HOME

TheInfoList




Capua (, ) is a city and ''
comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil registry, registry of births a ...
'' in the
province of Caserta The Province of Caserta ( it, Provincia di Caserta) is a Provinces of Italy, province in the Campania region of southern Italy. Its capital is the city of Caserta, situated about by road north of Naples. The province has an area of , and a total ...
, in the region of
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
, southern Italy, situated north of
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.


History


Ancient era

The name of Capua comes from the
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
''Capeva''. The meaning is 'City of Marshes'. Its foundation is attributed by
Cato the Elder Marcus Porcius Cato (; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Censor ( la, Censorius), the Elder and the Wise, was a Roman soldier, senator The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia ...
to the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna ...
, and the date given as about 260 years before it was "taken" by
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
. If this is true it refers not to its capture in the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War, which lasted from 218 to 201BC, was the second of three wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading ...
(211 BC) but to its submission to Rome in 338 BC, placing the date of foundation at about 600 BC, while Etruscan power was at its highest. In the area several settlements of the
Villanovian civilization The Villanovan culture (c. 900–700 BC), regarded as the earliest phase of the Etruscan civilization, was the earliest Iron Age culture of Central Italy and Northern Italy. It directly followed the Bronze Age Proto-Villanovan culture which branch ...
were present in prehistoric times, and these were probably enlarged by the
Oscan Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and th ...
s and subsequently by the Etruscans. Etruscan supremacy in Campania came to an end with the
SamniteSamnite is an adjective meaning "having to do with ancient Samnium." Samnite may also refer to: * Samnites, the people of ancient Samnium * Samnite (gladiator type), a gladiator who fought with the equipment and in the manner of a Samnite soldier * ...

Samnite
invasion in the latter half of the 5th century BC. About 424 BC it was captured by the Samnites and in 343 BC besought Roman help against its conquerors. Capua entered into alliance with Rome for protection against the Samnite mountain tribes, along with its dependent communities
CasilinumCasilinum was an ancient city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routled ...
,
Calatia Cālātia was an ancient town of Campania (man), it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 ...
,
Atella Atella was an ancient Oscan Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the norther ...
, so that the greater part of Campania now fell under Roman supremacy. The citizens of Capua received the
civitas sine suffragio''Civitas sine suffragio'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
(citizenship without the vote). In the second
Samnite War The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, 326–304 BC, and 298–290 BC) were fought between the Roman Republic and the Samnites The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy Ital ...
with Rome, Capua proved an untrustworthy Roman ally, so that after the defeat of the Samnites, the Ager Falernus on the right bank of the
Volturnus The VolturnUS is a floating concrete structure that supports a wind turbine, designed by University of Maine Advanced Structures and Composites Center and deployed by DeepCwind Consortium in 2013. The VolturnUS can support wind turbines in water d ...

Volturnus
was confiscated. In 318 BC the powers of the native officials (meddices) were limited by the appointment of officials with the title ''praefecti Capuam Cumas'' (taking their name from the most important towns of Campania); these were at first mere deputies of the ''praetor urbanus'', but after 123 BC were elected Roman magistrates, four in number; they governed the whole of Campania until the time of Augustus, when they were abolished. It was the capital of
Campania Felix it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
. In 312 BC, Capua was connected with Rome by the construction of the ''
Via Appia The Appian Way (Latin and Italian language, Italian: ''Via Appia'') is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient Roman Republic, republic. It connected Rome to Brindisi, in southeast Italy. Its importanc ...

Via Appia
'', the most important of the military highways of Italy. The gate by which it left the
Servian walls The Servian Wall ( la, Murus Servii Tullii; it, Mura Serviane) was an ancient Roman defensive barrier constructed around the city of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulu ...
of Rome bore the name
Porta Capena 300px, The Obelisk of Axum in Rome in 2002. Porta Capena was a gate in the Servian Wall The Servian Wall ( la, Murus Servii Tullii; it, Mura Serviane) was an ancient Roman defensive barrier constructed around the city of Rome , establish ...
; perhaps the only case in which a gate in this line of fortifications bears the name of the place to which it led. At what time the
Via Latina 270px, Wall painting in the Catacomb of the Via Latina, 4th century. The Via Latina (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in t ...

