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Cape Town (
Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 5 ...
: Kaapstad ;
Xhosa Xhosa may refer to: * Xhosa people, a nation, and ethnic group, who live in south-central and southeasterly region of South Africa * Xhosa language, one of the 11 official languages of South Africa, principally spoken by the Xhosa people See also ...
: ''iKapa;'') is the second-most populous city in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
, after
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
, and also the legislative
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
of
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
. Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
of the
Western Cape The Western Cape ( af, Wes-Kaap; xh, iNtshona-Koloni) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnation ...
province and forms part of the
City of Cape Town The City of Cape Town ( af, Stad Kaapstad; xh, IsiXeko saseKapa) is the metropolitan municipality (South Africa), metropolitan municipality which governs the city of Cape Town, South Africa and all of its suburbs and Commuter town, exurbs. As o ...
metropolitan municipality A metropolitan municipality is a type of municipality established in some countries to serve a metropolitan area. Canada In generic terms and in practical application within Canada, a metropolitan municipality is an urban local government with p ...
. The
Parliament of South Africa The Parliament of the Republic of South Africa is South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous ...
is situated in Cape Town. The other two capitals are located in
Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimbabwe and Botswana About It is a lang ...
(
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
the executive capital where the Presidency is based) and in the
Free State The Free State ( af, Vrystaat; st, Freistata; xh, iFreyistata; tn, Foreistata; zu, iFuleyisitata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. Its capital is Bloemfontein, which is also South A ...
(
Bloemfontein Bloemfontein, ( ; , "fountain of flowers") also known as Bloem, is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that ph ...

Bloemfontein
the judicial capital where the Supreme Court of Appeal is located). The city is known for
its harbour
its harbour
, for its natural setting in the
Cape Floristic Region The Cape Floristic Region is a floristic region located near the southern tip of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 ...
, and for landmarks such as
Table Mountain Table Mountain ( naq, Huriǂoaxa, lit= sea-emerging; af, Tafelberg) is a flat-topped mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa. It is a significant tourist attraction, with many visitors using the ...

Table Mountain
and
Cape Point Cape Point ( af, Kaappunt) is a promontory A promontory is a raised mass of land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in la ...

Cape Point
. Cape Town is home to 49% of the Western Cape's population. The city was named the
World Design CapitalThe World Design Capital (WDC) is a city promotion project by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design to recognize and award accomplishments made by cities around the world in the field of design. World Design Capitals by year ...
for 2014 by the
International Council of Societies of Industrial Design The World Design Organization (WDO) was founded in 1957 from a group of international organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institutio ...
. In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' and ''
The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'' (), is a national British daily broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common ne ...

The Daily Telegraph
''. Cape Town has also been a host city for both the
1995 Rugby World Cup The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams. The tournament was first held in 1987, when the tournament was co-h ...
and
2010 FIFA World Cup The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for List of men's national association football teams, men's national association football teams. It took place in South Africa from 11 June to 11 July 2010. The FIFA W ...
, and annually hosts the Africa leg of the World Rugby 7s. Located on the shore of
Table Bay Table Bay (Afrikaans File:WIKITONGUES- Alaric speaking Afrikaans.webm, Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana, Zambia ...

Table Bay
, Cape Town, as the oldest urban area in the Western Cape, it was developed by the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
(VOC) as a supply station for Dutch ships sailing to
East Africa East Africa, Eastern Africa, or East of Africa is the eastern sub-region A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are commonly used to define a subr ...
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, and the
Far East The Far East is a term to refer to the geographical regions that includes East and Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeaster ...

Far East
.
Jan van Riebeeck Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck (21 April 1619 – 18 January 1677) was a Dutch navigator and colonial administrator who founded Cape Town Cape Town (Afrikaans File:WIKITONGUES- Alaric speaking Afrikaans.webm, Alaric speaking A ...

Jan van Riebeeck
's arrival on 6 April 1652 established the
VOC Cape Colony
VOC Cape Colony
, the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the
Castle of Good Hope The Castle of Good Hope ( nl, Kasteel de Goede Hoop; af, Kasteel die Goeie Hoop) known locally as the Castlehttps://janalinesworldjourney.com/2016/03/28/torture-chambers-at-castle/ or Cape Town Castle is a bastion fort built in the 17th cent ...

Castle of Good Hope
, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
. Until the
Witwatersrand Gold Rush The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of ...
and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa.


History


Early history

The earliest known remnants of human occupation in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. Little is known of the history of the region's first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by
Portuguese explorer Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Descobrimentos portugueses'') are the numerous territories and maritime routes recorded by the Portugal, Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and ...
Bartolomeu Dias Bartolomeu Dias (; ; Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer. He sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, the first European to do so, s ...

Bartolomeu Dias
in 1488 who was the first European to reach the area and named it "Cape of Storms" (). It was later renamed by
John II of Portugal John II ( pt, João II; ; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), called the Perfect Prince ( pt, o Príncipe Perfeito, link=no), was King of Portugal from 1481 until his death in 1495, and also for a brief time in 1477. He is known for re-establishi ...

John II of Portugal
as "Cape of Good Hope" () because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India and the East.
Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (, ; ; c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portugal in the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea. His initial voyage to India by way of Cape of Good Hope (1 ...

Vasco da Gama
recorded a sighting of the
Cape of Good Hope A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in medieval Europe, especially when combined with a Hood (headgear), hood in the Chaperon (headgear), ...

Cape of Good Hope
in 1497. In 1510, at the
Battle of Salt River The Battle of Salt River was a small military engagement between the crew of a Portuguese Empire, Portuguese fleet led by Francisco de Almeida and the indigenous Khoekhoe, ǃUriǁʼaekua ("Goringhaiqua" in Dutch approximate spelling), notable for ...

Battle of Salt River
,
Francisco de Almeida Dom Francisco de Almeida (), also known as the Great Dom Francisco (c. 1450 – 1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information ...

Francisco de Almeida
and sixty-four of his men were killed and his party were defeated by the !Uriǁ’aekua ("Goringhaiqua" in Dutch approximate spelling) using specially trained cattle. The !Uriǁ’aekua were one of the so-called
Khoekhoe Khoekhoen (singular Khoekhoe) (or Khoikhoi in the former orthography; formerly also '' Hottentots''"Hottentot, n. and adj." ''OED Online'', Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. ...
clans of the area. In the late 16th century French, Danish, Dutch and English, but mainly Portuguese, ships regularly continued to stop over in Table Bay en route to the
Indies The East Indies (or simply the Indies), is a term used in historical narratives of the Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an info ...
. They traded tobacco, copper and iron with the
Khoekhoe Khoekhoen (singular Khoekhoe) (or Khoikhoi in the former orthography; formerly also '' Hottentots''"Hottentot, n. and adj." ''OED Online'', Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. ...
clans of the region, in exchange for fresh meat and other provisions.


Dutch period

In 1652,
Jan van Riebeeck Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck (21 April 1619 – 18 January 1677) was a Dutch navigator and colonial administrator who founded Cape Town Cape Town (Afrikaans File:WIKITONGUES- Alaric speaking Afrikaans.webm, Alaric speaking A ...

Jan van Riebeeck
and other employees of the
United East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC; id, Persatuan Perusahaan Hindia Timur), was a megacorporation Image:Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie spiegelretourschip Am ...

United East India Company
( nl, Verenigde Oost-indische Compagnie, VOC) were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
, and the Fort de Goede Hoop (later replaced by the
Castle of Good Hope The Castle of Good Hope ( nl, Kasteel de Goede Hoop; af, Kasteel die Goeie Hoop) known locally as the Castlehttps://janalinesworldjourney.com/2016/03/28/torture-chambers-at-castle/ or Cape Town Castle is a bastion fort built in the 17th cent ...

Castle of Good Hope
). The settlement grew slowly during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
and
Madagascar Madagascar (; mg, Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar ( mg, Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, links=no, ; french: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic The Malagasy Republic ( mg, Repoblika Mal ...

Madagascar
. Many of these became ancestors of the first
Cape Coloured Cape Coloureds () are a South African ethnic group composed primarily of persons of mixed race. Although Coloureds form a minority group within South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernm ...
communities. Under Van Riebeeck and his successors as VOC commanders and later governors at the Cape, an impressive range of useful plants were introduced to the Cape – in the process changing the natural environment forever. Some of these, including grapes, cereals, ground nuts, potatoes, apples and citrus, had an important and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region.


British period

The
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
being transformed into
Revolutionary France The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...
's vassal
Batavian Republic The Batavian Republic ( nl, Bataafse Republiek; french: République Batave) was the successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Successor'' (film), a 1 ...
, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the
Battle of Blaauwberg A battle is an occurrence of combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or devic ...

Battle of Blaauwberg
. In the
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 (also known as the Convention of London; nl, Verdrag van Londen) was signed by the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Brita ...
, Cape Town was permanently ceded to the United Kingdom. It became the capital of the newly formed
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
, whose territory expanded very substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for greater independence from the UK, with the Cape attaining its own parliament (1854) and a locally accountable Prime Minister (1872). Suffrage was established according to the non-racial
Cape Qualified Franchise The Cape Qualified Franchise was the system of non-racial franchise that was adhered to in the Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British Empire, British colony in present-day South Af ...
. During the 1850s and 1860s additional plant species were introduced from Australia by the British authorities. Notably rooikrans to stabilise the sand of the
Cape Flats The Cape Flats ( af, Die Kaapse Vlakte) is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town. Geology and geography In geological terms, the area is essentially a vast sheet of aeolian s ...
to allow for a road connecting the peninsula with the rest of the African continent and
eucalyptus ''Eucalyptus'' () is a of over seven hundred species of s, shrubs or in the , Myrtaceae. Along with several other genera in the , including ', they are commonly known as s. Plants in the genus ''Eucalyptus'' have bark that is either smooth, ...

eucalyptus
to drain marshes. In 1859 the first railway line was built by the
Cape Government Railways The Cape Government Railways (CGR) was the government-owned railway operator in the Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British Empire, British colony in present-day South Africa named ...
and a system of railways rapidly expanded in the 1870s. The discovery of diamonds in
Griqualand West Griqualand West is an area of central South Africa with an area of 40,000 km2 that now forms part of the Northern Cape Province. It was inhabited by the Griqua people – a semi-nomadic, Afrikaans-speaking nation of mixed-race origin, who ...
in 1867, and the
Witwatersrand Gold Rush The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of ...
in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. In 1895 the city's first public power station, the
Graaff Electric Lighting Works The Graaff Electric Lighting Works power station is a decommissioned Hydro-electric and Steam power plant, steam power plant located in Cape Town, South Africa at the site of the Molteno Dam. History The plant was the first hydro-electric plant ...
, was opened. Conflicts between the
Boer republics 500px, Boer Republics and Griqua states in Southern Africa, 19th century The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent, self-governing republic A republic () is a form of government A government i ...
in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two B ...
of 1899–1902, which Britain won. From 1891 to 1901, the city's population more than doubled from 67,000 to 171,000.


South African period

In 1910, Britain established the
Union of South Africa The Union of South Africa ( nl, Unie van Zuid-Afrika; af, Unie van Suid-Afrika ) was the historical predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost ...
, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British
colony of Natal The Colony of Natal was a British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonize ...
. Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, and later of the
Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 milli ...
. Prior to the mid-twentieth century, Cape Town was one of the most racially integrated cities in the South Africa. In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of ''
apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

apartheid
'' (racial segregation) under the slogan of " swart gevaar" (Afrikaans for "black danger"). This led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape's multiracial franchise, as well as to the
Group Areas Act Group Areas Act was the title of three act of parliament, acts of the Parliament of South Africa enacted under the apartheid government of South Africa. The acts assigned racial groups to different residential and business sections in urban area ...
, which classified all areas according to race. Formerly multi-racial suburbs of Cape Town were either purged of residents deemed unlawful by apartheid legislation or demolished. The most infamous example of this in Cape Town was
District Six District Six (Afrikaans ''Distrik Ses'') is a former inner-city residential area in Cape Town, South Africa. Over 60,000 of its inhabitants were History of South Africa in the Apartheid era#Forced removal, forcibly removed during the 1970s ...
. After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed. Many of these residents were relocated to the
Cape Flats The Cape Flats ( af, Die Kaapse Vlakte) is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town. Geology and geography In geological terms, the area is essentially a vast sheet of aeolian s ...
. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a "
Coloured Coloureds ( af, Kleurlinge or , ) are a multiracial people, multiracial ethnic group Indigenous peoples of Africa, native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from more than one of the various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoi ...
labour preference area", to the exclusion of "
Bantus Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred Indigenous peoples of Africa, indigenous List of ethnic groups of Africa, ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the Afr ...
", i.e. Africans. The implementation of this policy was widely opposed by trade unions, civil society and opposition parties. It is notable that this policy was not advocated for by any coloured political group, and its implementation was a unilateral decision by the apartheid government. School students from
Langa Langa may refer to: Places South Africa *Langa, Cape Town Langa is a Township (South Africa), township in Cape Town, South Africa. Its name in Xhosa language, Xhosa means "sun". The township was initially built in phases before being formally ...
,
Gugulethu Gugulethu (misspelt as "Guguletu" when it was officially named) is a township ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, ...

Gugulethu
and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of protests against Bantu Education in Soweto in June 1976 and organised gatherings and marches, which were met with resistance from the police. A number of school buildings were burnt down. Cape Town was home to many leaders of the
anti-apartheid movement The Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), was a British organisation that was at the center of the international movement opposing the South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Afri ...
. On
Robben Island Robben Island ( af, Robbeneiland) is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can ...

Robben Island
, a former penitentiary island from the city, many famous political prisoners were held for years. In one of the most famous moments marking the end of apartheid,
Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (born Rolihlahla Mandela ; ; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader and philanthropist who served as the first president of South Africa Th ...

Nelson Mandela
made his first public speech since his imprisonment, from the balcony of
Cape Town City Hall
Cape Town City Hall
hours after being released on 11 February 1990. His speech heralded the beginning of a new era for the country, and the first democratic election, was held four years later, on 27 April 1994. Nobel Square in the
Victoria & Alfred Waterfront The Victoria & Alfred (V&A) Waterfront in Cape Town Cape Town (Afrikaans File:WIKITONGUES- Alaric speaking Afrikaans.webm, Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language spoken in South Af ...

Victoria & Alfred Waterfront
features statues of South Africa's four
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 Decemb ...
winners:
Albert Luthuli Inkosi Albert John Luthuli (very often spelt Lutuli; – 21 July 1967), also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi (English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, ...

Albert Luthuli
,
Desmond Tutu Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following th ...

Desmond Tutu
, F. W. de Klerk and
Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (born Rolihlahla Mandela ; ; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader and philanthropist who served as the first president of South Africa Th ...

Nelson Mandela
. There was a severe water shortage from 2015 to 2018.


Geography

Cape Town is located at latitude 33.55° S (approximately the same as
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
and
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
and equivalent to
Casablanca Casablanca ( ar, الدار البيضاء, ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; ber, ⴰⵏⴼⴰ, anfa) is the largest city of Morocco. Located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, it is the second largest city in the Maghreb ...

Casablanca
and
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...

Los Angeles
in the northern hemisphere) and longitude 18.25° E. Table Mountain, with its near vertical cliffs and flat-topped summit over high, and with Devil's Peak and Lion's Head on either side, together form a dramatic mountainous backdrop enclosing the central area of Cape Town, the so-called City Bowl. A thin strip of cloud, known colloquially as the "tablecloth", sometimes forms on top of the mountain. To the immediate south, the Cape Peninsula is a scenic mountainous spine jutting southwards into the Atlantic Ocean and terminating at
Cape Point Cape Point ( af, Kaappunt) is a promontory A promontory is a raised mass of land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in la ...

Cape Point
. There are over 70 peaks above within City of Cape Town, Cape Town's official city limits. Many of the city's suburbs lie on the large plain called the
Cape Flats The Cape Flats ( af, Die Kaapse Vlakte) is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town. Geology and geography In geological terms, the area is essentially a vast sheet of aeolian s ...
, which extends over to the east and joins the peninsula to the mainland. The Cape Town region is characterised by an extensive coastline, rugged mountain ranges, coastal plains, inland valleys and semi-desert fringes.


Robben Island

UNESCO declared
Robben Island Robben Island ( af, Robbeneiland) is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can ...

Robben Island
in the Western Cape a List of World Heritage Sites in Africa, World Heritage Site in 1999. Robben Island is located in Table Bay, some west of Bloubergstrand in Cape Town, and stands some 30m above sea level. Robben Island has been used as a prison where people were isolated, banished and exiled to for nearly 400 years. It was also used as a leper colony, a post office, a grazing ground, a mental hospital, and an outpost. Visitors can only access the island via the Robben Island Museum boat service, which runs three times daily until the beginning of the peak season (1 September). The ferries depart from the Nelson Mandela Gateway at the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, V&A Waterfront.


Climate

Cape Town has a warm Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen "Csb"), with mild, moderately wet winters and dry, warm summers. Winter, which lasts from the beginning of June to the end of August, may see large cold fronts entering for limited periods from the Atlantic Ocean with significant precipitation (meteorology), precipitation and strong north-westerly winds. Winter months in the city average a maximum of and minimum of Total annual rainfall in the city averages although in the Southern Suburbs, Cape Town, Southern Suburbs, close to the mountains, rainfall is significantly higher and averages closer to . Summer, which lasts from December to March, is warm and dry with an average maximum of and minimum of . The region can get uncomfortably hot when the Berg wind, Berg Wind, meaning "mountain wind", blows from the Karoo interior. Spring and summer generally feature a strong wind from the south-east, known locally as the south- or the Cape Doctor, so called because it blows air pollution away. This wind is caused by a persistent Pressure system#High-pressure system, high-pressure system over the South Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic to the west of Cape Town, known as the South Atlantic High, which shifts latitude seasonally, following the sun, and influencing the strength of the fronts and their northward reach. Cape Town receives about 3,100 hours of sunshine per year. Water temperatures range greatly, between on the Atlantic Seaboard, to over in False Bay. Average annual ocean surface temperatures are between on the Atlantic Seaboard (similar to Californian waters, such as San Francisco or Big Sur), and in False Bay (similar to Northern Mediterranean temperatures, such as Nice or Monte Carlo). Unlike other parts of the country the city does not have many thunderstorms, and most of those that do occur, happen around October to December and March to April.


Weather

The general trend is for the weather to come in from the west and move eastwards with the frontal systems, but there can also be more local weather phenomena such as occasional thunderstorms and berg wind, Berg Winds, which are warm winds coming down over the mountains from inland. There can be considerable variation in weather conditions between different parts of Cape Town on any day, though the general tendency may be similar. For example rain may fall on the Cape Peninsula in the morning, and by afternoon these conditions may have moved over to the east side of False Bay and the peninsula may be clearing, with a significant wind directional shift from north-westerly to south-westerly, which mat be followed by south-easterly depending on the season. Local variation in wind strength may be extreme, as there may be a dead calm in one place and a gale force wind a few kilometres away. There are places known for exposure to both south-easterly and north-westerly winds, and some which are sheltered from one or the other, while the south-westerlies blow most places, but not usually to quite the same extremes. A berg wind is caused by a high altitude inland high pressure, usually in winter, on the cold, dry central plateau areas above the great escarpment, coupled with lower pressures at the coast. The wind flows down the escarpment and is heated by compression. The temperature rise can be considerable and occurs over a short period. This hot, dry wind is offshore in most parts of Cape Town and it is usually followed by cool onshore winds with low cloud, fog and drizzle, and is often associated with the approach of a cold front from the west in winter, which may bring strong westerly winds and substantial frontal rain.


Flora and fauna

Located in a Conservation International, CI Biodiversity hotspot as well as the unique
Cape Floristic Region The Cape Floristic Region is a floristic region located near the southern tip of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 ...
, the city of Cape Town has one of the highest levels of biodiversity of any equivalent area in the world. These protected areas are a World Heritage Site, and an estimated 2,200 species of plants are confined to Table Mountain – more than exist in the whole of the United Kingdom which has 1200 plant species and 67 endemic plant species. Many of these species, including a great many types of proteas, are endemic to the mountain and can be found nowhere else. It is home to a total of 19 different phytochorion, vegetation types, of which several are Endemism, endemic to the city and occur nowhere else in the world. It is also the only habitat of hundreds of endemic species, and hundreds of others which are severely restricted or threatened. This enormous species diversity is mainly because the city is uniquely located at the convergence point of several different soil types and micro-climates. Table Mountain has an unusually rich biodiversity. Its vegetation consists predominantly of several different types of the unique and rich Cape Fynbos. The main vegetation type is endangered Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos, but critically endangered Peninsula Granite Fynbos, Peninsula Shale Renosterveld and Afromontane, Afromontane forest occur in smaller portions on the mountain. Unfortunately, rapid population growth and Urbanisation, urban sprawl has covered much of these ecosystems with development. Consequently, Cape Town now has over 300 threatened plant species and 13 which are now extinct. The Cape Peninsula, which lies entirely within the city of Cape Town, has the highest concentration of threatened species of any continental area of equivalent size in the world. Tiny remnant populations of critically endangered or Extinct, near extinct plants sometimes survive on road sides, pavements and sports fields. The remaining ecosystems are partially protected through a system of over 30 List of nature reserves in Cape Town, nature reserves – including the massive Table Mountain National Park. Cape Town reached first place in the 2019 iNaturalist City Nature Challenge in two out of the three categories: Most Observations, and Most Species. This was the first entry by Capetonians in this annual competition to observe and record the local biodiversity over a four-day long weekend during what is considered the worst time of the year for local observations. However, a worldwide survey showed that the extinction rate of endemic plants from the City of Cape Town is one of the highest in the world, at roughly three per year since 1900 - partly a consequence of the very small and localised habitats and high endemicity.


Suburbs

Cape Town's urban geography is influenced by the contours of Table Mountain, its surrounding peaks, the Durbanville Hills, and the expansive lowland region known as the Cape Flats. These geographic features in part divide the city into several commonly known groupings of suburbs (equivalent to districts outside South Africa), many of which developed historically together and share common attributes of language and culture.


City Bowl

The City Bowl is a natural amphitheatre-shaped area bordered by Table Bay and defined by the mountains of Signal Hill (Cape Town), Signal Hill, Lion's Head, Table Mountain and Devil's Peak. The area includes the central business district of Cape Town, the harbour, the Company's Garden, and the residential suburbs of De Waterkant, Cape Town, De Waterkant, Devil's Peak Estate, Devil's Peak, District Six, Zonnebloem, Gardens, Cape Town, Gardens, Bo-Kaap, Higgovale, Cape Town, Higgovale, Oranjezicht, Cape Town, Oranjezicht, Schotsche Kloof, Cape Town, Schotsche Kloof, Tamboerskloof, University Estate, Cape Town, University Estate, Vredehoek, Cape Town, Vredehoek, Walmer Estate, Cape Town, Walmer Estate and Woodstock, Cape Town, Woodstock. The Foreshore Freeway Bridge has stood in its unfinished state since construction officially ended in 1977. It was intended to be the Eastern Boulevard Highway in the city bowl, but is unfinished due to budget constraints.


Atlantic Seaboard

The Atlantic Seaboard lies west of the City Bowl and Table Mountain, and is characterised by its beaches, cliffs, promenade and hillside communities. The area includes, from north to south, the neighbourhoods of Green Point, Cape Town, Green Point, Mouille Point, Cape Town, Mouille Point, Three Anchor Bay, Sea Point, Fresnaye, Cape Town, Fresnaye, Bantry Bay, Cape Town, Bantry Bay, Clifton, Cape Town, Clifton, Camps Bay, Llandudno, Cape Town, Llandudno, and Hout Bay. The Atlantic Seaboard has some of the most expensive real estate in South Africa particularly on Nettleton and Clifton Roads in Clifton, Ocean View Drive and St Leon Avenue in Bantry Bay, Theresa Avenue in Bakoven and Fishermans Bend in Llandudno. Camps Bay is home to the highest concentration of multimillionaires in Cape Town and has the highest number of high-priced mansions in South Africa with more than 155 residential units exceeding R20 million (or $US1.8 million).


Blaauwberg

Blaauwberg is a coastal region of the City of Cape Town, Cape Town Metropolitan area and lies along the coast to the north of Cape Town, and includes the suburbs Bloubergstrand, Cape Town, Bloubergstrand, Milnerton, Cape Town, Milnerton, Tableview, Cape Town, Tableview, West Beach, Big Bay, Sunset Beach, Sunningdale, Parklands, Western Cape, Parklands and Parklands North, as well as the exurbs of Atlantis, Western Cape, Atlantis, Mamre, Western Cape, Mamre and Melkbosstrand. The Koeberg Nuclear Power Station is located within this area and maximum housing density regulations are enforced in much of the area surrounding the nuclear plant.


