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Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (; 9 December 1920 – 16 September 2016) was an Italian politician and banker who was the 49th
Prime Minister of Italy The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Ita ...
from 1993 to 1994 and the 10th
President of Italy The president of Italy, officially denoted as President of the Italian Republic ( it, Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae o ...
from 1999 to 2006.


Biography


Education

Ciampi was born in
Livorno Livorno () is a port city on the Ligurian Sea 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Ligure) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlant ...

Livorno
(
Province of Livorno The province of Livorno or, traditionally, province of Leghorn ( it, provincia di Livorno) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivisio ...
).Page at Senate website
.
He received a B.A. in
ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature is written in the language from the earliest texts until the time of the . The earliest surviving works of ancient Greek literature, dating back to the early , are the two epic poems the ' and the ', set in an ideali ...
and
classical philology Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Any ...
in 1941 from the
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa The Scuola Normale Superiore (commonly known in Italy as "la Normale") is a university institution of higher education based in Pisa and Florence, Tuscany, Italy, currently attended by about 600 undergraduate and postgraduate (PhD) students. It ...
, one of the country's most prestigious universities, defending a thesis entitled '' Favorino d'
Arelate Arles (, also , ; oc, label=Provençal dialect, Provençal, Arle ; Classical la, Arelate) is a city and Communes of France, commune in the south of France, a Subprefectures in France, subprefecture in the Bouches-du-Rhône Departments of Fran ...

Arelate
e la consolazione Περὶ φυγῆς'' under the direction of the Hellenist
Augusto Mancini
Augusto Mancini
. Then he was called to military duty in
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a par ...
as a lieutenant. On 8 September 1943, on the date of the armistice with the Allies, he refused to remain in the
Fascist Fascism () is a form of far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political spectrum than the standard political right, particular ...
Italian Social Republic The Italian Social Republic ( it, Repubblica Sociale Italiana, ; RSI), popularly and historically known as the Republic of Salò ( it, Repubblica di Salò ), was a List of World War II puppet states#Germany, German puppet state with limited D ...

Italian Social Republic
, and took refuge in
Abruzzo Abruzzo (, , ; nap, label=Neapolitan language, Abruzzese Neapolitan, Abbrùzze , ''Abbrìzze'' or ''Abbrèzze'' ; nap, label=Sabino dialect, Aquilano, Abbrùzzu) or Abruzzi is a Regions of Italy, region of Southern Italy with an area of 10,763 ...

Abruzzo
, in Scanno. He subsequently managed to pass the lines and reach
Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Metropolitan City of Bari ( it, Città Metropolitana di Bari) is a Metropolitan cities of Italy, ...

Bari
, where he joined the Partito d'Azione (and thus the Italian resistance movement). In 1946 he married Franca Pilla. That same year, he obtained a B.A. in law from the University of Pisa and began working at the Bank of Italy, Banca d'Italia. He also joined the CGIL (Trade Union), which he left in 1980.


Bank of Italy

In 1960, he was called to work in the central administration of the Bank of Italy, where he became Secretary General in 1973, Vice Director General in 1976, and Director General in 1978. In October 1979, he was nominated Governor of the Bank of Italy and President of the national Bureau de Change, positions he filled until 1993.


Political career

Ciampi was the first non-parliamentarian prime minister of Italy in more than 100 years. From April 1993 to May 1994 he oversaw a technical government. Later, as treasury minister from 1996 to May 1999 in the governments of Romano Prodi and Massimo D'Alema, he was credited with adopting the euro currency. He personally chose the Italian design for the 1-euro coin, whereas all others were left to a television vote among some candidates the ministry had prepared (see also: Italian euro coins). Ciampi chose the Vitruvian man of Leonardo da Vinci, on the symbolic grounds that it represented man as a measure of all things, and in particular of the coin: in this perspective, money was at the service of man, instead of its opposite. The design also fitted very well on the Bimetallic coins, bimetallic material of the coin. According to the Italian weekly ''Famiglia Cristiana'', in 1993 Ciampi was a member of the regular Masonic Lodge "Hermes" of Livorno which was affiliated to the Grand Orient of Italy and linked the socalled Rito Filosofico Italiano.