Via Latina
was stretched to Casilinum is doubtful (it is quite possible that it was done when Capua fell under Roman supremacy, i.e. before the construction of the ''Via Appia''); it afforded a route only longer, and the difficulties with its construction were much less; it also avoided the troublesome journey through the Pontine Marshes. The importance of Capua increased steadily during the 3rd century BC, and at the beginning of the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War, which lasted from 218 to 201BC, was the second of three wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading ...
it was considered to be only slightly behind Rome and
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
themselves, and was able to furnish 30,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry. Until after the defeat of
Cannae Cannae (now Canne della Battaglia) is an ancient village of the Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demo ...
it remained faithful to Rome, but, after a vain demand that one of the consuls should always be selected from it or perhaps in order to secure regional supremacy in the event of a Carthaginian victory, it defected to
Hannibal Hannibal (; xpu, 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋, ''Ḥannibaʿl''; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded the forces of Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern ...

Hannibal
, who made it his winter quarters: he and his army were voluntarily received by Capua.
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
and others have suggested that the luxurious conditions were Hannibal's "Cannae" because his troops became soft and demoralized by luxurious living. Historians from Bosworth Smith onwards have been skeptical of this, observing that his troops gave as good an account of themselves in battle after that winter as before. After a long siege, it was taken by the Romans in 211 BC and severely punished ( Second Battle of Capua); its magistrates and communal organization were abolished, the inhabitants who weren't killed lost their civic rights, and its territory was declared ''ager publicus'' (Roman state domain). Parts of it were sold in 205 BC and 199 BC, another part was divided among the citizens of the new colonies of Volturnum and
Liternum Liternum was an ancient town of Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demograph ...
, established near the coast in 194 BC, but the greater portion of it was reserved to be let by the state. Considerable difficulties occurred in preventing illegal encroachments by private persons, and it became necessary to buy a number of them out in 162 BC. It was, after that period, let, not to large but to small proprietors. Frequent attempts were made by the democratic leaders to divide the land among new settlers. M. Junius Brutus the Elder in 83 BC actually succeeded in establishing a colony, but it was soon dissolved; and
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
's speeches ''De Lege Agrania'' were directed against a similar attempt by
Servilius RullusPublius Servilius Rullus was plebeian tribune of the Roman Republic in 63 BC. He proposed an agrarian law aimed at redistributing land for the landless poor in Rome to farm. We know about this through the speeches delivered by Marcus Tullius Cicero a ...
in 63 BC. In the meantime the necessary organization of the inhabitants of this thickly populated district was in a measure supplied by grouping them round important shrines, especially that of Diana Tifatina, in connection with which a ''pagus Dianae'' existed, as we learn from many inscriptions; a ''pagus Herculaneus'' is also known. The town of Capua belonged to none of these organizations, and was entirely dependent on the ''praefecti''. It enjoyed great prosperity, however, due to their growing of
spelt Spelt (''Triticum spelta''), also known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the ...

spelt
, a grain that was put into
groats Groats (or in some cases, "berries") are the hulled Husk (or hull) in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed. In the United States, the term husk often refers to the leafy outer covering of an Ear (botany), ear of maize (corn) as it g ...
, wine, roses, spices,
unguentAn unguent is a soothing preparation spread on wound A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an ''open'' wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a ''closed'' wound). ...
s etc., and also owing to its manufacture, especially of bronze objects, of which both the elder Cato and
the elder Pliny
the elder Pliny
speak in the highest terms. Its luxury remained proverbial; and Campania is especially spoken of as the home of
gladiator A gladiator ( la, gladiator, "swordsman", from , "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run thr ...

