrad Veidt (; 22 January 1893 – 3 April 1943) was a German actor best remembered for his roles in the films ''Different from the Others'' (1919), ''The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari'' (1920), and ''The Man Who Laughs (1928 film), The M ...
as Major Heinrich Strasser. He was a refugee German actor who had fled the
Nazis Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (german: link=no, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP, or National Socia ...

Nazis
with his
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
wife, but frequently played Nazis in American films. He was the highest paid member of the cast despite his second billing. *
Sydney Greenstreet Sydney Hughes Greenstreet (27 December 1879 – 18 January 1954) was a British-American actor. While he did not begin his career in films until the age of 61, he had a run of significant motion pictures in a Hollywood career lasting through ...
as Signor Ferrari *
Peter Lorre Peter Lorre (born László Löwenstein; June 26, 1904 – March 23, 1964) was a Hungarian-American actor. Lorre began his stage career in Vienna, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, before moving to Germany where he worked first on the stage, then ...
as Signor Ugarte Also credited are: *
Curt Bois Curt Bois (born Kurt Boas; April 5, 1901 – December 25, 1991) was a German actor with a career spanning over 80 years. He is best remembered for his performances as the pickpocket in ''Casablanca Casablanca ( ar, الدار البيضاء, ad- ...
as the pickpocket. He had one of the longest careers in cinema, spanning over 80 years. *
Leonid Kinskey Leonid Kinskey (c. 1894 or 18 April 1903 – 8 September 1998) was a Russian-German-American film and television actor who enjoyed a long career. Kinskey is best known for his role as Sascha in the film ''Casablanca Casablanca ( ar, الدا ...
as Sascha, the Russian bartender infatuated with Yvonne. He told
Aljean Harmetz Aljean Meltsir Harmetz (born December 30, 1929) is an American journalist and film historian. She was the Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English, Hiberno-English, Hibernian English, Australian English ...
, author of ''Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Making of Casablanca'', that he was cast because he was Bogart's drinking buddy. He was not the first choice for the role; he replaced Leo Mostovoy, who was deemed not funny enough. *
Madeleine Lebeau Marie Madeleine Berthe Lebeau (10 June 1923 – 1 May 2016) was a French film actress who also appeared in American films, most notably ''Casablanca''. Early life Lebeau married actor Marcel Dalio in 1939; it was his second marriage. They had met ...
as Yvonne, Rick's soon-discarded girlfriend. She was a French refugee who had left Nazi-occupied Europe with her husband
Marcel Dalio Marcel Dalio (born Israel Moshe Blauschild; 23 November 1899 in Paris – 18 November 1983) was a French character actor. He had major roles in two films directed by Jean Renoir, ''La Grande Illusion'' (1937) and ''The Rules of the Game'' (1939 ...

Marcel Dalio
, who was a fellow ''Casablanca'' performer. She was the last surviving cast member until her death on May 1, 2016. *
Joy Page Joy Page (born Joy Cerrette Paige; November 9, 1924 – April 18, 2008) was an American actress. She is best known for her role as the Bulgarian refugee Annina Brandel in ''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'' (1942). She was sometimes credited as Joa ...
, the step-daughter of studio head
Jack L. Warner Jack Leonard Warner (born Jacob Warner; August 2, 1892 – September 9, 1978) was a Canadian-American film executive who was the president and driving force behind the Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California California is a U.S. sta ...
, as Annina Brandel, the young
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
n refugee *
John Qualen John Qualen (born Johan Mandt Kvalen, December 8, 1899 – September 12, 1987) was a Canadian-American character actor A character actor is a supporting actor who plays unusual, interesting, or Eccentricity (behavior), eccentric character (a ...
as Berger, Laszlo's Resistance contact *
S. Z. Sakall Szőke Szakáll (born Jakab Grünwald, aka Gärtner Sándor and Gerő Jenő; February 2, 1883 February 12, 1955), known in the English-speaking world as S. Z. Sakall, was a Hungarian-American stage and film . He appeared in many films, includi ...
(credited as S. K. Sakall) as Carl, the waiter *
Dooley Wilson ` Arthur "Dooley" Wilson (April 3, 1886 – May 30, 1953) was an American actor, singer and musician who is best remembered as Sam in the 1942 film, ''Casablanca Casablanca ( ar, الدار البيضاء, ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; ber, ⴰⵏⴼ ...

Dooley Wilson
as Sam. He was one of the few American-born members of the cast. A drummer, he had to fake playing the piano. Even after shooting had been completed, producer Wallis considered dubbing over Wilson's voice for the songs. Notable uncredited actors are: *
Marcel Dalio Marcel Dalio (born Israel Moshe Blauschild; 23 November 1899 in Paris – 18 November 1983) was a French character actor. He had major roles in two films directed by Jean Renoir, ''La Grande Illusion'' (1937) and ''The Rules of the Game'' (1939 ...

Marcel Dalio
as Emil the
croupier A croupier or dealer is someone appointed at a gambling File:A photo of a gambling stand in Paris.jpg, A gambling stand in Paris Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering of money or something of Value (economics), value (referred to a ...
. He had been a star in French cinema, appearing in
Jean Renoir Jean Renoir (; 15 September 1894 – 12 February 1979) was a French film director, screenwriter, actor, producer and author. As a film director and actor, he made more than forty films from the silent film, silent era to the end of the 1960s. ...
's ''
La Grande Illusion ''La Grande Illusion'' (also known as ''The Grand Illusion'') is a 1937 French war film directed by Jean Renoir, who co-wrote the screenplay with Charles Spaak. The story concerns class relationships among a small group of French officers who a ...
'' and '' La Règle du Jeu.'' *
Helmut Dantine Helmut Dantine (7 October 1918 – 2 May 1982) was an Austrian-American actor who often played Nazis in thriller films of the 1940s. His best-known performances are perhaps the German pilot in '' Mrs. Miniver'' and the desperate refugee in ''C ...

Helmut Dantine
as Jan Brandel, the Bulgarian roulette player married to Annina Brandel *
Gregory Gaye Gregory Gaye (born Gregory de Gay; October 10, 1900 – August 23, 1993) was a Russian-American character actor A character actor is a supporting actor who plays unusual, interesting, or eccentric characters.28 April 2013, The New York Actin ...
as the German banker who is refused entry to the casino by Rick *
Torben Meyer Torben Emil Meyer (1 December 1884 – 22 May 1975) was a Danish-American character actor A character actor is a supporting actor who plays unusual, interesting, or eccentric characters.28 April 2013, The New York Acting SchoolTen Best C ...
as the Dutch banker who runs "the second largest banking house in Amsterdam" *
Corinna Mura Corinna Mura (born Corinna Wall; 16 March 1910 – 1 August 1965) was a cabaret singer and diseuse. She had a small role in the classic film ''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'' as the woman playing the guitar while singing "Tango Delle Rose" and "L ...
as the guitar player who sings "Tango Delle Rose" (or "Tango de la Rosa") and later accompanies the crowd on "La Marseillaise" *
Frank Puglia Francesco Giuseppe "Frank" Puglia (9 March 1892 – 25 October 1975) was an Italian-American film actor. He had small, but memorable roles in films including ''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'' (a Moroccan rug merchant), ''Now, Voyager'' and ''The ...
as a Moroccan rug merchant *
Richard Ryen Richard Ryen (13 September 1885 – 22 December 1965) was a Hungarian-born actor who was expelled from Germany by the Nazis prior to World War II. Early life Ryen was born Richard Anton Robert Felix Revy in Hungary. He began working in Germany as ...
as Colonel Heinze, Strasser's aide *
Dan Seymour Dan Seymour (February 22, 1915 – May 25, 1993) was an American character actor who frequently played villains in Warner Bros. films. He appeared in several Humphrey Bogart Humphrey DeForest Bogart (; December 25, 1899 – January 14, ...
as Abdul the doorman *
Gerald Oliver Smith Gerald Wilson Oliver Smith (June 26, 1892 – May 28, 1974) was an English-born actor who spent most of his career in the United States, both in New York City as a stage actor and in the Hollywood film industry. Born in Sidcup, Kent, England, Smi ...
as the Englishman whose wallet is stolen *
Norma Varden Norma Varden Shackleton (20 January 1898 – 19 January 1989), known professionally as Norma Varden, was an English–American actress with a long film career. Life and career Early life Born in London, the daughter of a retired sea captain, V ...
as the Englishwoman whose husband has his wallet stolen Much of the emotional impact of the film, for the audience in 1942, has been attributed to the large proportion of European exiles and refugees who were extras or played minor roles (in addition to leading actors Paul Henreid, Conrad Veidt and Peter Lorre): such as Louis V. Arco,
Trude Berliner Trude Berliner (28 February 1903 – 26 February 1977) was a German actress. She was one of many Jewish actors and actresses that were forced to flee Europe when the Nazis came to power in 1933. Biography Berliner was born Gertrude Berliner in Be ...
, Ilka Grünig, Ludwig Stössel,
Hans Heinrich von Twardowski Hans Heinrich von Twardowski (5 May 1898 – 19 November 1958) was a German film actor. Career in Germany Twardowski was born in Stettin, Germany (now Szczecin in Poland). He made his first film appearance in the 1920 Robert Wiene-directed horror ...
, and
Wolfgang Zilzer Wolfgang Zilzer (January 20, 1901 – June 26, 1991) was a German-American stage and film actor, often under the stage name Paul Andor. Biography Zilzer was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, to German-Jewish emigrant Max Zilzer, who was employed at t ...
. A witness to the filming of the "duel of the anthems" sequence said he saw many of the actors crying and "realized that they were all real refugees". Harmetz argues that they "brought to a dozen small roles in ''Casablanca'' an understanding and a desperation that could never have come from Central Casting". Even though many were
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
or refugees from the Nazis (or both), they were frequently cast as Nazis in various war films, because of their accents.
Jack Benny Benjamin Kubelsky (February 14, 1894 – December 26, 1974), known professionally as Jack Benny, was an American entertainer, who evolved from a modest success playing violin on the vaudeville Vaudeville (; ) is a of born in France at th ...
may have appeared in an unbilled cameo, as was claimed by a contemporary newspaper advertisement and in the ''Casablanca'' press book. When asked in his column "Movie Answer Man", critic
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...

Roger Ebert
first replied, "It looks something like him. That's all I can say." RogerEbert.com In a later column, he responded to a follow-up commenter, "I think you're right. The Jack Benny Fan Club can feel vindicated".


Production

The film was based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison's unproduced play ''
Everybody Comes to Rick's ''Everybody Comes to Rick's'' is an American play that was bought unproduced by Warner Brothers for a record figure of $20,000 (). It was adapted for film as ''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'' (1942), starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman. Wri ...
''. The
Warner Bros. Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (commonly known as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB) is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Warner Bros. Studios complex in Burbank, California ...
story analyst who read the play, Stephen Karnot, called it (approvingly) "sophisticated hokum" and story editor
Irene Diamond Irene Diamond (May 7, 1910 – January 21, 2003) was a Hollywood talent scout and later in life a philanthropist. Early life Irene Diamond was born Irene Levine on May 7, 1910 to Jewish immigrant parents. Career Diamond was an assistant editor ...
, who had discovered the script on a trip to
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
in 1941, convinced Hal Wallis to buy the rights in January 1942 for $20,000 (), the most anyone in Hollywood had ever paid for an unproduced play. The project was renamed ''Casablanca'', apparently in imitation of the 1938 hit ''
Algiers Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر; Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in ...
''. Although an initial filming date was selected for April 10, 1942, delays led to production starting on May 25. Filming was completed on August 3. It went $75,000 over budget for a total cost of $1,039,000 (), above average for the time. Unusually, the film was shot in sequence, mainly because only the first half of the script was ready when filming began. The entire picture was shot in the studio, except for the sequence showing Strasser's arrival, which was filmed at
Van Nuys Airport : ''For the United States Air Force use of the airport (1942–1990), see Van Nuys Air National Guard Base'' Van Nuys Airport is a public airport in Van Nuys, Los Angeles, Van Nuys in the San Fernando Valley section of the Los Angeles, City of ...
, and a few short clips of stock footage views of Paris. The street used for the exterior shots had recently been built for another film, ''
The Desert Song ''The Desert Song'' is an operetta Operetta is a form of theatre and a genre of light opera. It includes spoken dialogue, songs, and dances. It is lighter than opera in terms of its music, orchestral size, length of the work, and at face value, ...
'', and redressed for the Paris flashbacks. The background of the final scene, which shows a
Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior The Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior, more commonly known as the Lockheed 12 or L-12, is an eight-seat, six-passenger all-metal twin-engine transport aircraft of the late 1930s designed for use by small airlines, companies, and wealthy private indi ...
airplane with personnel walking around it, was staged using
little person Little People is a :Toy companies, toy brand for children ages 6–36 months and to ages 3 and up, originally produced by Fisher-Price, Inc. in the 1960s as the Play Family People. The current product line consists of playsets, mini-sets and acces ...
extras and a proportionate cardboard plane. Fog was used to mask the model's unconvincing appearance. Nevertheless, the
Disney's Hollywood Studios Disney's Hollywood Studios is a theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida, near Orlando. It is owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company through its Parks, Experiences and Products division. Based on a concept by ...
theme park in
Orlando, Florida Orlando () is a city in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due ...
, purchased a Lockheed 12A for its Great Movie Ride attraction, and initially claimed that it was the actual plane used in the film. Film critic
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...