Northern Suburbs

The Northern Suburbs is a predominantly Afrikaans-speaking region of the City of Cape Town, Cape Town Metropolitan area and includes Belhar, Bellville, Cape Town, Bellville, Blue Downs, Bothasig, Cape Town, Bothasig, Burgundy Estate, Durbanville, Cape Town, Durbanville, Edgemead, Cape Town, Edgemead, Brackenfell, Cape Town, Brackenfell, Elsie's River, Cape Town, Elsie's River, Eerste River, Western Cape, Eerste River, Kraaifontein, Goodwood, Cape Town, Goodwood, Kensington, Cape Town, Kensington, Maitland, Cape Town, Maitland, Monte Vista, Cape Town, Monte Vista, Panorama, Cape Town, Panorama, Parow, South Africa, Parow, Richwood, Cape Town, Richwood, Kraaifontein, Cape Town, Kraaifontein and Kuils River. The Northern Suburbs are home to Tygerberg Hospital, the largest hospital in the Western Cape and second largest in South Africa


Southern Suburbs

The Southern Suburbs lie along the eastern slopes of Table Mountain, southeast of the city centre. This area is predominantly English-speaking, and includes, from north to south, Observatory, Cape Town, Observatory, Mowbray, Cape Town, Mowbray, Pinelands, Cape Town, Pinelands, Rosebank, Cape Town, Rosebank, Rondebosch, Rondebosch East, Newlands, Cape Town, Newlands, Claremont, Cape Town, Claremont, Lansdowne, Cape Town, Lansdowne, Kenilworth, Cape Town, Kenilworth, Bishopscourt, Cape Town, Bishopscourt, Constantia, Cape Town, Constantia, Wynberg, Cape Town, Wynberg, Plumstead, Cape Town, Plumstead, Ottery, Cape Town, Ottery, Bergvliet, Cape Town, Bergvliet and Diep River, Cape Town, Diep River. West of Wynberg lies Constantia, Cape Town, Constantia which, in addition to being a wealthy neighbourhood, is a notable wine-growing region within the City of Cape Town, and attracts tourists for its well-known wine farms and Cape Dutch architecture. The Southern Suburbs is also well known as having some of the oldest, and most sought after residential areas within the City of Cape Town.


South Peninsula

The South Peninsula is a predominantly English-speaking area in the City of Cape Town, Cape Town Metropolitan area and is generally regarded as the area South of Muizenberg, Cape Town, Muizenberg on False Bay and Noordhoek, Cape Town, Noordhoek on the Atlantic Ocean, all the way to Cape Point. Until recently, this region was quite rural, however the population of the area is growing quickly as new coastal developments proliferate and larger plots are subdivided to provide more compact housing. It includes Capri Village, Cape Town, Capri Village, Clovelly, Fish Hoek, Cape Town, Fish Hoek, Glencairn, Cape Town, Glencairn, Kalk Bay, Kommetjie, Cape Town, Kommetjie, Masiphumelele, Cape Town, Masiphumelele, Muizenberg, Noordhoek, Cape Town, Noordhoek, Ocean View, Cape Town, Ocean View, Scarborough, Cape Town, Scarborough, Simon's Town, St James, Cape Town, St James, Sunnydale and Sun Valley. South Africa's largest Naval Base Simon's Town, naval base is located at Simon's Town harbour, and close by is Boulders Beach, the site of a large colony of African penguins.


Cape Flats

The Cape Flats is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the city centre. Due to the region having a Mediterranean climate, the wettest months on the Cape Flats are from April to September, with 82% most of its rainfall occurring between these months. The rainfall patterns on the Cape Flats vary with longitude, such that the eastern parts get a minimum of 214mm per year and the central and western parts get 800mm per year. A significant portion of this water ends up in the Cape Flats Aquifer, which lie beneath the central and southern parts of the Cape Flats. Most of the land of the Cape Flats is used for residential areas, the majority of which are Suburb, formal, but with several Shanty town, informal settlements present. Light Industrial park, industrial areas are also found in the area. A part of the land in the south-east is used for Agriculture, cultivation and contains many smallholdings.


Helderberg

The Helderberg is a small region in the City of Cape Town, Cape Town Metropolitan area located on the north-eastern corner of False Bay. It consists of Somerset West, Strand, Western Cape, Strand, Gordons Bay and a few other suburbs which were previously towns in the Helderberg district. The district takes its name from the imposing Helderberg Mountain, which reaches a height of


Government

Cape Town is governed by a 231-member city council elected in a system of mixed-member proportional representation. The city is divided into 116 ward (South Africa), wards, each of which elects a councillor by first-past-the-post voting. The remaining 115 councillors are elected from party lists so that the total number of councillors for each party is proportional to the number of votes received by that party. In the South African municipal election, 2016, local government elections of 3 August 2016, the Democratic Alliance (South Africa), Democratic Alliance (DA) won an outright majority, taking 154 of the 231 council seats. The African National Congress, the national ruling party, received 57 seats. As a result of this victory, Patricia de Lille of the Democratic Alliance was re-elected to a second term as Executive Mayor. However, De Lille resigned as Mayor on 31 October 2018. The Democratic Alliance designated Dan Plato as their candidate to replace her. File:Dan Plato.jpeg, Mayor of Cape Town Dan Plato. File:CT City Hall Before the Sun.jpg, The Old as seen from the Grand Parade (Cape Town), Grand Parade in front of the building. File:Cape Town Civic Centre.jpg, The Cape Town Civic Centre, the central offices of the City of Cape Town. File:9 2 018 0234-Houses of Parliament-The Cape-s.jpg, South African parliament, South Africa's national parliament building is located in Cape Town.


Demographics

According to the South African National Census of 2011, the population of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipalityan area that includes suburbs and exurbs not always considered as part of Cape Townis 3,740,026 people. This represents an annual growth rate of 2.6% compared to the results of the South African National Census of 2001, previous census in 2001 which found a population of 2,892,243 people. The Human sex ratio, sex ratio is 96, meaning that there are slightly more women than men. 42.4% of the population described themselves as "
Coloured Coloureds ( af, Kleurlinge or , ) are a multiracial people, multiracial ethnic group Indigenous peoples of Africa, native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from more than one of the various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoi ...
", 38.6% as "Bantu peoples in South Africa, Black African", 15.7% as "White South African, White", 1.4% as "Indian South African, Indian or Asian South African, Asian"and 1.9% as "Other". In 1944, 47% of the city's population was White, 46% was Coloured, less than 6% was Black African and 1% was Asian. Of those residents who were asked about their first language, 35.7% spoke
Afrikaans Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 5 ...
, 29.8% spoke
Xhosa Xhosa may refer to: * Xhosa people, a nation, and ethnic group, who live in south-central and southeasterly region of South Africa * Xhosa language, one of the 11 official languages of South Africa, principally spoken by the Xhosa people See also ...
and 28.4% spoke South African English, English. 24.8% of the population is under the age of 15, while 5.5% is 65 or older. Of those residents aged 20 or older, 1.8% have no schooling, 8.1% have some schooling but did not finish primary school, 4.6% finished primary school but have no secondary schooling, 38.9% have some secondary schooling but did not finish Grade 12, 29.9% finished Grade 12 but have no higher education, and 16.7% have higher education. Overall, 46.6% have at least a Grade 12 education. Of those aged between 5 and 25, 67.8% are attending an educational institution. Amongst those aged between 15 and 65 the unemployment rate is 23.7%. The average annual household income is South African rand, R161,762. There are 1,068,573 households in the municipality, giving an average household size of 3.3 people. Of those households, 78.4% are in formal structures (houses or apartment, flats), while 20.5% are in informal structures (Shanty town, shacks). 94.0% of households use mains electricity, electricity for lighting. 87.3% of households have water supply, piped water to the dwelling, while 12.0% have piped water through a communal tap. 94.9% of households have regular refuse collection service. 91.4% of households have a flush toilet or chemical toilet, while 4.5% still use a bucket toilet. 82.1% of households have a refrigerator, 87.3% have a television and 70.1% have a radio. Only 34.0% have a landline telephone, but 91.3% have a cellphone. 37.9% have a computer, and 49.3% have access to the Internet (either through a computer or a cellphone).


Economy

Cape Town is the economic hub of the
Western Cape The Western Cape ( af, Wes-Kaap; xh, iNtshona-Koloni) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnation ...
province,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
's second main economic centre and Africa's third main economic hub city. It serves as the regional manufacturing centre in the Western Cape. In 2011 the city's GDP was American dollar, US$56.8 billion with a GDP per capita of US$15,721. In the five years preceding 2014 Cape Town GDP grew at an average of 3.7% a year. As a proportion of GDP, the agriculture and manufacturing sectors have declined whilst finance, business services, transport and logistics have grown reflecting the growth in specialised services sectors of the local economy. Fishing, clothing and textiles, wood product manufacturing, electronics, furniture, hospitality, finance and business services are industries in which Cape Town's economy has the largest comparative advantage. Between 2001 and 2010 the city's Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality, improved by dropping from 0.59 in 2007 to 0.57 in 2010 only to increase to 0.58 by 2017. The city has the lowest rate of inequality in South Africa. Cape Town has recently enjoyed a booming real estate and construction market, because of the
2010 FIFA World Cup The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for List of men's national association football teams, men's national association football teams. It took place in South Africa from 11 June to 11 July 2010. The FIFA W ...
as well as many people buying summer homes in the city or relocating there permanently. Cape Town hosted nine World Cup matches: Six first-round matches, one second-round match, one quarter final and one semifinal. The central business district is under an extensive urban renewal programme, with numerous new buildings and renovations taking place under the guidance of the Cape Town Partnership. Cape Town has four major commercial nodes, with Cape Town Central Business District containing the majority of job opportunities and office space. Century City (Cape Town), Century City, the Bellville, Western Cape, Bellville/Tyger Valley, Tygervalley strip and Claremont, Cape Town, Claremont commercial nodes are well established and contain many offices and corporate headquarters as well. Most companies headquartered in the city are insurance companies, retail groups, publishers, design houses, fashion designers, shipping companies, petrochemical companies, architects and advertising agencies. The most notable companies headquartered in the city are food and fashion retailer Woolworths (South Africa), Woolworths, supermarket chain Pick n Pay Stores and Shoprite (South Africa), Shoprite, New Clicks Holdings Limited, fashion retailer Foschini Group, internet service provider MWEB, Mediclinic International, eTV, multinational mass media giant Naspers, and financial services giant Sanlam. Other notable companies include Belron (vehicle glass repair and replacement group operating worldwide), CapeRay (develops, manufactures and supplies medical imaging equipment for the diagnosis of breast cancer), Ceres Fruit Juices (produces fruit juice and other fruit based products), Coronation Fund Managers (third-party fund management company), ICS (was one of the largest meat processing and distribution companies in the world), Vida e Caffè (chain of coffee retailers), Capitec Bank (commercial bank in the Republic of South Africa). The city is a manufacturing base for several multinational companies including, Johnson & Johnson, GlaxoSmithKline, Levi Strauss & Co., Adidas, Bokomo, Bokomo Foods, Yoco and Nampak. Most goods are handled through the Port of Cape Town or Cape Town International Airport. Most major shipbuilding companies have offices in Cape Town. The province is also a centre of energy development for the country, with the existing Koeberg nuclear power station providing energy for the Western Cape's needs. The Western Cape is an important tourist region in South Africa; the tourism industry accounts for 9.8% of the GDP of the province and employs 9.6% of the province's workforce. In 2010, over 1.5 million international tourists visited the area. With the highest number of successful Technology companies in Africa, Cape Town is an important centre for the industry on the continent. This includes an increasing number of companies in the Space industry. Growing at an annual rate of 8.5% and an estimated worth of R77 billion in 2010, nationwide the high tech industry in Cape Town is becoming increasingly important to the city's economy. The city was recently named as the most entrepreneurial city in South Africa, with the percentage of Capetonians pursuing business opportunities almost three times higher than the national average. Those aged between 18 and 64 were 190% more likely to pursue new business, whilst in Johannesburg, the same demographic group was only 60% more likely than the national average to pursue a new business. Numerous startups in the Space industry have been founded in Cape Town. With a number of entrepreneurship initiatives and world class universities providing skills, Cape Town has become the Silicon Valley of South Africa, hosting innovative technology startups such as Jumo, Yoco, Aerobotics, Luno and The Sun Exchange.


Tourism

Cape Town is not only a popular international tourist destination in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
, but Africa as a whole. This is due to its mild climate, natural setting, and well-developed infrastructure. The city has several well-known natural features that attract tourists, most notably
Table Mountain Table Mountain ( naq, Huriǂoaxa, lit= sea-emerging; af, Tafelberg) is a flat-topped mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa. It is a significant tourist attraction, with many visitors using the ...

Table Mountain
, which forms a large part of the Table Mountain National Park and is the back end of the City Bowl, Cape Town, City Bowl. Reaching the top of the mountain can be achieved either by hiking up, or by taking the Table Mountain Cableway.
Cape Point Cape Point ( af, Kaappunt) is a promontory A promontory is a raised mass of land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in la ...

Cape Point
is recognised as the dramatic headland at the end of the Cape Peninsula. Many tourists also drive along Chapman's Peak, Chapman's Peak Drive, a narrow road that links Noordhoek, Cape Town, Noordhoek with Hout Bay, Cape Town, Hout Bay, for the views of the Atlantic Ocean and nearby mountains. It is possible to either drive or hike up Signal Hill (Cape Town), Signal Hill for closer views of the City Bowl and Table Mountain. Many tourists also visit List of beaches of Cape Town, Cape Town's beaches, which are popular with local residents. Due to the city's unique geography, it is possible to visit several different beaches in the same day, each with a different setting and atmosphere. Though the Cape's water ranges from cold to mild, the difference between the two sides of the city is dramatic. While the Atlantic Seaboard averages annual water temperatures barely above that of coastal California around , the False Bay coast is much warmer, averaging between annually. This is similar to water temperatures in much of the Northern Mediterranean (for example Nice). In summer, False Bay water averages slightly over , with a common high. Beaches located on the Atlantic Coast tend to have very cold water due to the Benguela current which originates from the Southern Ocean, whilst the water at False Bay beaches may be warmer by up to at the same moment due to the influence of the warm Agulhas Current, Agulhas current. It is a common misconception that False Bay is part of the Indian Ocean, with Cape Point being both the meeting point of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and the southernmost tip of Africa. The oceans in fact meet at the actual southernmost tip, Cape Agulhas, which lies approximately to the south east. The misconception is fuelled by the relative warmth of the False Bay water to the Atlantic Seaboard water, and the many confusing instances of "Two Oceans" in names synonymous with Cape Town, such as the Two Oceans Marathon, the Two Oceans Aquarium, and places such as Two Oceans wine farm. Both coasts are equally popular, although the beaches in affluent Clifton, Cape Town, Clifton and elsewhere on the Atlantic Coast are better developed with restaurants and cafés, with a strip of restaurants and bars accessible to the beach at Camps Bay. The Atlantic seaboard, known as Cape Town's Riviera, is regarded as one of the most scenic routes in South Africa, along the slopes of the Twelve Apostles (Cape Town), Twelve Apostles to the boulders and white sand beaches of Llandudno, Cape Town, Llandudno, which the route ending in Hout Bay, a diverse bustling suburb with a harbour and a seal island. This fishing village is flanked by the Constantia valley and the picturesque Chapman's Peak drive. Boulders Beach near Simon's Town is known for its colony of African penguins. Surfing is popular and the city hosts the Red Bull Big Wave Africa surfing competition every year. The city has several notable cultural attractions. The
Victoria & Alfred Waterfront The Victoria & Alfred (V&A) Waterfront in Cape Town Cape Town (Afrikaans File:WIKITONGUES- Alaric speaking Afrikaans.webm, Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language spoken in South Af ...

Victoria & Alfred Waterfront
, built on top of part of the dock (maritime), docks of the Port of Cape Town, is the city's most visited tourist attraction. It is also one of the city's most popular shopping venues, with several hundred shops and the Two Oceans Aquarium. The V&A also hosts the Nelson Mandela Gateway, through which ferry, ferries depart for
Robben Island Robben Island ( af, Robbeneiland) is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can ...

Robben Island
. It is possible to take a ferry from the V&A to Hout Bay, Cape Town, Hout Bay, Simon's Town, Cape Town, Simon's Town and the Cape fur seal colonies on Seal and Duiker Islands. Several companies offer tours of the
Cape Flats The Cape Flats ( af, Die Kaapse Vlakte) is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town. Geology and geography In geological terms, the area is essentially a vast sheet of aeolian s ...
, a mostly Coloured Township (South Africa), township, and Khayelitsha, a mostly black township. The most popular areas for visitors to stay include Camps Bay, Sea Point, the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, V&A Waterfront, the City Bowl, Cape Town, City Bowl, Hout Bay, Constantia, Cape Town, Constantia, Rondebosch, Newlands, Cape Town, Newlands, and Somerset West. In November 2013, Cape Town was voted the best global city in ''
The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'' (), is a national British daily broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common ne ...

The Daily Telegraph
s annual Travel Awards. Cape Town offers tourists a range of air, land and sea based adventure activities, including paragliding and skydiving. The City of Cape Town works closely with Cape Town Tourism to promote the city both locally and internationally. The primary focus of Cape Town Tourism is to represent Cape Town as a tourist destination. Cape Town Tourism receives a portion of its funding from the City of Cape Town while the remainder is made up of membership fees and own-generated funds. The Tristan da Cunha government owns and operates a lodging facility in Cape Town which charges discounted rates to Tristan da Cunha residents and non-resident natives. File:Cape of good hope.JPG,
Cape of Good Hope A cape is a sleeveless outer garment, which drapes the wearer's back, arms, and chest, and connects at the neck. History Capes were common in medieval Europe, especially when combined with a Hood (headgear), hood in the Chaperon (headgear), ...