gladiator
ial combats. From the gladiatorial schools of Campania came
Spartacus Spartacus ( el, Σπάρτακος '; la, Spartacus; c. 111–71 BC) was a Thracians, Thracian gladiator who, along with Crixus, Gannicus, Castus (rebel), Castus, and Oenomaus (rebel slave), Oenomaus, was one of the Slavery in ancient Rom ...
and his followers in 73 BC.
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
as
consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...

consul
in 59 BC succeeded in carrying out the establishment of a Roman colony under the name Julia Felix in connection with his agrarian law, and 20,000 Roman citizens were settled in this territory. The number of colonists was increased by
Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the Crisis of the Roman Republic, transformation of the Roman Republic f ...
,
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
(who constructed an
aqueduct Aqueduct may refer to: Bridges *Aqueduct (bridge), a bridge to convey water over an obstacle, such as a ravine or valley *Navigable aqueduct, or water bridge, a structure to carry navigable waterway canals over other rivers, valleys, railways or r ...

aqueduct
from the ''Mons Tifata'' and gave the town of Capua estates in the district of
Knossos Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced ; grc, Κνωσός, Knōsós, ; Linear B: ''Ko-no-so'') is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city. Settled as early as the Neolithic period, the na ...

Knossos
in
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
valued at 12 million
sesterces The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin. During the Roman Republic it was a small, silver Silver is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ag (from the Latin ', derive ...
) and
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth emperor of Rome. He was Adoption in Ancient Rome, adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and s ...

Nero
. In the war of 69 it took the side of
Vitellius Aulus Vitellius (; ; 24 September 1520 December 69) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Of ...
. Under the later empire it is not often mentioned; but in the 4th century it was the seat of the ''consularis Campaniae'' and its chief town, though
Ausonius Decimus ''or'' Decimius Magnus Ausonius (; – c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps student A student is primarily a person enrolled in a sc ...

Ausonius
puts it behind Mediolanum (
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
) and
Aquileia Aquileia ( , , ; fur, Olee / / / / ;Bilingual name of ''Aquileja – Oglej'' in: vec, Aquiłeja / ) is an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
Aquileia
in his '' ordo nobilium urbium''.


Middle Ages

Under
Constantine Constantine most often refers to: * Constantine the Great Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterra ...

Constantine
, a Christian church was founded in Capua. In 456, it was taken and destroyed by the Vandals under
Gaiseric Gaiseric ( – 25 January 477), also known as Geiseric or Genseric ( la, Gaisericus, Geisericus; reconstructed Vandalic: ) was King of the Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland ...
, but was likely soon rebuilt. During the
Gothic WarGothic War may refer to: *Gothic War (367–369), a war of Thervingi against the Eastern Roman Empire in which the Goths retreated to Montes Serrorum *Gothic War (376–382), Thervingi and Greuthungi against the Roman Empire *Gothic War (401–403), ...
, Capua suffered greatly. When the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on ...
invaded
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
in the second half of the 6th century, Capua was ravaged; later, it was included in the
Duchy of Benevento The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population ...
, and ruled by an official styled
gastald A gastald (Latin ''gastaldus'' or ''castaldus'', Italian language, Italian ''gastaldo'' or ''guastaldo'') was a Lombards, Lombard official in charge of some portion of the royal demesne (a gastaldate, ''gastaldia'' or ''castaldia'') with civil, mart ...
. In 839, the
prince of Benevento This is a list of the dukes and princes of Duchy of Benevento, Benevento. Dukes of Benevento * 571–591 Zotto * 591–641 Arechis I of Benevento, Arechis I * 641–642 Aiulf I of Benevento, Aiulf IAndrea Bedina, "Grimoaldo, re dei Longobardi", ...
, Sicard, was assassinated by
Radelchis I of BeneventoRadelchis I (also ''Radalgis'') (died 851) was the treasurer, then prince of Benevento from 839, when he assumed the throne upon the assassination (possibly at his instigation) of Sicard and imprisonment of Sicard's brother, Siconulf, to his deat ...
, who took over the throne. Sicard's brother
Siconulf Siconulf (also ''Siconolf'', ''Sikenolf'', ''Siconolfo'', or ''Siconulfus'') was the first prince of Salerno Image:Italy 1000 AD.svg, The Principality of Salerno in Italy around 1000 This page is a list of the rulers of the Principality of Salerno. ...
was proclaimed independent prince in Salerno and the gastald of Capua declared himself independent. In 840, ancient Capua was burned to the ground by a band of Saracen mercenaries called by
Radelchis I of BeneventoRadelchis I (also ''Radalgis'') (died 851) was the treasurer, then prince of Benevento from 839, when he assumed the throne upon the assassination (possibly at his instigation) of Sicard and imprisonment of Sicard's brother, Siconulf, to his deat ...
with only the church of Santa Maria Maggiore (founded about 497) remaining (which was purposely spared by the invading Muslims, whose policy was that to leave houses of worship alone). A new city was built in 856, but at some distance from the former site, where another town later appeared under the name of
Santa Maria Capua Vetere Santa Maria Capua Vetere ( nap, Santa Maria 'e Capua) is a town and '' comune'' in the province of Caserta The Province of Caserta ( it, Provincia di Caserta) is a Provinces of Italy, province in the Campania region of Italy. Its capital is the ci ...
("Capua the Old"). Prince Atenulf I conquered Benevento in 900 and united the principalities until 981, when
Pandulf Ironhead Pandulf I Ironhead (died March 981) was the Prince of Benevento This is a list of the dukes and princes of Duchy of Benevento, Benevento. Dukes of Benevento * 571–591 Zotto * 591–641 Arechis I of Benevento, Arechis I * 641–642 Aiulf I of ...
separated them in his will for his children. Capua eclipsed Benevento thereafter and became the chief rival of Salerno. Under Pandulf IV, the principality brought in the aid of the
Normans The Normans (Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of N ...