Roger Ebert
called Wallis the "key creative force" for his attention to the details of production (down to insisting on a real parrot in the Blue Parrot bar).Ebert, Roger. Commentary to ''Casablanca'' (Two-Disc Special Edition DVD). The difference between Bergman's and Bogart's height caused some problems. She was two inches (5 cm) taller than Bogart, and claimed Curtiz had Bogart stand on blocks or sit on cushions in their scenes together. Later, there were plans for a further scene, showing Rick, Renault and a detachment of Free French soldiers on a ship, to incorporate the Allies' Operation Torch, 1942 invasion of North Africa. It proved too difficult to get Claude Rains for the shoot, and the scene was finally abandoned after
David O. Selznick David O. Selznick (May 10, 1902June 22, 1965) was an American film producer A film producer is a person who oversees film production. Either employed by a production company or working Independent film, independently, producers plan and coordi ...
judged "it would be a terrible mistake to change the ending."


Writing

The original play was inspired by a trip to Europe made by Murray Burnett and his wife in 1938, during which they visited Vienna shortly after the Anschluss and were affected by the antisemitism they saw. In the south of France, they went to a nightclub that had a multinational clientele, among them many exiles and refugees, and the prototype of Sam. In ''The Guardian'', Paul Fairclough writes that Cinema Vox (Tangier), Cinema Vox in Tangier "was Africa's biggest when it opened in 1935, with 2,000 seats and a retractable roof. As Tangier was in Spanish territory [''sic''], the theatre's wartime bar heaved with spies, refugees and underworld hoods, securing its place in cinematic history as the inspiration for Rick's Cafe in ''Casablanca''." The scene of the singing of "La Marseillaise" in the bar is attributed by the film scholar Julian Jackson as an adaptation of a similar scene from
Jean Renoir Jean Renoir (; 15 September 1894 – 12 February 1979) was a French film director, screenwriter, actor, producer and author. As a film director and actor, he made more than forty films from the silent film, silent era to the end of the 1960s. ...
's film ''
La Grande Illusion ''La Grande Illusion'' (also known as ''The Grand Illusion'') is a 1937 French war film directed by Jean Renoir, who co-wrote the screenplay with Charles Spaak. The story concerns class relationships among a small group of French officers who a ...
'' five years prior. The first writers assigned to the script were twins
Julius The gens Julia was one of the most ancient patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe ...
and Philip G. Epstein, Philip Epstein who, against the wishes of Warner Bros., left at
Frank Capra Frank Russell Capra (born Francesco Rosario Capra; May 18, 1897 – September 3, 1991) was an Italian-born American film director, producer and writer who became the creative force behind some of the major award-winning films of the 1930 ...

Frank Capra
's request early in 1942 to work on the ''
Why We Fight ''Why We Fight'' is a series of seven documentary film A documentary film or documentary is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a Recorded ...
'' series in Washington, D.C. While they were gone, the other credited writer, Howard Koch, was assigned; he produced thirty to forty pages. When the Epstein brothers returned after about a month, they were reassigned to ''Casablanca'' and—contrary to what Koch claimed in two published books—his work was not used. The Epstein brothers and Koch never worked in the same room at the same time during the writing of the script. In the final budget for the film, the Epsteins were paid $30,416, () and Koch earned $4,200 (). In the play, the Ilsa character is an American named Lois Meredith; she does not meet Laszlo until after her relationship with Rick in Paris has ended. Rick is a lawyer. The play (set entirely in the cafe) ends with Rick sending Lois and Laszlo to the airport. To make Rick's motivation more believable, Wallis, Curtiz, and the screenwriters decided to set the film before the attack on Pearl Harbor. The possibility was discussed of Laszlo being killed in Casablanca, allowing Rick and Ilsa to leave together, but as Casey Robinson wrote to Wallis before filming began, the ending of the film "set up for a swell twist when Rick sends her away on the plane with Laszlo. For now, in doing so, he is not just solving a love triangle. He is forcing the girl to live up to the idealism of her nature, forcing her to carry on with the work that in these days is far more important than the love of two little people." It was certainly impossible for Ilsa to leave Laszlo for Rick, as the Motion Picture Production Code forbade showing a woman leaving her husband for another man. The concern was not whether Ilsa would leave with Laszlo, but how this outcome would be engineered. The problem was solved when the Epstein brothers were driving down Sunset Boulevard and stopped for the light at Beverly Glen, Los Angeles, Beverly Glen. At that instant the identical twins turned to each other and simultaneously cried out, "Round up the usual suspects!" By the time they had driven past Fairfax District, Los Angeles, Fairfax and the Cahuenga Pass and through the Old Warner Brothers Studio, Warner Brothers studio's portals at
Burbank Burbank may refer to: Places Australia * Burbank, Queensland, a suburb in Brisbane United States * Burbank, California, a city in Los Angeles County * Burbank, Santa Clara County, California, a census-designated place * Burbank, Illinois, a ...
, in the words of Julius Epstein, "the idea for the farewell scene between a tearful Bergman and a suddenly noble Bogart" had been formed and all the problems of the ending had been solved. The uncredited Casey Robinson assisted with three weeks of rewrites, including contributing the series of meetings between Rick and Ilsa in the cafe. Koch highlighted the political and melodramatic elements, and Curtiz seems to have favored the romantic parts, insisting on retaining the Paris flashbacks. In a telegram to film editor Owen Marks on August 7, 1942, Wallis suggested two possible final lines of dialogue for Rick: "Louis, I might have known you'd mix your patriotism with a little larceny" or "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship." Two weeks later, Wallis settled on the latter, which Bogart was recalled to dub a month after shooting had finished. Bogart's line "Here's looking at you, kid", said four times, was not in the draft screenplays, but has been attributed to a comment he made to Bergman as he taught her poker between takes. Despite the many writers, the film has what Ebert describes as a "wonderfully unified and consistent" script. Koch later claimed it was the tension between his own approach and Curtiz's which accounted for this: "Surprisingly, these disparate approaches somehow meshed, and perhaps it was partly this tug of war between Curtiz and me that gave the film a certain balance." Julius Epstein would later note the screenplay contained "more corn than in the states of Kansas and Iowa combined. But when corn works, there's nothing better." The film ran into some trouble with Joseph Breen of the Production Code Administration (the Hollywood self-censorship body), who opposed the suggestions that Captain Renault extorted sexual favors from his supplicants, and that Rick and Ilsa had slept together. Extensive changes were made, with several lines of dialogue removed or altered. All direct references to sex were deleted; Renault's selling of visas for sex, and Rick and Ilsa's previous sexual relationship were implied elliptically rather than referenced explicitly. Also, in the original script, when Sam plays "As Time Goes By", Rick remarks, "What the —— are you playing?" This line was altered to: "Sam, I thought I told you never to play..." to conform to Breen's objection to an implied swear word.