Cape of Good Hope
File:Clifton 4th Beach.jpg, Clifton, Cape Town, Clifton's 4th Beach File:Waterfront panorama.jpg, Panoramic view across the Victoria Basin at the
Victoria & Alfred Waterfront The Victoria & Alfred (V&A) Waterfront in Cape Town Cape Town (Afrikaans File:WIKITONGUES- Alaric speaking Afrikaans.webm, Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language spoken in South Af ...

Victoria & Alfred Waterfront
, with
Table Mountain Table Mountain ( naq, Huriǂoaxa, lit= sea-emerging; af, Tafelberg) is a flat-topped mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa. It is a significant tourist attraction, with many visitors using the ...

Table Mountain
in the background File:Kirstenbosch - View from the Botanical Gardens.jpg, Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden File:Greater Cape Town.jpg, View over the City Bowl towards the Northern Suburbs


Culture

File:Artscape Theatre Centre, Cape Town (2017).jpg, Artscape Theatre Centre at Foreshore. File:Cape Town Bo-Kaap city street.jpg, The distinctive Cape Malay Bo-Kaap is one of the most visited areas in Cape Town. File:MostertsMill.jpg, Mostert's Mill File:ZA-CA-Groote Kerk.jpg, Groote Kerk, Cape Town Cape Town is noted for its architectural heritage, with the highest density of Cape Dutch architecture, Cape Dutch style buildings in the world. Cape Dutch style, which combines the architectural traditions of the Netherlands, Germany, France and Indonesia, is most visible in Constantia, Cape Town, Constantia, the Houses of Parliament, Cape Town, old government buildings in the Central Business District, and along Long Street (Cape Town), Long Street. The annual Coon Carnival, Cape Town Minstrel Carnival, also known by its Afrikaans name of ''Kaapse Klopse'', is a large minstrel festival held annually on 2 January or ''"Tweede Nuwe Jaar"'' (Second New Year). Competing teams of minstrels parade in brightly coloured costumes, performing Cape Jazz, either carrying colourful umbrellas or playing an array of musical instruments. The Artscape Theatre Centre is the largest performing arts venue in Cape Town. The city also encloses the 36 hectare Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden that contains protected natural forest and fynbos along with a variety of animals and birds. There are over 7,000 species in cultivation at Kirstenbosch, including many rare and threatened species of the
Cape Floristic Region The Cape Floristic Region is a floristic region located near the southern tip of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 ...
. In 2004 this Region, including Kirstenbosch, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Cape Town's transport system links it to the rest of South Africa; it serves as the gateway to other destinations within the province. The Cape Winelands and in particular the towns of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, Stellenbosch, Paarl, Western Cape, Paarl and Franschhoek, Western Cape, Franschhoek are popular day trips from the city for sightseeing and wine tasting. Whale watching is popular amongst tourists: southern right whales and humpback whales are seen off the coast during the breeding season (August to November) and Bryde's whales and killer whale can be seen any time of the year. The nearby town of Hermanus is known for its Whale Festival, but whales can also be seen in False Bay. Heaviside's dolphins are endemic to the area and can be seen from the coast north of Cape Town; dusky dolphins live along the same coast and can occasionally be seen from the ferry to Robben Island. The only complete windmill in South Africa is Mostert's Mill, Mowbray, Cape Town, Mowbray. It was built in 1796 and restored in 1935 and again in 1995.


Crime

In recent years, the city has struggled with problems such as drugs, a surge in violent drug-related crime and more recently gang violence. In the
Cape Flats The Cape Flats ( af, Die Kaapse Vlakte) is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town. Geology and geography In geological terms, the area is essentially a vast sheet of aeolian s ...
alone, there are approximately 100,000 people in over 130 different gangs in 2018. While there are some alliances, this multitude and division is also cause for conflict between groups. At the same time, the economy has grown due to the boom in the tourism and the real estate industries. With a Gini coefficient of 0.58, Cape Town had the lowest inequality rate in South Africa in 2012. Since July 2019 widespread violent crime in poorer Gangs in South Africa, gang dominated areas of greater Cape Town has resulted in an ongoing military presence in these neighbourhoods. Cape Town had the highest murder rate among large South African cities at 77 murders per 100,000 people in the period April 2018 to March 2019, with 3157 murders mostly occurring in poor townships created under the apartheid regime. It is the most murderous city in the world by death toll.


Places of worship

Most places of worship in the city are Christianity, Christian churches and cathedrals: Zion Christian Church, Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa, Assemblies of God, Baptist Union of Southern Africa (Baptist World Alliance), Methodist Church of Southern Africa (World Methodist Council), Anglican Church of Southern Africa (Anglican Communion), Presbyterian Church of Africa (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cape Town (Catholic Church). Islam is the city's second largest religion with a Islam in South Africa, long history in Cape Town resulting in a number of mosques and other Muslim religious sites spread across the city such as the Auwal Mosque South Africa's first mosque. Cape Town's significant History of the Jews in South Africa, Jewish population supports a number of synagogues most notably the historic Gardens Shul. The Cape Town Progressive Jewish Congregation (CTPJC) also has three temples in the city. Other religious sites in the city include Hindu, Buddhism, Buddhist and Baháʼí Faith in South Africa, Baháʼí temples.


Media

Several newspapers, magazines and printing facilities have their offices in the city. Independent News and Media publishes the major English language papers in the city, the ''Cape Argus'' and the ''Cape Times''. Naspers, the largest media conglomerate in South Africa, publishes ''Die Burger'', the major Afrikaans language paper. Cape Town has many local community newspapers. Some of the largest community newspapers in English are the ''Athlone News'' from Athlone, Cape Town, Athlone, the ''Atlantic Sun'', the ''Constantiaberg Bulletin'' from Constantiaberg, Cape Town, Constantiaberg, the ''City Vision'' from Bellville, Cape Town, Bellville, the ''False Bay Echo'' from False Bay, the ''Helderberg Sun'' from Helderberg, Cape Town, Helderberg, the ''Plainsman (South Africa), Plainsman'' from Michell's Plain, the ''Sentinel News'' from Hout Bay, the ''Southern Mail (newspaper), Southern Mail'' from the Southern Peninsula, the ''Southern Suburbs Tatler'' from the Southern Suburbs, Cape Town, Southern Suburbs, ''Table Talk (Cape Town), Table Talk'' from Table View and ''Tygertalk'' from Tygervalley/Durbanville. Afrikaans language community newspapers include the ''Landbou-Burger'' and the ''Tygerburger''. ''Vukani'', based in the Cape Flats, is published in
Xhosa Xhosa may refer to: * Xhosa people, a nation, and ethnic group, who live in south-central and southeasterly region of South Africa * Xhosa language, one of the 11 official languages of South Africa, principally spoken by the Xhosa people See also ...
. Cape Town is a centre for major broadcast media with several radio stations that only broadcast within the city. KFM (Cape Town), 94.5 Kfm (94.5 MHz FM) and Good Hope FM (94–97 megahertz, MHz FM broadcasting, FM) mostly play pop music. Heart FM (104.9 MHz FM), the former P4 Radio, plays jazz and R&B, while Fine Music Radio (101.3 FM) plays European classical music, classical music and jazz, and Magic Music Radio (828 kilohertz, kHz Mediumwave, MW) plays the best of adult contemporary and classic rock from the 60's, 70's, 80's, 90's and 00's. Bush Radio (South Africa), Bush Radio is a community radio station (89.5 MHz FM). The Voice of the Cape (95.8 MHz FM) and Cape Talk (567 kilohertz, kHz Mediumwave, MW) are the major talk radio, talk radio stations in the city. Bokradio (98.9 MHz FM) is an Afrikaans music station. The University of Cape Town also runs its own radio station, UCT Radio (104.5 MHz FM). The SABC has a small presence in the city, with satellite studios located at Sea Point. e.tv has a greater presence, with a large complex located at Longkloof Studios in Gardens, Cape Town, Gardens. M-Net is not well represented with infrastructure within the city. Cape Town TV is a local TV station, supported by numerous organisation and focusing mostly on documentaries. Numerous productions companies and their support industries are located in the city, mostly supporting the production of overseas commercials, model shoots, TV-series and movies. The local media infrastructure remains primarily in Johannesburg.