Normans
and, for a while had the loyalty of
Rainulf DrengotRainulf Drengot (also Ranulph, Ranulf, or Rannulf; died June 1045) was a Normans, Norman adventurer and mercenary in southern Italy. In 1030 he became the first Aversa#History, count of Aversa. He was a member of the Drengot family. Early life and a ...
, until the latter abandoned him to aid the deposed
Sergius IV of Naples 250px, Italy in the time of Sergius IV. Sergius IV (died after 1036) was Duke of Naples from 1002 to 1036. He was one of the prime catalysts in the growth of Norman power in the Mezzogiorno in the first half of the eleventh century. He was nom ...
take back his city, annexed by Pandulf in 1027. Upon Pandulf's death, Capua fell to his weaker sons and, in 1058, the city itself fell in a siege to Rainulf's nephew
Richard I Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western Kin ...
, who took the title Prince of Aversa. For seven years (1091–1098),
Richard II Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was List of deposed politicians, deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward the Black Prince, Edward, Prince of ...
was exiled from his city, but with the aid of his relatives, he retook the city after a siege in 1098. His dynasty lived on as princes of Capua until the last claimant of their line died in 1156 and the principality was definitively united to the
kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

kingdom of Sicily
. Hereafter, Capua is no longer the capital of a larger principality, but a minor city in an important kingdom. In the early 1500s, it was reported to
Pope Alexander VI Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja; ca-valencia, Roderic Llançol i de Borja ; es, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja, lang ; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as th ...

Pope Alexander VI
that his son,
Cesare Borgia Cesare Borgia (; ca-valencia, Cèsar Borja ; es, link=no, César Borja ; 13 September 1475 – 12 March 1507) was an Italian politician and ''condottieri, condottiero'' (mercenary leader) of Valencian (Spanish) origin, whose fight for power w ...

Cesare Borgia
, had captured the city and promptly killed all 6,000 citizens, which included women and children, while commanding French troops during the sieges of Naples and Capua.


Modern Age

On 3 January 1799, during the
French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
, this community was successfully attacked by a French-controlled 1798–1799
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
Army led by Governor MacDonald. The
Battle of Volturnus (1860) The Battle of the Volturno refers to a series of military clashes between Giuseppe Garibaldi's volunteers and the troops of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies occurring around the river Volturno, between the cities of Capua and Caserta in northern Camp ...
, at the conclusion of
Garibaldi Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( , ; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, patriot and republican. He contributed to the Italian unification Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning " ...

Garibaldi
's
Expedition of the Thousand The Expedition of the Thousand ( it, Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and ...
, partially took place in and around Capua. Prior to the battle, the Neapolitan army – defeated in earlier engagements – was rebuilt in Capua under marshal
Giosuè Ritucci Giosuè Ritucci Lambertini di Santanastasia (1794, Naples–1869, Naples) was a military commander and minister of war in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( nap, Regno d’ ’e Ddoje Sicilie; scn, Regnu d ...
. After fighting elsewhere in which the Neapolitans were ultimately defeated, the last of them – c. 3,000 troops Colonel Perrone – were holed up in Capua. The city was attacked by the Garibaldines and one Piedmontese regular Bersaglieri battalion, and captured. In the referendum several months later, its inhabitants voted overwhelmingly to join the new
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
.


Archaeological sites


Remains

No pre-Roman remains have been found within the town of Capua itself, but important cemeteries have been discovered on all sides of it, the earliest of which go back to the 7th or 5th century. The tombs are of various forms, partly chambers with
fresco Fresco (plural ''frescos'' or ''frescoes'') is a technique of Mural, mural painting executed upon freshly laid ("wet") lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the ...

fresco
es on the walls, partly cubical blocks of
peperino Peperino is an Italian name applied to a brown or grey volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor ...
, hollowed out, with grooved lids. The objects found within them consist mainly of vases of bronze (many of them without feet, and with incised designs of Etruscan style) and of clay, some of Greek, some of local manufacture, and of paintings. On the east of the town, in the Patturelli property, a temple has been discovered with
Oscan Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and th ...
votive inscriptions originally thought to be Oscan, now recognized as
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
, some of them inscribed upon terracotta tablets, the most famous of which is the
Tabula Capuana The ''Tabula Capuana'' (=''Tablet from Capua'' Italian language, Ital. ''Tavola Capuana''), is an ancient terracotta clay tablet, slab, 60 by 50 centimeters, with a long inscribed text in Etruscan language, Etruscan, apparently a ritual calendar, ...
, conserved in Berlin, still, after more than a century of searching, the second-longest Etruscan text. Other brief inscriptions are on ''cippi''. A group of 150
tuff Tuff is a type of Rock (geology), rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a Volcano, vent during a volcanic eruption. Following ejection and deposition, the ash is lithified into a solid rock. Rock that contains greater than 75% ash is consider ...

tuff
statuettes represent a matron holding one or more children in her lap: three bore
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
inscriptions of the early
Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...

Imperial
period. The site of the town being in a perfectly flat plain, without natural defences, it was possible to lay it out regularly. Its length from east to west is accurately determined by the fact that the ''Via Appia'', which runs from north-west to south-east from Casilinum to Calatia, turns due east very soon after passing the so-called '' Arch of Hadrian'' (a
triumphal arch A triumphal arch is a free-standing monumental structure in the shape of an arch An arch is a vertical curved structure that Span (architecture), spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizon ...

triumphal arch
of brickwork, once faced with marble, with three openings, erected in honour of some emperor unknown), and continues to run in this direction for (6,000 ancient Oscan feet). The west gate was the ''Porta Romana''; remains of the east gate (the name of which we do not know) have been found. This fact shows that the main street of the town was perfectly oriented, and that before the ''Via Appia'' was constructed, i.e. in all probability in pre-Roman times. The width of the town from north to south cannot be so accurately determined as the line of the north and south walls is not known, though it can be approximately fixed by the absence of tombs. Beloch fixes it at 4,000 Oscan feet = , nor is it absolutely certain (though it is in the highest degree probable, for
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
praises its regular arrangement and fine streets) that the plan of the town was rectangular. Within the town are remains of thermae, public baths on the north of the Via Appia and of a theatre opposite, on the south. The former consisted of a large ''cryptoporticus'' round three sides of a court, the south side being open to the road; it now lies under the prisons. Beloch (see below) attributes this to the Oscan period; but the construction as shown in Labruzzi's drawing (v. 17) 1 is partly of brick-work and opus reticulatum, which may, of course, belong to a restoration. The stage of the theatre had its back to the road; Labruzzi (v. 18) gives an interesting view of the cavea. It appears from inscriptions that it was erected after the time of Augustus. Other inscriptions, however, prove the existence of a theatre as early as 94 BC. The Roman colony was divided into regions and possessed a ''capitolium'', with a temple of Jupiter (god), Jupiter, within the town, and the marketplace, for unguents especially, was called Seplasia; we also hear of an ''aedes alba'', probably the original senate house, which stood in an open space known as albana. But the sites of all these are uncertain. A Mithraeum may also be seen, by appointment.