Direction

Wallis's first choice for director was William Wyler, but he was unavailable, so Wallis turned to his close friend
Michael Curtiz Michael Curtiz ( ; born Manó Kertész Kaminer; December 24, 1886 April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-born American film director, recognized as one of the most prolific directors in history. He directed classic films from the silent era and nume ...
. Curtiz was a Hungarian Jewish émigré; he had come to the U.S. in 1926, but some of his family were refugees from Nazi Europe. Roger Ebert has commented that in ''Casablanca'' "very few shots ... are memorable as shots," as Curtiz wanted images to express the story rather than to stand alone. He contributed relatively little to development of the plot. Casey Robinson said Curtiz "knew nothing whatever about story ... he saw it in pictures, and you supplied the stories."Quoted in Ebert commentary. Critic Andrew Sarris called the film "the most decisive exception to the auteur theory", of which Sarris was the most prominent proponent in the United States.
Aljean Harmetz Aljean Meltsir Harmetz (born December 30, 1929) is an American journalist and film historian. She was the Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English, Hiberno-English, Hibernian English, Australian English ...
has responded, "nearly every Warner Bros. picture was an exception to the auteur theory". Other critics give more credit to Curtiz. Sidney Rosenzweig, in his study of the director's work, sees the film as a typical example of Curtiz's highlighting of moral dilemmas. The second unit Film editing, montages, such as the opening sequence of the refugee trail and the invasion of France, were directed by Don Siegel. Siegel later directed the science fiction horror film ''Invasion of the Body Snatchers'' (1956), as well as five films with Clint Eastwood, including the police thriller ''Dirty Harry'' (1971) and the prison drama ''Escape from Alcatraz (film), Escape from Alcatraz'' (1979), and John Wayne's final film, the Western ''The Shootist'' (1976).


Cinematography

The cinematographer was Arthur Edeson, a veteran who had previously shot ''The Maltese Falcon (1941 film), The Maltese Falcon'' and ''Frankenstein (1931 film), Frankenstein''. Particular attention was paid to photographing Bergman. She was shot mainly from her preferred left side, often with a softening gauze filter and with catch lights to make her eyes sparkle; the whole effect was designed to make her face seem "ineffably sad and tender and nostalgic". Bars of shadow across the characters and in the background variously imply imprisonment, the crucifix, the symbol of the Free French Forces and emotional turmoil. Dark film noir and expressionist lighting was used in several scenes, particularly towards the end of the picture. Rosenzweig argues these shadow and lighting effects are classic elements of the Curtiz style, along with the fluid camera work and the use of the environment as a framing device.


Soundtrack

The music was written by Max Steiner, who wrote film score, scores for King Kong (1933 film), ''King Kong'' and Gone with the Wind (film), ''Gone with the Wind''. The song " As Time Goes By" by Herman Hupfeld had been part of the story from the original play; Steiner wanted to write his own composition to replace it, but Bergman had already cut her hair short for her next role (María in ''For Whom the Bell Tolls (film), For Whom the Bell Tolls'') and could not re-shoot the scenes which incorporated the song, so Steiner based the entire score on it and "La Marseillaise", the French national anthem, transforming them as leitmotifs to reflect changing moods. Even though Steiner disliked "As Time Goes By", he admitted in a 1943 interview that it "must have had something to attract so much attention." The "piano player" Dooley Wilson was actually a drummer, not a trained pianist, so the piano music for the film was played offscreen by Jean Plummer and dubbed. Particularly memorable is the "duel of the anthems" between Strasser and Laszlo at Rick's cafe. In the soundtrack, "La Marseillaise" is played by a full orchestra. Originally, the opposing piece for this iconic sequence was to be the "Horst Wessel Lied", a Nazi Party, Nazi anthem, but this was still under international copyright in non-Allied countries. Instead "Die Wacht am Rhein" was used. The "Deutschlandlied", the national anthem of Germany, is used several times in minor mode as a leitmotif for the German threat, i.e. in the scene in Paris as it is announced that the German army will reach Paris the next day. It features in the final scene, in which it gives way to "La Marseillaise" after Strasser is shot. Other songs include: * "It Had to Be You (song), It Had to Be You", music by Isham Jones, lyrics by Gus Kahn * "Shine (Cecil Mack song), Shine", music by Ford Dabney, lyrics by Cecil Mack and Lew Brown * "Avalon (Al Jolson song), Avalon", music and lyrics by Al Jolson, Buddy DeSylva and Vincent Rose * "Perfidia", by Alberto Dominguez * "The Very Thought of You", by Ray Noble (musician), Ray Noble * "Knock on Wood (1942 song), Knock on Wood", music by M. K. Jerome, lyrics by Jack Scholl, the only original song. Very few films in the early 1940s had portions of the soundtrack released on phonograph record, 78 rpm records, and ''Casablanca'' was no exception. In 1997, almost 55 years after the film's premiere, Turner Entertainment in collaboration with Rhino Records issued the film's first original soundtrack album for release on compact disc, including original songs and music, spoken dialogue, and alternate takes. The piano featured in the Paris flashback sequences was sold in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
on December 14, 2012, at Sotheby's for more than $600,000 to an anonymous bidder. The piano Sam "plays" in Rick's Café Américain, put up for auction with other film memorabilia by Turner Classic Movies at Bonhams in New York on November 24, 2014, sold for $3.4 million.


Release

Although an initial release date was anticipated for early 1943, the film premiered at the Hollywood Theater in New York City on November 26, 1942, to capitalize on Operation Torch (the Allied invasion of French North Africa) and Naval Battle of Casablanca, the subsequent capture of Casablanca. It went into general release on January 23, 1943, to take advantage of the Casablanca Conference, a high-level meeting in the city between British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and American President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The United States Office of War Information, Office of War Information prevented screening of the film to troops in North Africa, believing it would cause resentment among Vichy supporters in the region.


Irish and German cuts

On March 19, 1943, the film was banned in Republic of Ireland, Ireland for infringing on the Emergency Powers Act 1939, Emergency Powers Order preserving wartime neutrality, by portraying Vichy France and Nazi Germany in a "sinister light". It was passed with cuts on June 15, 1945, shortly after the EPO was lifted. The cuts were made to dialogue between Rick and Ilsa referring to their love affair. A version with only one scene cut was passed on July 16, 1974. Raidió Teilifís Éireann, RTÉ inquired about showing the film on TV – it still required a dialogue cut to Ilsa expressing her love for Rick. Warner Brothers released a heavily-edited version of ''Casablanca'' in West Germany in 1952. All scenes with Nazis were removed, along with most references to World War II. Important plot points were altered when the dialogue was dubbed into German. Victor Laszlo was no longer a Resistance fighter who escaped from a Nazi concentration camp. Instead, he became a Norwegian atomic physicist who was being pursued by Interpol after he "broke out of jail." The West German version was 25 minutes shorter than the original cut. A German version of ''Casablanca'' with the original plot was not released until 1975.


Reception


Initial response

''Casablanca'' received "consistently good reviews". Bosley Crowther of ''The New York Times'' wrote, "The Warners ... have a picture which makes the spine tingle and the heart take a leap." He applauded the combination of "sentiment, humor and pathos with taut melodrama and bristling intrigue". Crowther noted its "devious convolutions of the plot", and praised the screenplay quality as "of the best" and the cast's performances as "all of the first order". The trade paper ''Variety (magazine), Variety'' commended the film's "combination of fine performances, engrossing story and neat direction" and the "variety of moods, action, suspense, comedy and drama that makes ''Casablanca'' an A-1 entry at the Box office, b.o." "Film is splendid anti-Axis propaganda, particularly inasmuch as the propaganda is strictly a by-product of the principal action and contributes to it instead of getting in the way." The review also applauded the performances of Bergman and Henreid and noted that "Bogart, as might be expected, is more at ease as the bitter and cynical operator of a joint than as a lover, but handles both assignments with superb finesse." Some other reviews were less enthusiastic. ''The New Yorker'' rated it only "pretty tolerable" and said it was "not quite up to ''Across the Pacific'', Bogart's last spyfest". In the 1,500-seat Hollywood Theater, the film grossed $255,000 over ten weeks (). In its initial U.S. release, it was a substantial but not spectacular box-office success, taking in $3.7 million (). According to Warner Bros. records, the film earned $3,398,000 domestically and $3,461,000 in foreign markets.


Enduring popularity

In the seven decades since its production, the film has grown in popularity. Murray Burnett called it "true yesterday, true today, true tomorrow". By 1955, the film had brought in $6.8 million, making it the third most successful of Warners' wartime movies (behind ''Shine On, Harvest Moon (film), Shine On, Harvest Moon'' and ''This Is the Army''). On April 21, 1957, the Brattle Theater of Cambridge, Massachusetts, showed the film as part of a season of old movies. It was so popular that it began a tradition of screening ''Casablanca'' during the week of final exams at Harvard University, which continues to the present day. Other colleges have adopted the tradition. Todd Gitlin, a professor of sociology who had attended one of these screenings, has said that the experience was "the acting out of my own personal rite of passage". The tradition helped the movie remain popular while other films famous in the 1940s have faded from popular memory. By 1977, ''Casablanca'' was the most frequently broadcast film on American television. For actress Ingrid Bergman, this was one of her best-known roles. In later years, she stated, "I feel about ''Casablanca'' that it has a life of its own. There is something mystical about it. It seems to have filled a need, a need that was there before the film, a need that the film filled". On the film's 50th anniversary, the ''Los Angeles Times'' called ''Casablanca''s great strength "the purity of its Golden Age Hollywoodness [and] the enduring craftsmanship of its resonantly hokey dialogue". Bob Strauss wrote in the newspaper that the film achieved a "near-perfect entertainment balance" of comedy, romance, and suspense. According to
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...

Roger Ebert
, ''Casablanca'' is "probably on more lists of the greatest films of all time than any other single title, including ''Citizen Kane''" because of its wider appeal. Ebert opined that ''Citizen Kane'' is generally considered to be a "greater" film, but ''Casablanca'' "is more loved." In his opinion, the film is popular because "the people in it are all so good", and it is "a wonderful gem". Ebert said that he has never heard of a negative review of the film, even though individual elements can be criticized, citing unrealistic special effects and the stiff character/portrayal of Laszlo. Critic Leonard Maltin considers ''Casablanca'' "the best Hollywood movie of all time." Rick, according to Rudy Behlmer, is "not a hero ... not a bad guy": he does what is necessary to get along with the authorities and "sticks his neck out for nobody". The other characters, in Behlmer's words, are "not cut and dried" and come into their goodness over the course of the film. Renault begins as a collaborator with the Nazis who extorts sexual favors from refugees and has Ugarte killed. Even Ilsa, the least active of the main characters, is "caught in the emotional struggle" over which man she really loves. By the end, however, "everybody is sacrificing." Behlmer also emphasized the variety in the picture: "it's a blend of drama, melodrama, comedy [and] intrigue". A remembrance written for the 75th anniversary published by ''The Washington Free Beacon'' said, "It is no exaggeration to say ''Casablanca'' is one of the greatest films ever made," making special note of the "intellectual nature of the film" and saying that "while the first time around you might pay attention to only the superficial love story, by the second and third and fourth viewings the sub-textual politics [of communitarianism and anti-isolationism] have moved to the fore." A few reviewers have had reservations. To
Pauline Kael Pauline Kael (; June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art Th ...
, "It's far from a great film, but it has a special appealingly schlocky romanticism ..." Umberto Eco wrote that "by any strict critical standards ... ''Casablanca'' is a very mediocre film." He viewed the changes the characters undergo as inconsistent rather than complex: "It is a comic strip, a hotchpotch, low on psychological credibility, and with little continuity in its dramatic effects." However, he added that due to the presence of multiple archetypes which allow "the power of Narrative in its natural state without Art intervening to discipline it", it is a movie reaching "Homeric depths" as a "phenomenon worthy of awe." ''Casablanca'' holds a 99% approval rating and a Weighted arithmetic mean, weighted average of 9.41/10 on Rotten Tomatoes based on 91 reviews. The site's critics consensus reads: "An undisputed masterpiece and perhaps Hollywood's quintessential statement on love and romance, ''Casablanca'' has only improved with age, boasting career-defining performances from Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman." On Metacritic, the film has a perfect score of 100 out of 100, based on 18 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". It is one of only eight films in the site's history to achieve a perfect aggregate score. In the November/December 1982 issue of ''Film Comment'', Chuck Ross wrote that he retyped the screenplay to ''Casablanca'', changing the title back to ''
Everybody Comes to Rick's ''Everybody Comes to Rick's'' is an American play that was bought unproduced by Warner Brothers for a record figure of $20,000 (). It was adapted for film as ''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'' (1942), starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman. Wri ...
'' and the name of the piano player to
Dooley Wilson ` Arthur "Dooley" Wilson (April 3, 1886 – May 30, 1953) was an American actor, singer and musician who is best remembered as Sam in the 1942 film, ''Casablanca Casablanca ( ar, الدار البيضاء, ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; ber, ⴰⵏⴼ ...

Dooley Wilson
, and submitted it to 217 agencies. The majority of agencies returned the script unread (often due to a policy of refusing unsolicited screenplays) or did not respond; however, of those who did respond, only thirty-three specifically recognized it as ''Casablanca''. Meanwhile, eight others thought it was similar to ''Casablanca'', and forty-one agencies rejected the screenplay outright, offering comments such as "Too much dialogue, not enough exposition, the story line was weak, and in general didn’t hold my interest." Three agencies offered to represent the screenplay, and one suggested turning it into a novel.


Influence on later works

Many subsequent films have drawn on elements of ''Casablanca''. ''Passage to Marseille'' (1944) reunited actors Bogart, Rains, Greenstreet, and Lorre and director Curtiz in 1944, and there are similarities between ''Casablanca'' and another later Bogart film, ''To Have and Have Not (film), To Have and Have Not'' (also 1944). Parodies have included the Marx Brothers' ''A Night in Casablanca'' (1946), Neil Simon's ''The Cheap Detective'' (1978), and ''Out Cold (2001 film), Out Cold'' (2001). Indirectly, it provided the title for the 1995 neo-noir film ''The Usual Suspects''. Woody Allen's ''Play It Again, Sam (1972 film), Play It Again, Sam'' (1972) appropriated Bogart's ''Casablanca'' persona as the fantasy mentor for Allen's character. The film ''Casablanca'' was a plot device in the science-fiction television movie ''Overdrawn at the Memory Bank'' (1983), based on John Varley (author), John Varley's story. It was referred to in Terry Gilliam's dystopian ''Brazil (1985 film), Brazil'' (1985).
Warner Bros. Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (commonly known as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB) is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Warner Bros. Studios complex in Burbank, California ...
produced its own parody in the homage ''Carrotblanca'', a 1995 Bugs Bunny cartoon. Film critic
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...

Roger Ebert
pointed out the plot of the film ''Barb Wire (film), Barb Wire'' (1996) was identical to that of ''Casablanca''. In ''Casablanca (novella), Casablanca'', a novella by Argentine writer Edgar Brau, the protagonist somehow wanders into Rick's Café Américain and listens to a strange tale related by Sam. The 2016 musical film ''La La Land (film), La La Land'' contains multiple allusions to ''Casablanca'' in the imagery, dialogue, and plot. Robert Zemeckis, director of ''Allied (film), Allied'' (2016), which is also set in 1942 Casablanca, studied the film to capture the city's elegance. The 2017 Moroccan drama film ''Razzia (2017 film), Razzia'', directed by Nabil Ayouch, is mostly set in the city of Casablanca and characters frequently discuss the 1942 film.


Awards and honors

Because of its November 1942 release, the New York Film Critics decided to include the film in its 1942 award season for best picture. ''Casablanca'' lost to ''In Which We Serve''. However, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences stated that since the film went into national release at the beginning of 1943, it would be included in that year's nominations. ''Casablanca'' was nominated for eight Academy Awards, and won three. As Bogart stepped out of his car at the awards ceremony, "the crowd surged forward, almost engulfing him and his wife, Mayo Methot. It took 12 police officers to rescue the two, and a red-faced, startled, yet smiling Bogart heard a chorus of cries of 'good luck' and 'here's looking at you, kid' as he was rushed into the theater." When the award for Best Picture was announced, producer
Hal B. Wallis Harold Brent Wallis (born Aaron Blum Wolowicz; October 19, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American film producer A film producer is a person who oversees film production. Either employed by a production company or working Independent film, in ...
got up to accept, but studio head
Jack L. Warner Jack Leonard Warner (born Jacob Warner; August 2, 1892 – September 9, 1978) was a Canadian-American film executive who was the president and driving force behind the Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California California is a U.S. sta ...
rushed up to the stage "with a broad, flashing smile and a look of great self-satisfaction," Wallis later recalled. "I couldn't believe it was happening. ''Casablanca'' had been my creation; Jack had absolutely nothing to do with it. As the audience gasped, I tried to get out of the row of seats and into the aisle, but the entire Warner family sat blocking me. I had no alternative but to sit down again, humiliated and furious ... Almost forty years later, I still haven't recovered from the shock." This incident would lead Wallis to leave Warner Bros. in April. In 1989, the film was one of the first 25 films selected for preservation in the United States
National Film Registry The National Film Registry (or NFR for short) is the United States National Film Preservation Board The United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contigu ...
as being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". In 2005, it was named one of the 100 greatest films of the last 80 years by ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine (the selected films were not ranked). ''Bright Lights Film Journal'' stated in 2007, "It is one of those rare films from Hollywood's Golden Age which has managed to transcend its era to entertain generations of moviegoers ... ''Casablanca'' provides twenty-first-century Americans with an oasis of hope in a desert of arbitrary cruelty and senseless violence." The film also ranked at number 28 on ''Empire (film magazine), Empire''s list of the 100 Greatest Movies of All Time, which stated: "Love, honour, thrills, wisecracks and a hit tune are among the attractions, which also include a perfect supporting cast of villains, sneaks, thieves, refugees and bar staff. But it's Bogart and Bergman's show, entering immortality as screen lovers reunited only to part. The irrefutible [''sic''] proof that great movies are accidents." Screenwriting teacher Robert McKee maintains that the script is "the greatest screenplay of all time". In 2006, the Writers Guild of America, West agreed, voting it the best ever in its list of the 101 greatest screenplays. The film has been selected by the American Film Institute for many of their lists of important American films:


Interpretation

''Casablanca'' has been subjected to many readings; Semiotics, Semioticians account for the film's popularity by claiming that its inclusion of stereotypes paradoxically strengthens the film. Umberto Eco wrote: Eco also singled out sacrifice as a theme, "the myth of sacrifice runs through the whole film". It was this theme which resonated with a wartime audience that was reassured by the idea that painful sacrifice and going off to war could be romantic gestures done for the greater good. Koch also considered the film a political allegory. Rick is compared to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who gambled "on the odds of going to war until circumstance and his own submerged nobility force him to close his casino (partisan politics) and commit himself—first by financing the Side of Right and then by fighting for it". The connection is reinforced by the film's title, which means "White House, white house". Harvey Greenberg presents a Freudian reading in his ''The Movies on Your Mind'', in which the transgressions which prevent Rick from returning to the United States constitute an Oedipus complex, which is resolved only when Rick begins to identify with the father figure of Laszlo and the cause which he represents. Sidney Rosenzweig argues that such readings are reductive and that the most important aspect of the film is its ambiguity, above all in the central character of Rick; he cites the different names which each character gives Rick (Richard, Ricky, Mr. Rick, Herr Rick and boss) as evidence of the different meanings which he has for each person.


Home media releases

''Casablanca'' was initially released on Betamax and VHS by Magnetic Video and later by CBS/Fox Video (as United Artists owned the distribution rights at the time). It was next released on laserdisc in 1991, and on VHS in 1992—both from MGM Home Entertainment, MGM/UA Home Entertainment (distributing for Turner Entertainment Co.), which at the time was distributed by Warner Home Video. It was first released on DVD in 1998 by MGM, containing the trailer and a making-of featurette (Warner Home Video reissued the DVD in 2000). A subsequent two-disc special edition, containing audio commentaries, documentaries, and a newly remastered visual and audio presentation, was released in 2003. An HD DVD was released on November 14, 2006, containing the same special features as the 2003 DVD. Reviewers were impressed with the new high-definition transfer of the film. A Blu-ray release with new special features came out on December 2, 2008; it is also available on DVD. The Blu-ray was initially only released as an expensive gift set with a booklet, a luggage tag and other assorted gift-type items. It was eventually released as a stand-alone Blu-ray in September 2009. On March 27, 2012, Warner released a new 70th Anniversary Ultimate Collector's Edition Blu-ray/DVD combo set. It includes a brand-new 4K restoration and new bonus material.


Cancelled sequels

Almost from the moment ''Casablanca'' became a hit, talk began of producing a sequel. One titled ''Brazzaville'' (in the final scene, Renault recommends fleeing to Brazzaville, that Free French-held city) was planned, but never produced. (A newspaper article at the time mentions that Bogart and Greenstreet "will continue their characterizations from the first film, and it's likely that Geraldine Fitzgerald will have an important role".). Since then, no studio has seriously considered filming a sequel or outright remake. François Truffaut refused an invitation to remake the film in 1974, citing its cult film, cult status among American students as his reason. Attempts to recapture the magic of ''Casablanca'' in other settings, such as ''Caboblanco'' (1980), "a South American-set retooling of ''Casablanca''", and ''Havana (film), Havana'' (1990) have been poorly received. Stories of a ''Casablanca'' remake or sequel nonetheless persist. In 2008, Madonna (entertainer), Madonna was reported to be pursuing a remake set in modern-day Iraq. In 2012, both ''The Daily Telegraph'' and ''Entertainment Weekly'' reported on efforts by Cass Warner, granddaughter of Harry Warner and friend of the late Howard Koch, to produce a sequel featuring the search by Rick Blaine and Ilsa Lund's illegitimate son for the whereabouts of his biological father.


Adaptations

On radio there were several adaptations of the film. The two best-known were a thirty-minute adaptation on ''The Screen Guild Theater'' on April 26, 1943, starring Bogart, Bergman, and Henreid, and an hour-long version on the ''Lux Radio Theater'' on January 24, 1944, featuring Alan Ladd as Rick,
Hedy Lamarr Hedy Lamarr (; born Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler; November 9, 1914 January 19, 2000) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Easte ...

Hedy Lamarr
as Ilsa, and John Loder (actor), John Loder as Victor Laszlo. Two other thirty-minute adaptations were aired, one on ''Philip Morris Playhouse'' on September 3, 1943, and the other on ''Theater of Romance'' on December 19, 1944, in which Dooley Wilson reprised his role as Sam. On television, there have been two short-lived series based upon ''Casablanca'', both sharing the title. Casablanca (1955 TV series), ''Casablanca'' (1955) aired on American Broadcasting Company, ABC as part of the wheel series ''Warner Bros. Presents'' in hour-long episodes from 1955 to 1956, is a Cold War espionage program set contemporaneously with its production, and starred Charles McGraw as Rick and
Marcel Dalio Marcel Dalio (born Israel Moshe Blauschild; 23 November 1899 in Paris – 18 November 1983) was a French character actor. He had major roles in two films directed by Jean Renoir, ''La Grande Illusion'' (1937) and ''The Rules of the Game'' (1939 ...

Marcel Dalio
, who played Emil the
croupier A croupier or dealer is someone appointed at a gambling File:A photo of a gambling stand in Paris.jpg, A gambling stand in Paris Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering of money or something of Value (economics), value (referred to a ...
in the movie, as the police chief. Casablanca (1983 TV series), ''Casablanca'' (1983) broadcast on NBC in April 1983, starred David Soul as Rick and was canceled after three weeks. The novel ''As Time Goes By (novel), As Time Goes By'', written by Michael Walsh (author), Michael Walsh and published in 1998, was authorized by Warner. The novel picks up where the film leaves off, and also tells of Rick's mysterious past in America. The book met with little success. David Thomson (film critic), David Thomson provided an unofficial sequel in his 1985 novel ''Suspects''. Julius J. Epstein, Julius Epstein made two attempts to turn the film into a Broadway musical, in 1951 and 1967, but neither made it to the stage. The original play, ''
Everybody Comes to Rick's ''Everybody Comes to Rick's'' is an American play that was bought unproduced by Warner Brothers for a record figure of $20,000 (). It was adapted for film as ''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'' (1942), starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman. Wri ...
'', was produced in Newport, Rhode Island, in August 1946, and again in London in April 1991, but met with no success. The film was adapted into a musical by the Takarazuka Revue, an all-female Japanese musical theater company, and ran from November 2009 through February 2010.


Colorization

''Casablanca'' was part of the film colorization controversy of the 1980s, when a colorized version aired on the TBS (American TV channel), television network WTBS. In 1984, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, MGM/UA hired Color Systems Technology to colorize the film for $180,000. When Ted Turner of Turner Broadcasting System purchased MGM/UA's film library two years later, he canceled the request, before contracting American Film Technologies (AFT) in 1988. AFT completed the colorization in two months at a cost of $450,000. Turner later reacted to the criticism of the colorization, saying, "[''Casablanca''] is one of a handful of films that really doesn't have to be colorized. I did it because I wanted to. All I'm trying to do is protect my investment." The
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
deemed that the color change differed so much from the original film that it gave a new copyright to Turner Entertainment. When the colorized film debuted on WTBS, it was watched by three million viewers, not making the top-ten viewed cable shows for the week. Although Jack Matthews of the ''Los Angeles Times'' called the finished product "state of the art", it was mostly met with negative critical reception. It was briefly available on home video. Gary Edgerton, writing for the ''Journal of Popular Film & Television'' criticized the colorization, "... ''Casablanca'' in color ended up being much blander in appearance and, overall, much less visually interesting than its 1942 predecessor." Bogart's son Stephen said, "if you're going to colorize ''Casablanca'', why not put arms on the Venus de Milo?"


Inaccuracies and a misquote

Several unfounded rumors and misconceptions have grown up around the film, one being that Ronald Reagan was originally chosen to play Rick. This originated in a press release issued by the studio early on in the film's development, but by that time the studio already knew that he was going into the Army, and he was never seriously considered. George Raft claimed that he had turned down the lead role. Studio records make clear that Wallis was committed to Bogart from the start. Another story is that the actors did not know until the last day of shooting how the film was to end. Koch later acknowledged:
When we began, we didn't have a finished script ... Ingrid Bergman came to me and said, 'Which man should I love more...?' I said to her, 'I don't know ... play them both evenly.' You see we didn't have an ending, so we didn't know what was going to happen!
However, while rewrites did occur during filming, Aljean Harmetz's examination of the scripts has shown that many of the key scenes were shot after Bergman knew how the film would end; any confusion was, according to critic
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...

Roger Ebert
, "emotional", not "factual". The film has several logical flaws, one being the two "letters of transit" that enable their bearers to leave
Vichy French Vichy France (french: Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State () headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. It was an independent ally of Nazi Germany until late 1942 when Berlin took full control. Evacuated fro ...
territory. Ugarte says the letters had been signed by (depending on the listener) either Vichy General Maxime Weygand, Weygand or
Free French Free France (french: France Libre) was the government-in-exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
General Charles de Gaulle, de Gaulle. The French subtitles on the official DVD read Weygand; the English ones specify de Gaulle. Weygand had been the Vichy delegate-general for the French colonial empire, North African colonies until November 1941, a month before the film is set. But de Gaulle was the head of the Free French government in exile, so a letter signed by him would have provided no benefit. The letters were invented as a MacGuffin by Joan Alison for the original play and never questioned. In the same vein, though Laszlo asserts that the Nazis cannot arrest him, saying, "This is still unoccupied France; any violation of neutrality would reflect on Captain Renault," Ebert points out, "It makes no sense that he could walk around freely. ... He would be arrested on sight." In addition, no uniformed German troops were stationed in Casablanca during World War II, and neither American nor French troops occupied Berlin in 1918. According to Harmetz, the usual route out of Germany, at least for people in the film industry, was not via Morocco and Lisbon but via Vienna, Prague, Paris and England. Only the film's technical adviser, Robert Aisner, traced the path to Morocco shown in the film's opening scene. A line closely associated with ''Casablanca''—"Play it again, Sam"—is not spoken in the film. When Ilsa first enters the Café Americain, she spots Sam and asks him to "Play it once, Sam, for old times' sake." After he feigns ignorance, she responds, "Play it, Sam. Play ' As Time Goes By'." Later that night, alone with Sam, Rick says, "You played it for her, you can play it for me," and "If she can stand it, I can! Play it!"


References

Bibliography * * ''Casablanca'' (Two-Disc Special Edition DVD) (2003) (with audio commentaries by
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...

Roger Ebert
and Rudy Behlmer and documentar
''Casablanca 50th Anniversary Special: You Must Remember This''
narrated by Lauren Bacall). * * * * * * * * * * Robertson, James C. (1993). ''The Casablanca Man: The Cinema of Michael Curtiz'' London: Routledge. *


External links


"Casablanca"
essay by Jay Carr at National Film Registry

essay by Daniel Eagan in ''America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide to the Landmark Movies in the National Film Registry'', A&C Black, 2010 , pp. 356–358 * * * * * * *
Vincent's Casablanca HomePage
Streaming audio
''Casablanca''
on ''The Screen Guild Theater'': April 26, 1943
''Casablanca''
on ''Lux Radio Theatre'': January 24, 1944
''Casablanca''
on ''Theater of Romance'': December 19, 1944 {{DEFAULTSORT:Casablanca (Film) Casablanca (film), 1942 films 1940s romantic drama films American films American black-and-white films American historical romance films American romantic drama films American World War II propaganda films American films based on plays English-language films Best Picture Academy Award winners Films about anti-fascism Films whose director won the Best Directing Academy Award Films whose writer won the Best Adapted Screenplay Academy Award Films directed by Michael Curtiz Films produced by Hal B. Wallis Films with screenplays by Howard Koch (screenwriter) Films with screenplays by Julius J. Epstein Films with screenplays by Philip G. Epstein Films scored by Max Steiner Films set in 1940 Films set in 1941 Films set in Casablanca Films set in Paris Films shot in California United States National Film Registry films Warner Bros. films War romance films World War II films made in wartime Articles containing video clips Films adapted into television shows