Sport


Cape Town's most popular sports by participation are cricket, association football, swimming (sport), swimming, and rugby union. In rugby union, Cape Town is the home of the Western Province (rugby), Western Province side, who play at Newlands Stadium and compete in the Currie Cup. In addition, Western Province players (along with some from Wellington's Boland Cavaliers) comprise the Stormers in the Southern Hemisphere's Super Rugby competition. Cape Town also regularly hosts the national team, the South Africa national rugby union team, Springboks, and hosted matches during the
1995 Rugby World Cup The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams. The tournament was first held in 1987, when the tournament was co-h ...
, including the opening ceremony and game, as well as the semi-final between New Zealand national rugby union team, New Zealand and England national rugby union team, England that saw Jonah Lomu run in four tries. Association football, which is also known as ''soccer'' in South Africa, is also popular. Two Football club, clubs from Cape Town play in the Premier Soccer League (PSL), South Africa's premier league. These teams are Ajax Cape Town, which formed as a result of the 1999 amalgamation of the Seven Stars (South African Soccer Club), Seven Stars and the Cape Town Spurs and resurrected Cape Town City F.C. (2016), Cape Town City F.C. Cape Town was also the location of several of the matches of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, FIFA 2010 World Cup including a semi-final, held in South Africa. The Mother City built a new 70,000-seat stadium (Cape Town Stadium) in the Green Point area. In cricket, the Cape Cobras represent Cape Town at the Newlands Cricket Ground. The team is the result of an amalgamation of the Western Province Cricket and Boland Cricket teams. They take part in the Supersport Series, Supersport and Standard Bank Cup Series. The Newlands Cricket Ground regularly hosts international matches. Cape Town has had Olympic aspirations. For example, in 1996, Cape Town was one of the five candidate cities shortlisted by the IOC to launch official candidatures to host the 2004 Summer Olympics. Although the Games ultimately went to Athens, Cape Town came in third place. There has been some speculation that Cape Town was seeking the South African Olympic Committee's nomination to be South Africa's bid city for the 2020 Summer Olympic Games. That however was quashed when the International Olympic Committee awarded the 2020 Games to Tokyo.


Sports events

The city of Cape Town has vast experience in hosting major national and international sports events. The Cape Town Cycle Tour is the world's largest individually timed cycle raceand the first event outside Europe to be included in the International Cycling Union's Golden Bike Series. It sees over 35,000 cyclists tackling a route around Cape Town. The Absa Cape Epic is the largest full-service mountain bike stage race in the world. Some notable events hosted by Cape Town have included the
1995 Rugby World Cup The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams. The tournament was first held in 1987, when the tournament was co-h ...
, 2003 ICC Cricket World Cup, and World Championships in various sports such as athletics, fencing, weightlifting, hockey, cycling, canoeing, gymnastics and others. Cape Town was also a host city to the
2010 FIFA World Cup The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for List of men's national association football teams, men's national association football teams. It took place in South Africa from 11 June to 11 July 2010. The FIFA W ...
from 11 June to 11 July 2010, further enhancing its profile as a major events city. It was also one of the host cities of the 2009 Indian Premier League cricket tournament. The Mother City has also played host to the South Africa Sevens, Africa leg of the annual World Rugby 7s event since 2015; for nine seasons, from 2002 until 2010, the event was staged in George, Western Cape, George in the Western Cape, before moving to Port Elizabeth for the 2011 South Africa Sevens, 2011 edition, and then to Cape Town in 2015. The event usually takes place in mid-December, and is hosted at the iconic Cape Town Stadium in Green Point, perfectly set against the backdrop of the Atlantic Ocean and the unmistakable silhouette of Table Mountain .


Education

Public primary and secondary schools in Cape Town are run by the Western Cape Education Department. This provincial department is divided into seven districts; four of these are "Metropole" districtsMetropole Central, North, South, and Eastwhich cover various areas of the city. There are also many private schools, both religious and secular, in Cape Town.


Tertiary education

Cape Town has a well-developed higher system of public university, public universities. Cape Town is served by three public universities: the University of Cape Town (UCT), the University of the Western Cape (UWC) and the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). Stellenbosch University, while not in the city itself, is 50 kilometres from the City Bowl and has additional campuses, such as the Tygerberg Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and the Bellville Business Park closer to the city. Both the University of Cape Town and Stellenbosch University are leading universities in South Africa. This is due in large part to substantial financial contributions made to these institutions by both the public and private sector. UCT is an English-speaking institution. It has over 21,000 students and has an MBA programme that was ranked 51st by the Financial Times in 2006. It is also the top-ranked university in Africa, being the only African university to make the world's Top 200 university list at number 146. Since the African National Congress has become the country's ruling party, some restructuring of Western Cape universities has taken place and as such, traditionally non-white universities have seen increased financing, which has evidently benefitted the University of the Western Cape. The Cape Peninsula University of Technology was formed on 1 January 2005, when two separate institutions – Cape Technikon and Peninsula Technikon – were merged. The new university offers education primarily in English, although one may take courses in any of South Africa's official languages. The institution generally awards the National Diploma (South Africa), National Diploma. Students from the universities and high schools are involved in the South African SEDS, Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. This is the South African SEDS, and there are many SEDS branches in other countries, preparing enthusiastic students and young professionals for the growing Space industry. Cape Town has also become a popular Study abroad in the United States, study abroad destination for many international college students. Many study abroad organization, study abroad providers offer semester, summer, short-term, and internship programs in partnership with Cape Town universities as a chance for international students to gain intercultural understanding.


Transport


Air

Cape Town International Airport serves both domestic and international flights. It is the second-largest airport in South Africa and serves as a major gateway for travelers to the Cape region. Cape Town has regularly scheduled services to Southern Africa,
East Africa East Africa, Eastern Africa, or East of Africa is the eastern sub-region A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are commonly used to define a subr ...
, Mauritius, Middle East,
Far East The Far East is a term to refer to the geographical regions that includes East and Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeaster ...

Far East
, Europe and the United States as well as eleven domestic destinations. Cape Town International Airport recently opened a brand new central terminal building that was developed to handle an expected increase in air traffic as tourism numbers increased in the lead-up to the tournament of the
2010 FIFA World Cup The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for List of men's national association football teams, men's national association football teams. It took place in South Africa from 11 June to 11 July 2010. The FIFA W ...
. Other renovations include several large new parking garages, a revamped domestic departure terminal, a new Bus Rapid Transit system station and a new double-decker road system. The airport's cargo facilities are also being expanded and several large empty lots are being developed into office, office space and hotels. The Cape Town International Airport was among the winners of the World Travel Awards for being Africa's leading airport. Cape Town International Airport is located 18 km from the Central Business District


Sea

Cape Town has a long tradition as a port city. The Port of Cape Town, the city's main port, is in Table Bay directly to the north of the CBD. The port is a hub for ships in the southern Atlantic: it is located along one of the busiest shipping corridors in the world. It is also a busy container port, second in South Africa only to Durban. In 2004, it handled 3,161 ships and 9.2 million tonnes of cargo. Simon's Town Harbour on the False Bay coast of the Cape Peninsula is the main operational base of the South African Navy. Until the 1970s the city was served by the Union Castle Line with service to the United Kingdom and St Helena. The RMS St Helena (1989), RMS ''St Helena'' provided passenger and cargo service between Cape Town and St Helena until the opening of St Helena Airport. The cargo vessel M/V ''Helena'', under AW Shipping Management, takes a limited number of passengers, between Cape Town and St Helena and Ascension Island on its voyages. Multiple vessels also take passengers to and from Tristan da Cunha, inaccessible by aircraft, to and from Cape Town. In addition takes passengers on its cargo service to the Canary Islands and Hamburg, Germany.


Rail

The Shosholoza Meyl is the passenger rail operations of Spoornet and operates two long-distance passenger rail services from Cape Town: a daily service to and from Johannesburg via Kimberley, South Africa, Kimberley and a weekly service to and from Durban via Kimberley, South Africa, Kimberley,
Bloemfontein Bloemfontein, ( ; , "fountain of flowers") also known as Bloem, is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that ph ...

Bloemfontein
and Pietermaritzburg. These trains terminate at Cape Town railway station and make a brief stop at Bellville railway station, Bellville. Cape Town is also one terminus of the luxury tourist-oriented Blue Train (South Africa), Blue Train as well as the five-star Rovos Rail. Metrorail (Western Cape), Metrorail operates a commuter rail service in Cape Town and the surrounding area. The Metrorail network consists of 96 stations throughout the suburbs and outskirts of Cape Town.


Road

Cape Town is the origin of three National Roads in South Africa, national roads. The N1 (South Africa), N1 and N2 (South Africa), N2 begin in the foreshore area near the City Center and the N7 (South Africa), N7, which runs North toward Namibia. The N1 runs East-North-East through Edgemead, Cape Town, Edgemead, Parow, South Africa, Parow, Bellville, Cape Town, Bellville, and Brackenfell, Cape Town, Brackenfell. It connects Cape Town to major cities further inland, namely
Bloemfontein Bloemfontein, ( ; , "fountain of flowers") also known as Bloem, is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that ph ...

Bloemfontein
,
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
, and
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
An older at-grade road, the R101 road (South Africa), R101, runs parallel to the N1 from Bellville. The N2 runs East-South-East through Rondebosch, Guguletu, Khayelitsha, Macassar, Western Cape, Macassar to Somerset West. It becomes a multiple-carriageway, at-grade road from the intersection with the R44 road (South Africa), R44 onwards. The N2 continues east along the coast, linking Cape Town to the coastal cities of Gqeberha, East London, South Africa, East London and Durban. An older at-grade road, the R102 road (South Africa), R101, runs parallel to the N1 initially, before veering south at Bellville, to join the N2 at Somerset West via the suburbs of Kuils River and Eerste River, Western Cape, Eerste River. The N7 originates from the N1 at Wingfield Interchange near Edgemead. It begins, initially as a highway, but becoming an at-grade road from the intersection with the M5 onwards. There are also a number of Provincial route (South Africa), regional routes linking Cape Town with surrounding areas. The R27 road (South Africa), R27 originates from the N1 near the Foreshore and runs north parallel to the N7, but nearer to the coast. It passes through the suburbs of Milnerton, Cape Town, Milnerton, Table View, Cape Town, Table View and Bloubergstrand, Cape Town, Bloubergstrand and links the city to the West Coast, ending at the town of Velddrif. The R44 road (South Africa), R44 enters the east of the metro from the north, from Stellenbosch. It connects Stellenbosch to Somerset West, then crosses the N2 to Strand, Western Cape, Strand and Gordon's Bay. It exits the metro heading south hugging the coast, leading to the towns of Betty's Bay and Kleinmond. Of the three-digit routes, the R300 road (South Africa), R300, is an expressway linking the N1 at Brackenfell to the N2 near Mitchells Plain and the Cape Town International Airport. The R302 road (South Africa), R302 runs from the R102 in Bellville, heading north across the N1 through Durbanville leaving the metro to Malmesbury, Western Cape, Malmesbury. The R304 road (South Africa), R304 enters the northern limits of the metro from Stellenbosch, running NNW before veering west to cross the N7 at Philadelphia, Western Cape, Philadelphia to end at Atlantis, Western Cape, Atlantis at a junction with the R307 road (South Africa), R307. This R307 starts north of Koeberg from the R27 and, after meeting the R304, continues north to Darling, Western Cape, Darling. The R310 road (South Africa), R310 originates from Muizenberg and runs along the coast, to the south of Mitchell's Plain and Khayelitsha, before veering north-east, crossing the N2 west of Macassar, and exiting the metro heading to Stellenbosch. Cape Town, like most South African cities, uses Metropolitan Routes in Cape Town, Metropolitan or "M" routes for important intra-city routes, a layer below National (N) roads and Regional (R) routes. Each city's M roads are independently numbered. Most are at-grade roads. However, the M3 (Cape Town), M3 splits from the N2 and runs to the south along the eastern slopes of Table Mountain, connecting the City Bowl with Muizenberg. Except for a section between Rondebosch and Newlands that has at-grade intersections, this route is a highway. The M5 (Cape Town), M5 splits from the N1 further east than the M3, and links the Cape Flats to the CBD. It is a highway as far as the interchange with the M68 at Ottery, before continuing as an at-grade road. Cape Town suffers from the worst traffic congestion in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
.


Buses

Golden Arrow Bus Services operates scheduled bus services in the Cape Town metropolitan area. Several companies run long-distance bus services from Cape Town to the other cities in South Africa.


Integrated Rapid Transit (IRT)

Cape Town has a public transport system in about 10% of the city, running north to south along the west coastline of the city, comprising Phase 1 of the IRT system. This is known as the MyCiTi service. MyCiTi Phase 1 includes services linking the Airport to the Cape Town inner city, as well as the following areas: Bloubergstrand, Blouberg / Table View, Dunoon, Cape Town, Dunoon, Atlantis, Western Cape, Atlantis and Melkbosstrand, Milnerton, Cape Town, Milnerton, Paarden Eiland, Century City, Cape Town, Century City, Salt River, Cape Town, Salt River and Walmer Estate, Cape Town, Walmer Estate, and all suburbs of the City Bowl and #Atlantic Seaboard, Atlantic Seaboard all the way to Llandudno, Cape Town, Llandudno and Hout Bay, Cape Town, Hout Bay. The MyCiTi N2 Express service consists of two routes each linking the Cape Town inner city and Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain on the
Cape Flats The Cape Flats ( af, Die Kaapse Vlakte) is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town. Geology and geography In geological terms, the area is essentially a vast sheet of aeolian s ...
. The service use high floor articulated and standard size buses in dedicated busways, low floor articulated and standard size buses on the N2 Express service, and smaller Optare buses in suburban and inner city areas. It offers Accessibility#Transportation, universal access through level boarding and numerous other measures, and requires cashless fare payment using the EMV compliant smart card system, called myconnect. Headway of services (i.e. the time between buses on the same route) range from 3 mins to 20 mins in peak times to 60 minutes during quiet off-peak periods.


Taxis

Cape Town has two kinds of taxis: taxicab, metered taxis and minibus taxis. Unlike many cities, metered taxis are not allowed to drive around the city to solicit fares and instead must be called to a specific location. Cape Town metered taxi cabs mostly operate in the city bowl, suburbs and Cape Town International Airport areas. Large companies that operate fleets of cabs can be reached by phone and are cheaper than the single operators that apply for hire from taxi ranks and Victoria and Alfred Waterfront. There are about one thousand meter taxis in Cape Town. Their rates vary from R8 per kilometre to about R15 per kilometre. The larger taxi companies in Cape Town are Excite Taxis, Cabnet and Intercab and single operators are reachable by cellular phone. The seven seated Toyota Avanza are the most popular with larger Taxi companies. Meter cabs are mostly used by tourists and are safer to use than minibus taxis. Minibus taxis are the standard form of transport for the majority of the population who cannot afford private vehicles. Although essential, these taxis are often poorly maintained and are frequently not road-worthy. These taxis make frequent unscheduled stops to pick up passengers, which can cause accidents. With the high demand for transport by the working class of South Africa, minibus taxis are often filled over their legal passenger allowance. Minibuses are generally owned and operated in fleets. File:Table Mountain from harbour.jpg,
Table Mountain Table Mountain ( naq, Huriǂoaxa, lit= sea-emerging; af, Tafelberg) is a flat-topped mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa. It is a significant tourist attraction, with many visitors using the ...

Table Mountain
from the Port of Cape Town, harbour File:Kalk Bay Station 3.jpg, Metrorail (Western Cape), Metrorail train leaving Kalk Bay station File:Cape Town N2.jpg, N2 (South Africa), N2 highway, entering the City Bowl, Cape Town, City Bowl File:Cape-Town-taxi-rank.jpg, Taxi rank above Cape Town railway station File:City Sight Seeing Cape Town City DSC 3515.jpg, Cape Town City Sight Seeing Bus


International relations

Cape Town has eighteen active sister city agreements * Aachen, Germany * Accra, Ghana * Atlanta, United States of America *
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
, Argentina * Bujumbura, Burundi * Dubai, United Arab Emirates * Hangzhou, China * Houston, United States of America * Huangshan, China * Izmir, Turkey * Malmö, Sweden * Miami, Florida, Miami, United States of America * Monterrey, Mexico * Munich, Germany * Rio de Janeiro, Brazil * Shenzhen, China * Varna, Bulgaria * Wuhan, China


See also

* Outline of Cape Town * OPENCities


References


External links


Official website of the City of Cape Town

Official website of the Western Cape

Official Cape Town Tourism website
* {{Authority control Cape Town, Capitals in Africa Cities in South Africa Populated coastal places in South Africa 17th-century establishments in the Cape Colony 1652 establishments in Africa 1652 establishments in the Dutch Empire Populated places established in 1652 Populated places established by the Dutch East India Company Populated places in the City of Cape Town Port cities and towns of the Atlantic Ocean Port cities in South Africa Provincial capitals in South Africa