Amphitheatre

Outside the town, in
Santa Maria Capua Vetere Santa Maria Capua Vetere ( nap, Santa Maria 'e Capua) is a town and '' comune'' in the province of Caserta The Province of Caserta ( it, Provincia di Caserta) is a Provinces of Italy, province in the Campania region of Italy. Its capital is the ci ...
, there is the amphitheatre, built in the time of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
, restored by Hadrian and dedicated by Antoninus Pius, as the inscription over the main entrance recorded. The exterior was formed by 80 Doric order, Doric arcades of four stories each, but only two arches now remain. The keystones were adorned with heads of divinities. The interior is better preserved; beneath the arena are subterranean passages like those in the amphitheatre at Puteoli. It is one of the largest in existence; the longer diameter is , the shorter , and the arena measures , the corresponding dimensions in the Colosseum at Rome being 188, 155, 85, 53 metres (615, 510, 279 and 174 ft). To the east are considerable remains of baths – a large octagonal building, an apse against which the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie is built, and several heaps of debris. On the Via Appia, to the south-east of the east gate of the town, arc two large and well-preserved tombs of the Roman period, known as ''le Carceri vecchie'' and ''la Conocchia''. To the east of the amphitheatre an ancient road, the ''Via Dianae'', leads north to the Pagus Dianae, on the west slopes of the Mons Tifata, a community which sprang up around the famous and ancient temple of Diana, and probably received an independent organization after the abolition of that of Capua in 211 BC. The place often served as a base for attacks on the latter, and Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Sulla, after his defeat of Gaius Norbanus, gave the whole of the mountain to the temple. Within the territory of the ''pagus'' were several other temples with their ''magistri''. After the restoration of the community of Capua, we find ''magistri'' of the temple of Diana still existing, but they were probably officials of Capua itself. The site is occupied by the Benedictine church of ''San Michele Arcangelo'' in Sant'Angelo in Formis. It dates from 944, and was reconstructed by the abbot Desiderius (afterwards Pope Victor III) of Monte Cassino. It has interesting paintings, dating from the end of the 11th century to the middle of the 12th, in which five different styles may be distinguished. They form a complete representation of all the chief episodes of the New Testament. Deposits of votive objects (''favissae''), removed from the ancient temple from time to time as new ones came in and occupied all the available space, have been found, and considerable remains of buildings belonging to the ''Vicus Dianae'' (among them a triumphal arch and some baths, also a hail with frescoes, representing the goddess herself ready for the chase) still exist. The ancient road from Capua went on beyond the ''Vicus Dianae'' to the Volturnus (remains of the bridge still exist) and then turned east along the river valley to Caiatia and Telesia. Other roads ran to Puteoli and Cumae (the so-called Via Campana) and to Naples, Neapolis, and as we have seen the Via Appia passed through Capua, which was thus the most important road centre of Campania.


See also

* Santa Maria Capua Vetere#History, History of Santa Maria Capua Vetere * Archdiocese of Capua * Capua Leg * Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli


References


Sources

* *


External links

{{Authority control Capua, 856 establishments Cities and towns in Campania Euboean colonies of Magna Graecia Mithraea Roman sites of Campania 9th-century establishments in Italy