President (1999–2006)

Ciampi was elected with a broad majority, and was the second president ever to be elected at the first ballot (when there is a requirement of a two-thirds majority) in a joint session of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy, Chamber of Deputies, the Italian Senate and representatives of the Regions. He usually refrained from intervening directly into the political debate while serving as President. However, he often addressed general issues, without mentioning their connection to the current political debate, in order to state his opinion without being too intrusive. His interventions have frequently stressed the need for all parties to respect the constitution and observe the proprieties of political debate. He was generally held in high regard by all political forces represented in the parliament. The possibility of persuading Ciampi to stand for a second term as President by the 2006 Italian presidential election, election 2006 – the so-called ''Ciampi-bis'' – was widely discussed, despite his advancing age, but it was officially dismissed by Ciampi himself on 3 May 2006: "None of the past nine presidents of the Republic has been re-elected. I think this has become a meaningful rule. It is better not to infringe it". Ciampi, whose mandate was due to expired on the 18th, resigned on the 15th. His successor, Giorgio Napolitano took the oath on the same day. As head of state of the host country, he officially declared the 2006 Winter Olympics open, on the 10th of February 2006. As President, Ciampi was not considered to be close to the positions of the Holy See, Vatican and the Catholic Church, in a sort of alternance after the devout Oscar Luigi Scalfaro. He often praised patriotism, not always a common feeling in Italy because of its abuse by the fascist regime.


Death

He died in Rome on 16 September 2016 at the age of 95.


Awards and honours

As President of the Italian Republic between 18 May 1999 and 15 May 2006, Ciampi held the roles of: *Head of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic *Chief of the Military Order of Italy *Head of the Order of Merit for Labour *Head of the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity *Head of the Order of Vittorio Veneto *Bailiff Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta *Collar of the Order of Pius IX (Papal Order) *1982: Great Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic *1985: Commander of the Legion of Honour (France) *1986: Great Cross of Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany *1991: Honorary degree, University of Pavia *1993: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun (Japan) *1995: Freeman of the City of Naples *1999: Collar of the Order of the White Rose (Finland) *2000: Gold Medal of the Jean Monnet Foundation for Europe *2000: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (United Kingdom, 16 October 2000) *2000: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle (Poland), Order of the White Eagle (Poland) *2001: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav *2001: Medal of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. *2001: Grand Cross of the Grand Order of King Tomislav ("For outstanding contribution to the promotion of friendship and development co-operation between the Republic of Croatia and the Italian Republic." – Croatia, 19 October 2001) *2001: Honorary doctorate from the University of Leipzig Faculty of Economics *2002: Grand Star of Honour for Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria, Services to the Republic of Austria *2002: – Grand Cross (or 1st Class) of the Order of the White Double Cross (Slovakia) *2002: Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry (Portugal, 22 February 2002) *2002: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Hungarian Republic *2002: Collar Order pro merito Melitensi, Pro Merito Melitensi of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta *2003: Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania *2003: – Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm (Malaysia) *2004: Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana (Estonia) *2004: Commander Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of Three Stars (Latvia) *(Malta, 19 May 2005) Honorary Member of the Xirka Ġieħ ir-Repubblika *2005: Charlemagne Prize *2005: – Grand Cross of the Order of Saint-Charles (Monaco, 13 December 2005)Nomination by Sovereign Ordonnanc
n° 331 13 December 2005
(French)
*March 2005: honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree form the Oxford University *Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross (Brazil) *2008: Honorary doctorate from the Economics Faculty of the University of Augsburg *15 June 2005: honorary doctorate by the École Normale Supérieure of Paris.


References

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External links

{{DEFAULTSORT:Ciampi, Carlo Azeglio 1920 births 2016 deaths Action Party (Italy) politicians Central bankers Italian bankers Italian Life Senators Italian military personnel of World War II Italian resistance movement members Italian Roman Catholics People from Livorno Presidents of Italy Prime Ministers of Italy University of Pisa alumni 20th-century Italian politicians Commandeurs of the Légion d'honneur Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Honorary Recipients of the Order of the Crown of the Realm Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Knights of the Order of Pope Pius IX Knights of the Order of Vittorio Veneto Governors of the Bank of Italy Grand Collars of the Order of Prince Henry Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint-Charles Grand Cordons of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Crosses of the Order of the Southern Cross Grand Crosses Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Grand Crosses with Chain of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (civil) Recipients of the Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana Recipients of the Grand Star of the Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria Recipients of the Military Order of Italy Recipients of the Order of Merit for Labour Recipients of the Order of Saint-Charles Recipients of the Medal of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay