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The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
in the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, in a region known as
Macaronesia 240px, Macaronesia Macaronesia (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Macaronésia'') is a collection of four volcanic archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, off the coasts of the continents of Europe and Africa. Each archipelago ...

Macaronesia
. At their closest point to the African mainland, they are west of
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
. They are the southernmost of the
autonomous communities of Spain In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish constitution of 1978, with the ...

autonomous communities of Spain
, and are located in the African Tectonic Plate. The archipelago is economically and politically European, and is part of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...
. The eight main islands are (from largest to smallest in area)
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
,
Fuerteventura Fuerteventura () is one of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. At their closest point ...

Fuerteventura
,
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
,
Lanzarote Lanzarote (, , ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Oc ...

Lanzarote
,
La Palma La Palma (), also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a ...

La Palma
,
La Gomera La Gomera () is one of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , ima ...

La Gomera
,
El Hierro El Hierro, nicknamed ''Isla del Meridiano'' (the "Meridian Island"), is the second-smallest and farthest-south and -west of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish ...

El Hierro
and
La Graciosa Graciosa Island or commonly La Graciosa (; Spanish for "graceful") is a volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical objec ...
. The archipelago includes many smaller islands and islets, including
Alegranza Alegranza () is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, located off the coast of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) i ...
, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara,
Roque del Oeste Roque del Oeste (; Spanish for "rock of the west"), also referred to as ''Roque del Infierno'', is an uninhabited islet located 0.6 km northeast of the island of Montaña Clara, in the northeasternmost part of the Canary Islands The Cana ...
, and
Roque del Este Roque del Este (Spanish language, Spanish for "rock of the east") is a small uninhabited island in the Canary Islands, located northeast of the island of Lanzarote. The island is part of the Chinijo Archipelago, which is administratively part of th ...
. It also includes a number of rocks, including those of Salmor, Fasnia, Bonanza,
Garachico Garachico is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subord ...
, and
Anaga
Anaga
. In ancient times, the island chain was often referred to as "the Fortunate Isles". The Canary Islands are the southernmost region of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, and the largest and most populous archipelago of Macaronesia. Because of their location, the Canary Islands have historically been considered a bridge between the four continents of
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
,
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
,
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
, and
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
. In 2019, the Canary Islands had a population of 2,153,389 with a density of 287.39 inhabitants per km2, making it the eighth most populous autonomous community. The population is mostly concentrated in the two capital islands: around 43% on the island of
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
and 40% on the island of
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
. The Canary Islands, especially Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote, are a major tourist destination, with over 12 million visitors per year. This is due to their beaches, subtropical climate, and important natural attractions, especially
Maspalomas Maspalomas (, ) is a tourist resort in the south of the island of Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of ...

Maspalomas
in
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
,
Teide National Park Teide National Park ( es, Parque nacional del Teide, ) is a national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a r ...

Teide National Park
, and Mount
Teide Teide, or Mount Teide, ( es, El Teide, Pico del Teide, , "Teide Peak") is a volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and Volcanic gas, gases to escape from ...

Teide
(a World Heritage Site) in
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
. Mount Teide is the third tallest volcano in the world, measured from its base on the ocean floor.Página web
del ISTAC sobre entrada de turistas en Canarias.
one#'Menú Principal'!A1 Estadísticas de Turismo de Tenerife Because of the islands’
subtropical climate The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical zone, geographical and Köppen climate classification, climate zones located to the north and south of the tropics, Torrid Zone. Geographically part of the Geographical zone#Temperate zones, ...
, it has long, hot summers, and moderately warm winters. The amount of precipitation and the level of maritime moderation vary depending on location and elevation. The archipelago includes green areas as well as desert areas. The islands’ high mountains are ideal for astronomical observation, because they lie above the
temperature inversion In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw m ...
layer. As a result, the archipelago boasts two professional observatories:
Teide Observatory Teide Observatory ( es, Observatorio del Teide), IAU code IAU code#954, 954, is an astronomical observatory on Mount Teide at , located on Tenerife, Spain. It has been operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias since its inauguration in 1 ...

Teide Observatory
on the island of Tenerife, and
Roque de los Muchachos Observatory Roque de los Muchachos Observatory ( es, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, ORM) is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands. The observatory site is operated by the In ...

Roque de los Muchachos Observatory
on the island of La Palma. In 1927, the Province of Canary Islands was split into two provinces. In 1982, the autonomous community of the Canary Islands was established. The cities of
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz (, ), is a major city, capital of the island of Tenerife, Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and capital of the Canary Islands. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its ...
and
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital (jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife), the most populous city in the Autonom ...
are, jointly, the capital of the islands.''Real Decreto de 30 de noviembre de 1833''
en wikisource
''Real Decreto de 30 de noviembre de 1833''
en el sitio web oficial del Gobierno de Canarias
Those cities are also, respectively, the capitals of the
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
of
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz (, ), is a major city, capital of the island of Tenerife, Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and capital of the Canary Islands. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its ...
and
Las Palmas Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off th ...
. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, except for a brief period in the 1910s. Between the
1833 territorial division of Spain The 1833 territorial division of Spain divided the country into provinces, in turn classified into "historic regions" ( es, link=no, regiones históricas).''Real Decreto de 30 de noviembre de 1833''
on wikisource
''Real Decreto de 30 de noviembre de 1833''
at the official website of the Canary Islands Government
The third largest city in the Canary Islands is
San Cristóbal de La Laguna San Cristóbal de La Laguna (commonly known as La Laguna, ) is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands (Spain). The city is the third-most populous ci ...

San Cristóbal de La Laguna
(a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
) on Tenerife. This city is also home to the ''Consejo Consultivo de Canarias'', which is the supreme consultative body of the Canary Islands. During the era of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
, which sailed that far south in order to catch the prevailing northeasterly
trade winds The trade winds or easterlies are the permanent east-to-west prevailing winds that flow in the Earth's equatorial region. The trade winds blow mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of E ...
.


Etymology

The name ''Islas Canarias'' is likely derived from the Latin name ''Canariae Insulae'', meaning "Islands of the Dogs", a name that was evidently generalized from the ancient name of one of these islands, ''Canaria'' – presumably Gran Canaria. According to the historian
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
, the island ''Canaria'' contained "vast multitudes of dogs of very large size". Alternatively, it is said that the original inhabitants of the island,
Guanches The Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. A ...
, used to worship dogs, mummified them and generally treated them as holy animals.10 Facts about the Canary Islands
– Touropia.com – Retrieved 22 August 2011.
Some hypothesize that the Canary Islands' dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the dog-headed god
Anubis Anubis or Inpu, Anpu in Ancient Egyptian (; grc, Ἄνουβις, Egyptian language, Egyptian: ''inpw'', Coptic language, Coptic: ''Anoup'') is the Ancient Greek language, Greek name of the god of death, mummification, embalming, the afterli ...

Anubis
are closely connected. Other theories speculate that the name comes from the Nukkari Berber tribe living in the Moroccan Atlas, named in Roman sources as ''Canarii'', though Pliny again mentions the relation of this term with dogs. The connection to dogs is retained in their depiction on the islands' coat-of-arms. It is considered that the aborigines of Gran Canaria called themselves "Canarios". It is possible that after being conquered, this name was used in plural in Spanish, i.e., as to refer to all of the islands as the Canarii-as. What is certain is that the name of the islands does not derive from the
canary bird The domestic canary, often simply known as the canary (''Serinus canaria'' forma ''domestica''), is a Domestication, domesticated form of the wild Atlantic canary, canary, a small songbird in the finch Family (biology), family originating from the ...
; rather, the birds are named after the islands.


Physical geography

Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
is the largest and most populous island of the archipelago.
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
, with 865,070 inhabitants, is both the Canary Islands' second most populous island, and the third most populous one in Spain after
Majorca Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The capital of the island, Palma, Majorca, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous communities of Spain, autono ...
and Tenerife. The island of
Fuerteventura Fuerteventura () is one of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. At their closest point ...

Fuerteventura
is the second largest in the archipelago and located from the African coast. The islands form the
Macaronesia 240px, Macaronesia Macaronesia (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Macaronésia'') is a collection of four volcanic archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, off the coasts of the continents of Europe and Africa. Each archipelago ...

Macaronesia
ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...
with the
Azores The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal ( pt, Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (''Região ...

Azores
,
Cape Verde , national_anthem = () , official_languages = Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** P ...

Cape Verde
,
Madeira Madeira ( , , ), officially the Autonomous Region of Madeira ( pt, Região Autónoma da Madeira), is one of the two autonomous Regions of Portugal, autonomous regions of Portugal, the other being the Azores. It is an archipelago situated in t ...
, and the Savage Isles. The Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region. The archipelago consists of seven large and several smaller islands, all of which are volcanic in origin. The antipodes of the Canary Islands are found in the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
, between
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
,
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , s ...

New Caledonia
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
and the ocean. According to the position of the islands with respect to the north-east
trade winds The trade winds or easterlies are the permanent east-to-west prevailing winds that flow in the Earth's equatorial region. The trade winds blow mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of E ...
, the climate can be mild and wet or very dry. Several native species form
laurisilva Laurel forest, also called laurisilva or laurissilva, is a type of subtropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographic and climate zones located to the north and south of the tropical zone. Geographically part of the north and so ...

laurisilva
forests. As a consequence, the individual islands in the Canary archipelago tend to have distinct
microclimate A microclimate (or micro-climate) is a local set of atmosphere of Earth, atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one. The term may refer to areas as s ...
s. Those islands such as
El Hierro El Hierro, nicknamed ''Isla del Meridiano'' (the "Meridian Island"), is the second-smallest and farthest-south and -west of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish ...

El Hierro
,
La Palma La Palma (), also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a ...

La Palma
and
La Gomera La Gomera () is one of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , ima ...

La Gomera
lying to the west of the archipelago have a climate which is influenced by the moist
Canary Current The Canary Current is a wind-driven surface current that is part of the North Atlantic Gyre. This eastern boundary current branches south from the North Atlantic Current and flows southwest about as far as Senegal where it turns west and later jo ...
. They are well vegetated even at low levels and have extensive tracts of sub-tropical laurisilva forest. As one travels east toward the African coast, the influence of the current diminishes, and the islands become increasingly arid.
Fuerteventura Fuerteventura () is one of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. At their closest point ...

Fuerteventura
and
Lanzarote Lanzarote (, , ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Oc ...

Lanzarote
, the islands which are closest to the African mainland, are effectively desert or semi desert.
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
is known as a "continent in miniature" for its diverse landscapes like
Maspalomas Maspalomas (, ) is a tourist resort in the south of the island of Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of ...

Maspalomas
and
Roque Nublo Image:RoqueNublo2.JPG, The Roque Nublo seen from the north-east, with the smaller spire (a volcanic plug) known as El Fraile ("the Friar") visible in the far left of the picture. Roque Nublo (''Clouded Rock'', ''Rock in the Clouds'') is a volcanic ...

Roque Nublo
. In terms of its climate
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
is particularly interesting. The north of the island lies under the influence of the moist Atlantic winds and is well vegetated, while the south of the island around the tourist resorts of and
Los Cristianos Los Cristianos is a town in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Los Cristianos
is arid. The island rises to almost above sea level, and at altitude, in the cool relatively wet climate, forests of the endemic pine ''
Pinus canariensis ''Pinus canariensis'', the Canary Island pine, is a species of gymnosperm The gymnosperms, also known as Acrogymnospermae, are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, '' Ginkgo'', and gnetophytes. The term "gymnosp ...

Pinus canariensis
'' thrive. Many of the plant species in the Canary Islands, like the Canary Island pine and the dragon tree, ''
Dracaena draco ''Dracaena draco'', the Canary Islands dragon tree or drago, is a subtropics, subtropical tree in the genus ''Dracaena (plant), Dracaena'', native plant, native to the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira, western Morocco, and is thought to be intr ...

Dracaena draco
'' are endemic, as noted by and
Philip Barker Webb Philip Barker Webb (10 July 1793 – 31 August 1854) was an English botanist Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientis ...
in their work, ''L'Histoire Naturelle des Îles Canaries'' (1835–50).


Climate

The climate is
tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to ...
and desertic, moderated by the sea and in summer by the
trade winds The trade winds or easterlies are the permanent east-to-west prevailing winds that flow in the Earth's equatorial region. The trade winds blow mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of E ...
. There are a number of
microclimate A microclimate (or micro-climate) is a local set of atmosphere of Earth, atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one. The term may refer to areas as s ...
s and the classifications range mainly from
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
to
desert A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of ...
. According to the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
, the majority of the Canary Islands have a
hot desert climate The desert climate or arid climate (in the Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used systems. It was first published by German-Russian (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modific ...
represented as BWh, caused partly due to the cool
Canary Current The Canary Current is a wind-driven surface current that is part of the North Atlantic Gyre. This eastern boundary current branches south from the North Atlantic Current and flows southwest about as far as Senegal where it turns west and later jo ...
. There also exists a subtropical humid climate which is very influenced by the ocean in the middle of the islands of
La Gomera La Gomera () is one of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , ima ...

La Gomera
,
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
and
La Palma La Palma (), also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a ...

La Palma
, where
laurisilva Laurel forest, also called laurisilva or laurissilva, is a type of subtropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographic and climate zones located to the north and south of the tropical zone. Geographically part of the north and so ...

laurisilva
forests grow.


Geology

The seven major islands, one minor island, and several small islets were originally volcanic islands, formed by the
Canary hotspotImage:Hotspots.jpg, 300px, The Canary hotspot is marked 18 on map The Canary hotspot, also called the Canarian hotspot, is a hotspot (geology), hotspot and volcanically active region centred on the Canary Islands located off the north-western coast o ...
. The Canary Islands is the only place in Spain where
volcanic eruption Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural satellite, moon onto its surface. Lava may be erupted at a volcano or ...

volcanic eruption
s have been recorded during the
Modern Era Human history, or world history, is the narrative of humanity Humanity most commonly refers to: * Human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, ...
, with some volcanoes still active (El Hierro, 2011). Volcanic islands such as those in the Canary chain often have steep ocean cliffs caused by catastrophic debris avalanches and
landslide Landslides, also known as landslips, are several forms of mass wasting Mass wasting, also known as mass movement, is a general term for the movement of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurri ...

landslide
s. The
Teide Teide, or Mount Teide, ( es, El Teide, Pico del Teide, , "Teide Peak") is a volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and Volcanic gas, gases to escape from ...

Teide
volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet a ...

volcano
on Tenerife is the highest mountain in Spain, and the third tallest volcano on Earth on a volcanic ocean island. All the islands except La Gomera have been active in the last million years; four of them (Lanzarote, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro) have historical records of eruptions since European discovery. The islands rise from Jurassic
oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust i ...
associated with the opening of the Atlantic. Underwater
magmatism Magmatism is the emplacement of magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The thr ...
commenced during the Cretaceous, and continued to the present day. The current islands reached the ocean's surface during the
Miocene The Miocene ( ) is the first geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age but shorter than a period (geology), period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of ...
. The islands were once considered as a distinct physiographic section of the
Atlas Mountains The Atlas Mountains ( ar, جِبَال ٱلْأَطْلَس, jibāl al-ʾaṭlas /ʒibaːl al atˤlas/, Tamazight The Berber languages, also known as the Amazigh languages (Berber name: , ; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifin ...

Atlas Mountains
province, which in turn is part of the larger African Alpine System division, but are nowadays recognized as being related to a magmatic hot spot. In the summer of 2011 a series of low-magnitude earthquakes occurred beneath El Hierro. These had a linear trend of northeast–southwest. In October a submarine eruption occurred about south of Restinga. This eruption produced gases and pumice, but no explosive activity was reported. The following table shows the highest mountains in each of the islands:


Natural symbols

The official natural symbols associated with Canary Islands are the bird ''
Serinus canaria The Atlantic canary (''Serinus canaria''), known worldwide simply as the wild canary and also called the island canary, common canary, or canary, is a small passerine A passerine is any bird of the Order (biology), order Passeriformes (, Lati ...

Serinus canaria
'' (canary) and the ''
Phoenix canariensis ''Phoenix canariensis'' is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group ...

Phoenix canariensis
'' palm. File:Serinus canaria LC0210.jpg, ''
Serinus canaria The Atlantic canary (''Serinus canaria''), known worldwide simply as the wild canary and also called the island canary, common canary, or canary, is a small passerine A passerine is any bird of the Order (biology), order Passeriformes (, Lati ...

Serinus canaria
'' File:Phoenix canariensis ag.JPG, ''
Phoenix canariensis ''Phoenix canariensis'' is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group ...

Phoenix canariensis
''


National parks

Four of Spain's thirteen national parks are located in the Canary Islands, more than any other autonomous community. Two of these have been declared
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Sites A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
and the other two are part of
Biosphere Reserves Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific program, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments. MAB's work engage ...

Biosphere Reserves
. The parks are:
Teide National Park Teide National Park ( es, Parque nacional del Teide, ) is a national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a r ...

Teide National Park
is the oldest and largest national park in the Canary Islands and one of the oldest in Spain. Located in the geographic centre of the island of Tenerife, it is the most visited national park in Spain. In 2010, it became the most visited national park in Europe and second worldwide. The park's highlight is the
Teide Teide, or Mount Teide, ( es, El Teide, Pico del Teide, , "Teide Peak") is a volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and Volcanic gas, gases to escape from ...

Teide
volcano; standing at an altitude of , it is the highest elevation of the country and the third largest volcano on Earth from its base. In 2007, the Teide National Park was declared one of the 12 Treasures of Spain.


Politics


Governance

The regional executive body, the
Parliament of the Canary Islands The Parliament of the Canary Islands is the regional legislature of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known ...
, is presided over by
Ángel Víctor Torres Ángel Víctor Torres Pérez ( : born 30 March 1966) is a Spanish politician who serves as the President of the Canary Islands The President of the Canary Islands is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or seco ...

Ángel Víctor Torres
(
PSOE The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party ( es, Partido Socialista Obrero Español ; PSOE ) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources: * * * * political party in Spain. The PSOE has been in gov ...

PSOE
), the current
President of the Canary Islands The president of the Canary Islands is the head of government of the Canary Islands, one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain, while the monarch Felipe VI of Spain, Felipe VI remains the head of state as Monarchy of Spain, King of Spain (and ...
. The latter is invested by the members of the regional legislature, the
Parliament of the Canary Islands The Parliament of the Canary Islands is the regional legislature of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known ...
, that consists of 70 elected legislators. The 2019 Canarian regional election, last regional election took place in May 2019. The islands have 14 seats in the Senate of Spain, Spanish Senate. Of these, 11 seats are directly elected (3 for Gran Canaria, 3 for Tenerife, and 1 each for Lanzarote (including La Graciosa), Fuerteventura, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro) while the other 3 are appointed by the regional legislature.


Political geography

The Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands consists of two provinces of Spain, provinces (''provincias''),
Las Palmas Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off th ...
and Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, whose capitals (
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital (jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife), the most populous city in the Autonom ...
and
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz (, ), is a major city, capital of the island of Tenerife, Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and capital of the Canary Islands. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its ...
) are capitals of the autonomous community. Each of the seven major islands is ruled by an island council named ''Cabildo Insular''. Each island is subdivided into smaller Municipalities of Spain, municipalities (''municipios''); List of municipalities in Las Palmas, Las Palmas is divided into 34 municipalities, and List of municipalities in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife is divided into 54 municipalities. The international boundary of the Canaries is the subject of dispute between Spain and Morocco. Morocco's official position is that international laws regarding territorial limits do not authorise Spain to claim seabed boundaries based on the territory of the Canaries, since the Canary Islands enjoy a large degree of autonomy. In fact, the islands do not enjoy any special degree of autonomy as each one of the Spanish regions is considered an autonomous community with equal status to the European ones. The boundary determines the ownership of seabed oil deposits and other ocean resources. Morocco and Spain have been unable to agree on a compromise regarding the territorial boundary, since neither nation wants to cede its claimed right to the vast resources whose ownership depends upon the boundary. In 2002, for example, Morocco rejected a unilateral Spanish proposal.


Canarian nationalism

There are some pro-independence political parties, like the National Congress of the Canaries (CNC) and the Popular Front of the Canary Islands, but their popular support is almost insignificant, with no presence in either the autonomous parliament or the ''cabildos insulares''. According to a 2012 study by the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, when asked about national identity, the majority of respondents from the Canary Islands (49.3%) consider themselves Spanish and Canarian in equal measures, followed by 37.1% who consider themselves more Canarian than Spanish. Only 6.1% of the respondents consider themselves only Canarian.


History


Ancient and pre-colonial times

Before the arrival of humans, the Canaries were inhabited by prehistoric animals; for example, the giant lizard (''Gallotia goliath''), the Tenerife giant rat, Tenerife and Gran Canaria giant rats, and giant prehistoric tortoises, ''Geochelone burchardi'' and ''Geochelone vulcanica''. The islands may have been visited by the Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Ancient Carthage, Carthaginians. King Juba II, Caesar Augustus's Numidian protégé, is credited with discovering the islands for the Western world. According to
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
, Juba found the islands uninhabited, but found "a small temple of stone" and "some traces of buildings". Juba dispatched a naval contingent to re-open the dye production facility at Essaouira, Mogador in what is now western Morocco in the early first century AD. That same naval force was subsequently sent on an exploration of the Canary Islands, using Mogador as their mission base. The names given by Romans to the individual islads islands were ''Ninguaria'' or ''Nivaria'' (Tenerife), ''Canaria'' (Gran Canaria), ''Pluvialia'' or ''Invale'' (Lanzarote), ''Ombrion'' (La Palma), ''Planasia'' (Fuerteventura), ''Iunonia'' or ''Junonia'' (El Hierro) and ''Capraria'' (La Gomera). When the Europeans began to explore the islands in the late Middle Ages, they encountered several indigenous peoples living at a Neolithic level of technology. Although the prehistory of the settlement of the Canary Islands is still unclear, linguistic and genetic analyses seem to indicate that at least some of these inhabitants shared a common origin with the Berbers on the nearby North African coast. The precolonial inhabitants came to be known collectively as the
Guanches The Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. A ...
, although ''Guanches'' had been the name for only the indigenous inhabitants of Tenerife. From the 14th century onward, numerous visits were made by sailors from
Majorca Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The capital of the island, Palma, Majorca, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous communities of Spain, autono ...
, Portugal and Genoa. Lancelotto Malocello settled on Lanzarote in 1312. The Majorcans established a missionary, mission with a bishop in the islands that lasted from 1350 to 1400.


Castilian conquest

In 1402, the Castilian conquest of the islands began, with the expedition of the French explorers Jean de Béthencourt and Gadifer de la Salle, nobles and vassals of Henry III of Castile, to Lanzarote. From there, they went on to conquer Fuerteventura (1405) and El Hierro. Béthencourt received the title King of the Canary Islands, but still recognised King Henry III as his overlord. It was not a simple military enterprise, given the aboriginal resistance on some islands. Neither was it politically, since the particular interests of the nobility (determined to strengthen their economic and political power through the acquisition of the islands) conflicted with those of the states, particularly Castile, which were in the midst of territorial expansion and in a process of strengthening of the Crown against the nobility. Historians distinguish two periods in the conquest of the Canary Islands: Aristocratic conquest (''Conquista señorial''). This refers to the early conquests carried out by the nobility, for their own benefit and without the direct participation of the Crown of Castile, which merely granted rights of conquest in exchange for pacts of vassalage between the noble conqueror and the Crown. One can identify within this period an early phase known as the Betancurian or Norman Conquest, carried out by Jean de Bethencourt (who was originally from Normandy) and Gadifer de la Salle between 1402 and 1405, which involved the islands of
Lanzarote Lanzarote (, , ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Oc ...

Lanzarote
,
El Hierro El Hierro, nicknamed ''Isla del Meridiano'' (the "Meridian Island"), is the second-smallest and farthest-south and -west of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish ...

El Hierro
and
Fuerteventura Fuerteventura () is one of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. At their closest point ...

Fuerteventura
. The subsequent phase is known as the Castilian Conquest, carried out by Castilian nobles who acquired, through purchases, assignments and marriages, the previously conquered islands and also incorporated the island of
La Gomera La Gomera () is one of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , ima ...

La Gomera
around 1450. Royal conquest (''Conquista realenga''). This defines the conquest between 1478 and 1496, carried out directly by the Crown of Castile, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs, who armed and partly financed the conquest of those islands which were still unconquered:
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
,
La Palma La Palma (), also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a ...

La Palma
and
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
. This phase of the conquest came to an end in the year 1496, with the dominion of the island of Tenerife, bringing the entire Canarian Archipelago under the control of the Crown of Castile. Béthencourt also established a base on the island of La Gomera, but it would be many years before the island was fully conquered. The natives of La Gomera, and of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and La Palma, resisted the Castilian invaders for almost a century. In 1448 Maciot de Béthencourt sold the lordship of Lanzarote to Portugal's Prince Henry the Navigator, an action that was accepted by neither the natives nor the Castilians. Despite Pope Nicholas V#cite ref-8, Pope Nicholas V ruling that the Canary Islands were under Portuguese control, the crisis swelled to a revolt which lasted until 1459 with the final expulsion of the Portuguese. In 1479, Portugal and Castile signed the Treaty of Alcáçovas, which settled disputes between Castile and Portugal over the control of the Atlantic. This treaty recognized Castilian control of the Canary Islands but also confirmed Portuguese possession of the
Azores The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal ( pt, Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (''Região ...

Azores
, Madeira, and the Cape Verde, Cape Verde islands, and gave the Portuguese rights to any further islands or lands in the Atlantic that might be discovered. The Castilians continued to dominate the islands, but due to the topography and the resistance of the native Guanches, they did not achieve complete control until 1496, when Tenerife and La Palma were finally subdued by Alonso Fernández de Lugo. After that, the Canaries were incorporated into the Kingdom of Castile.


After the conquest

After the conquest, the Castilians imposed a new economic model, based on single-crop cultivation: first sugarcane; then wine, an important item of trade with Kingdom of England, England. In this era, the first institutions of colonial government were founded. Gran Canaria, a colony of the Crown of Castile since 6 March 1480 (from 1556, of Spain), and Tenerife, a Spanish colony since 1496, each had its own governor. There has been speculation that the abundance of roccella tinctoria on the Canary Islands offered a profit motive for Jean de Béthencourt during his conquest of the islands. Lichen has been used for centuries to make dyes. This includes royal purple colors derived from roccella tinctoria, also known as orseille. The cities of
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz (, ), is a major city, capital of the island of Tenerife, Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and capital of the Canary Islands. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its ...
and
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital (jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife), the most populous city in the Autonom ...
became a stopping point for the Spanish conquistadors, traders, and missionaries on their way to the New World. This trade route brought great prosperity to some of the social sectors of the islands. The islands became quite wealthy and soon were attracting merchants and adventurers from all over Europe. Magnificent palaces and churches were built on La Palma during this busy, prosperous period. The Church of El Salvador survives as one of the island's finest examples of the architecture of the 16th century. Civilian architecture survives in forms such as Casas de los Sánchez-Ochando or Casa Quintana. The Canaries' wealth invited attacks by pirates and privateers. Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish people, Turkish admiral and privateer Kemal Reis ventured into the Canaries in 1501, while Murat Reis the Elder captured Lanzarote in 1585. The most severe attack took place in 1599, during the Dutch Revolt. A Dutch people, Dutch fleet of 74 ships and 12,000 men, commanded by Pieter van der Does, attacked the capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (the city had 3,500 of Gran Canaria's 8,545 inhabitants). The Dutch attacked the Castillo de la Luz, which guarded the harbor. The Canarians evacuated civilians from the city, and the Castillo surrendered (but not the city). The Dutch moved inland, but Canarian cavalry drove them back to Tamaraceite, near the city. The Dutch then laid siege to the city, demanding the surrender of all its wealth. They received 12 sheep and 3 calves. Furious, the Dutch sent 4,000 soldiers to attack the Council of the Canaries, who were sheltering in the village of Santa Brígida. 300 Canarian soldiers ambushed the Dutch in the village of Monte Lentiscal, killing 150 and forcing the rest to retreat. The Dutch concentrated on Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, attempting to burn it down. The Dutch pillaged
Maspalomas Maspalomas (, ) is a tourist resort in the south of the island of Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of ...

Maspalomas
, on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, San Sebastián de La Gomera, San Sebastián on La Gomera, and Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz on La Palma, but eventually gave up the siege of Las Palmas and withdrew. In 1618 the Barbary pirates attacked Lanzarote and La Gomera taking 1000 captives to be sold as Barbary slave trade, slaves. Another noteworthy attack occurred in 1797, when Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1797), Santa Cruz de Tenerife was attacked by a British fleet under Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, Horatio Nelson on 25 July. The British were repulsed, losing almost 400 men. It was during this battle that Nelson lost his right arm.


18th to 19th century

The sugar-based economy of the islands faced stiff competition from Spain's Caribbean colonies. Low sugar prices in the 19th century caused severe recessions on the islands. A new cash crop, cochineal (''cochinilla''), came into cultivation during this time, reinvigorating the islands' economy. During this time the Canarian-American trade was developed, in which Canarian products such as cochineal, sugarcane and rum were sold in American ports such as Veracruz, Campeche, La Guaira and Havana, among others. By the end of the 18th century, Canary Islanders had already emigrated to Spanish American territories, such as Havana, Veracruz, and Santo Domingo, San Antonio, Texas and St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana. These economic difficulties spurred mass emigration during the 19th and first half of the 20th century, primarily to the Americas. Between 1840 and 1890 as many as 40,000 Canary Islanders emigrated to Venezuela. Also, thousands of Canarians moved to Puerto Rico where the Spanish monarchy felt that Canarians would adapt to island life better than other immigrants from the mainland of Spain. Deeply entrenched traditions, such as the Mascaras Festival in the town of Hatillo, Puerto Rico, are an example of Canarian culture still preserved in Puerto Rico. Similarly, many thousands of Canarians emigrated to the shores of Cuba. During the Spanish–American War of 1898, the Spanish fortified the islands against a possible American attack, but no such event took place.


Romantic period and scientific expeditions

Sirera and Renn (2004) distinguish two different types of expeditions, or voyages, during the period 1770–1830, which they term "the Romantic period": First are "expeditions financed by the States, closely related with the official scientific Institutions. characterised by having strict scientific objectives (and inspired by) the spirit of Illustration and progress". In this type of expedition, Sirera and Renn include the following travellers: * J. Edens, whose 1715 ascent and observations of Mt. Teide influenced many subsequent expeditions. * Louis Feuillée (1724), who was sent to measure the meridian of El Hierro and to map the islands. * Jean-Charles de Borda (1771, 1776) who more accurately measured the longitudes of the islands and the height of Mount Teide * the Nicolas Baudin, Baudin-Ledru expedition (1796) which aimed to recover a valuable collection of natural history objects. The second type of expedition identified by Sirera and Renn is one that took place starting from more or less private initiatives. Among these, the key exponents were the following: * Alexander von Humboldt (1799) * Christian Leopold von Buch, Buch and Christen Smith (botanist), Smith (1815) * Broussonet * Philip Barker Webb, Webb * . Sirera and Renn identify the period 1770–1830 as one in which "In a panorama dominated until that moment by France and England enters with strength and brio Germany of the Romantic period whose presence in the islands will increase".


Early 20th century

At the beginning of the 20th century, the British introduced a new cash-crop, the banana, the export of which was controlled by companies such as Fyffes. 30 November 1833 the Province of Canary Islands had been created with the capital being declared as Santa Cruz de Tenerife. The rivalry between the cities of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife for the capital of the islands led to the division of the
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
into two provinces on 23 September 1927. During the time of the Second Spanish Republic, Marxist and anarchist workers' movements began to develop, led by figures such as Jose Miguel Perez and Guillermo Ascanio. However, outside of a few municipalities, these organisations were a minority and fell easily to Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War.


Franco regime

In 1936, Francisco Franco was appointed General Commandant of the Canaries. He joined the military revolt of 17 July which began the Spanish Civil War. Franco quickly took control of the archipelago, except for a few points of resistance on La Palma and in the town of Vallehermoso, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Vallehermoso, on La Gomera. Though there was never a war in the islands, the post-war suppression of political dissent on the Canaries was most severe. During the Second World War, Winston Churchill prepared plans for the British seizure of the Canary Islands as a naval base, in the event of Gibraltar being invaded from the Spanish mainland. Opposition to Franco's regime did not begin to organise until the late 1950s, which experienced an upheaval of parties such as the Communist Party of Spain (main), Communist Party of Spain and the formation of various nationalist, leftist parties.


Self-governance

After the death of Franco, there was a pro-independence armed movement based in Algeria, the Canary Islands Independence Movement, Movement for the Independence and Self-determination of the Canaries Archipelago (MAIAC). In 1968, the Organisation of African Unity recognized the MAIAC as a legitimate African independence movements, African independence movement, and declared the Canary Islands as an African territory still under foreign rule. After the establishment of a democratic constitutional monarchy in Spain, self-governance, autonomy was granted to the Canaries via a law passed in 1982, with a newly established autonomous devolved government and parliament. In 1983, the first autonomous elections were held. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) won. In the 2007 elections, the PSOE gained a plurality of seats, but the nationalist Canarian Coalition and the conservative People's Party (Spain), Partido Popular (PP) formed a ruling coalition government.


Capitals

At present, the Canary Islands is the only autonomous community in Spain that has two capitals:
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz (, ), is a major city, capital of the island of Tenerife, Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and capital of the Canary Islands. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its ...
and
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital (jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife), the most populous city in the Autonom ...
, since the was created in 1982. The political capital of the archipelago did not exist as such until the nineteenth century. The first cities founded by the Europeans at the time of the conquest of the Canary Islands in the 15th century were: Telde (in
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
), San Marcial del Rubicón (in
Lanzarote Lanzarote (, , ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Oc ...

Lanzarote
) and Betancuria (in
Fuerteventura Fuerteventura () is one of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. At their closest point ...

Fuerteventura
). These cities boasted the first European institutions present in the archipelago, including Catholic bishoprics. Although, because the period of splendor of these cities developed before the total conquest of the archipelago and its incorporation into the Crown of Castile never had a political and real control of the entire Canary archipelago. The function of a Canarian city with full jurisdiction for the entire archipelago only exists after the conquest of the Canary Islands, although originally ''de facto'', that is, without legal and real meaning and linked to the headquarters of the Canary Islands General Captaincy. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria was the first city that exercised this function. This is because the residence of the Captain General of the Canary Islands was in this city during part of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.La Junta Suprema de Canarias. Volumen I. Buenaventura Bonnet y Riveron. Real Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País de Tenerife, Editorial: Editorial Interinsular Canaria SA, publicado en Santa Cruz de Tenerife en 1980 (reedición de 1948) Páginas 104–106 In May 1661, the Captain General of the Canary Islands, Jerónimo de Benavente y Quiñones, moved the headquarters of the captaincy to the city of
San Cristóbal de La Laguna San Cristóbal de La Laguna (commonly known as La Laguna, ) is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands (Spain). The city is the third-most populous ci ...

San Cristóbal de La Laguna
on the island of
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
. This was due to the fact that this island since the conquest was the most populated, productive and with the highest economic expectations. La Laguna would be considered the ''de facto'' capital of the archipelago until the official status of the capital of Canary Islands in the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife was confirmed in the 19th century, due in part to the constant controversies and rivalries between the bourgeoisies of San Cristóbal de La Laguna and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria for the economic, political and institutional hegemony of the archipelago. Already in 1723, the Captain General of the Canary Islands Lorenzo Fernandez de Villavicencio had moved the headquarters of the General Captaincy of the Canary Islands from San Cristóbal de La Laguna to Santa Cruz de Tenerife. This decision continued without pleasing the society of the island of Gran Canaria. It would be after the creation of the Province of Canary Islands in November 1833 in which Santa Cruz would become the first fully official capital of the Canary Islands (''De jure'' and not of ''de facto'' as happened previously). Santa Cruz de Tenerife would be the capital of the Canary archipelago until during the Government of General Miguel Primo de Rivera, Primo de Rivera in 1927 the Province of Canary Islands was split in two provinces:
Las Palmas Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off th ...
with capital in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, and Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife with capital in the homonymous city. Finally, with the Statute of Autonomy of the Canary Islands in 1982 and the creation of the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands, the capital of the archipelago between Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife is fixed, which is how it remains today.


Demographics

The Canary Islands have a population of 2,153,389 inhabitants (2019), making it the eighth most populous of Spain's autonomous communities. The total area of the archipelago is , resulting in a population density of 287.4 inhabitants per square kilometre. The Canarian population includes long-tenured residents and new waves of mainland Spanish immigrants, as well as foreign-born populations. In 2019 the total population was 2,153,389, of which 72.1% were native Canary Islanders. A total of 80.6%, or 1,735,457, were born in Spain and 19.4%, or 417,932, were born outside the country. Of these, the majority are from the Americas, mainly from Venezuela (66,593), Cuba (41,807) and Colombia (31,368). There are also almost 40,000 people from Africa, the majority from
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
(24,281).


Population of the individual islands

The population of the islands according to the 2019 data are: *
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
– 917,841 *
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
– 851,231 *
Lanzarote Lanzarote (, , ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Oc ...

Lanzarote
– 152,289 (including the population of La Graciosa) *
Fuerteventura Fuerteventura () is one of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. At their closest point ...

Fuerteventura
– 116,886 *
La Palma La Palma (), also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a ...

La Palma
– 82,671 *
La Gomera La Gomera () is one of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , ima ...

La Gomera
– 21,503 *
El Hierro El Hierro, nicknamed ''Isla del Meridiano'' (the "Meridian Island"), is the second-smallest and farthest-south and -west of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish ...

El Hierro
– 10,968


Religion

The Catholic Church, Roman Catholic branch of Christianity has been the majority religion in the archipelago for more than five centuries, ever since the Conquest of the Canary Islands. There are also several other religious communities.


Roman Catholic Church

The overwhelming majority of native Canarians are Roman Catholic (76.7%) with various smaller foreign-born populations of other Christian beliefs such as Protestants. The appearance of the Virgin of Candelaria (Patron of Canary Islands) was credited with moving the Canary Islands toward Christianity. Two Catholic saints were born in the Canary Islands: Peter of Saint Joseph de Betancur and José de Anchieta. Both born on the island of Tenerife, they were respectively missionaries in Guatemala and Brazil. The Canary Islands are divided into two Catholic dioceses, each governed by a bishop: * Roman Catholic Diocese of Canarias, Diócesis Canariense: Includes the islands of the Province of Las Palmas, Eastern Province: Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. Its capital was San Marcial El Rubicón (1404) and Las Palmas, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (1483–present). There was a previous bishopric which was based in Telde, but it was later abolished. * Roman Catholic Diocese of San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Diócesis Nivariense: Includes the islands of the Santa Cruz de Tenerife (province), western province: Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. Its capital is
San Cristóbal de La Laguna San Cristóbal de La Laguna (commonly known as La Laguna, ) is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands (Spain). The city is the third-most populous ci ...

San Cristóbal de La Laguna
(1819–present).


Other religions

Separate from the overwhelming Christian majority are a minority of Muslims. Among the followers of Islam, the Islamic Federation of the Canary Islands exists to represent the Islamic community in the Canary Islands as well as to provide practical support to members of the Islamic community. Other religious faiths represented include Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as well as Hinduism. Minority religions are also present such as the Church of the Guanche People which is classified as a Modern Paganism, neo-pagan native religion. Also present are Buddhism, Judaism, Baháʼí Faith, Baháʼí, African religion, and Chinese religions.


Statistics

The distribution of beliefs in 2012 according to the CIS Barometer Autonomy was as follows: * Catholic 84.9% * Atheist/Agnostic/Unbeliever 12.3% * Other religions 1.7%


Population genetics


Islands

Ordered from west to east, the Canary Islands are
El Hierro El Hierro, nicknamed ''Isla del Meridiano'' (the "Meridian Island"), is the second-smallest and farthest-south and -west of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish ...

El Hierro
,
La Palma La Palma (), also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a ...

La Palma
,
La Gomera La Gomera () is one of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , ima ...

La Gomera
,
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
,
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
,
Fuerteventura Fuerteventura () is one of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. At their closest point ...

Fuerteventura
,
Lanzarote Lanzarote (, , ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Oc ...

Lanzarote
and La Graciosa. In addition, north of Lanzarote are the islets of Montaña Clara,
Alegranza Alegranza () is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, located off the coast of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) i ...
,
Roque del Este Roque del Este (Spanish language, Spanish for "rock of the east") is a small uninhabited island in the Canary Islands, located northeast of the island of Lanzarote. The island is part of the Chinijo Archipelago, which is administratively part of th ...
and
Roque del Oeste Roque del Oeste (; Spanish for "rock of the west"), also referred to as ''Roque del Infierno'', is an uninhabited islet located 0.6 km northeast of the island of Montaña Clara, in the northeasternmost part of the Canary Islands The Cana ...
, belonging to the Chinijo Archipelago, and northeast of Fuerteventura is the islet of Lobos Island, Lobos. There are also a series of small adjacent rocks in the Canary Islands: the Roques de Anaga,
Garachico Garachico is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subord ...
and Fasnia in Tenerife, and those of Salmor and Bonanza in El Hierro. File:Spain Canary Islands location map El Hierro.svg,
El Hierro El Hierro, nicknamed ''Isla del Meridiano'' (the "Meridian Island"), is the second-smallest and farthest-south and -west of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish ...

El Hierro
File:Spain Canary Islands location map La Palma.svg,
La Palma La Palma (), also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a ...

La Palma
File:Spain Canary Islands location map La Gomera.svg,
La Gomera La Gomera () is one of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , ima ...

La Gomera
File:Spain Canary Islands location map Tenerife.svg,
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
File:Spain Canary Islands location map Gran Canaria.svg,
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
File:Spain Canary Islands location map Fuerteventura.svg,
Fuerteventura Fuerteventura () is one of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. At their closest point ...

Fuerteventura
File:Spain Canary Islands location map Lanzarote.svg,
Lanzarote Lanzarote (, , ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Oc ...

Lanzarote
File:Spain Canary Islands location map LaGraciosa.png, La Graciosa


El Hierro

El Hierro, the westernmost island, covers , making it the second smallest of the major islands, and the least populous with 10,798 inhabitants. The whole island was declared Reserve of the Biosphere in 2000. Its capital is Valverde, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Valverde. Also known as Ferro, it was once believed to be the westernmost land in the world.


Fuerteventura

Fuerteventura, with a surface of , is the second-most extensive island of the archipelago. It has been declared a Biosphere reserve by Unesco. It has a population of 113,275. Being also the most ancient of the islands, it is the one that is more eroded: its highest point is the Peak of the Bramble, at a height of . Its capital is Puerto del Rosario.


Gran Canaria

Gran Canaria has 846,717 inhabitants. The capital, Las Palmas, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (377,203 inhabitants), is the most populous city and shares the status of capital of the Canaries with Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Gran Canaria's surface area is . In center of the island lie the Roque Nublo and Pico de las Nieves ("Peak of Snow") . In the south of island are the Maspalomas Dunes (Gran Canaria), these are the biggest tourist attractions.


La Gomera

La Gomera has an area of and is the second least populous island with 21,136 inhabitants. Geologically it is one of the oldest of the archipelago. The insular capital is San Sebastian de La Gomera. Garajonay's National Park is located on the island.


Lanzarote

Lanzarote is the easternmost island and one of the most ancient of the archipelago, and it has shown evidence of recent volcanic activity. It has a surface of , and a population of 149,183 inhabitants, including the adjacent islets of the Chinijo Archipelago. The capital is Arrecife, with 56,834 inhabitants.


Chinijo Archipelago

The Chinijo Archipelago includes the islands La Graciosa,
Alegranza Alegranza () is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, located off the coast of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) i ...
, Montaña Clara,
Roque del Este Roque del Este (Spanish language, Spanish for "rock of the east") is a small uninhabited island in the Canary Islands, located northeast of the island of Lanzarote. The island is part of the Chinijo Archipelago, which is administratively part of th ...
and
Roque del Oeste Roque del Oeste (; Spanish for "rock of the west"), also referred to as ''Roque del Infierno'', is an uninhabited islet located 0.6 km northeast of the island of Montaña Clara, in the northeasternmost part of the Canary Islands The Cana ...
. It has a surface of , and a population of 658 inhabitants all of them on La Graciosa. With , La Graciosa, is the smallest inhabited island of the Canaries, and the major island of the Chinijo Archipelago.


La Palma

La Palma, with 81,863 inhabitants covering an area of , is in its entirety a biosphere reserve. It shows no recent signs of volcanic activity, even though the volcano Teneguía entered into eruption last in 1971. In addition, it is the second-highest island of the Canaries, with the Roque de los Muchachos as highest point. Santa Cruz de La Palma (known to those on the island as simply "Santa Cruz") is its capital.


Tenerife

Tenerife is, with its area of , the most extensive island of the Canary Islands. In addition, with 904,713 inhabitants it is the most populated island of the archipelago and Spain. Two of the islands' principal cities are located on it: The capital,
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz (, ), is a major city, capital of the island of Tenerife, Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and capital of the Canary Islands. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its ...
and
San Cristóbal de La Laguna San Cristóbal de La Laguna (commonly known as La Laguna, ) is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands (Spain). The city is the third-most populous ci ...

San Cristóbal de La Laguna
(a World Heritage Site). San Cristóbal de La Laguna, the second city of the island is home to the oldest university in the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna.
Teide Teide, or Mount Teide, ( es, El Teide, Pico del Teide, , "Teide Peak") is a volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and Volcanic gas, gases to escape from ...

Teide
, with its is the highest peak of Spain and also a World Heritage Site. Tenerife is the site of the Tenerife airport disaster, worst air disaster in the history of aviation, in which 583 people were killed in the collision of two Boeing 747s on 27 March 1977.


La Graciosa

Graciosa Island or commonly La Graciosa is a volcanic island in the Canary Islands of Spain, located 2 km (1.2 mi) north of the island of Lanzarote across the Strait of El Río. It was formed by the Canary hotspot. The island is part of the Chinijo Archipelago and the Chinijo Archipelago Natural Park (Parque Natural del Archipiélago Chinijo). It is administrated by the municipality of Teguise. In 2018 La Graciosa officially became the eighth Canary Island. Before then, La Graciosa had the status of an islet, administratively dependent on the island of Lanzarote. It is the smallest and least populated of the main islands, with a population of about 700 people.


Data


Economy and environment

The economy is based primarily on Tourism in Spain, tourism, which makes up 32% of the GDP. The Canaries receive about 12 million tourists per year. Construction makes up nearly 20% of the GDP and tropical agriculture, primarily bananas and tobacco, are grown for export to Europe and the Americas. Ecologists are concerned that the resources, especially in the more arid islands, are being overexploited but there are still many agricultural resources like tomatoes, potatoes, onions, cochineal, sugarcane, grapes, vines, Phoenix dactylifera, dates, Orange (fruit), oranges, lemons, ficus, figs, wheat, barley, maize, apricots, peaches and almonds. Water resources are also being overexploited, due to the high water usage by tourists. Also, some islands (such as Gran Canaria and Tenerife) Groundwater extraction, overexploit the ground water. This is done in such degree that, according to European and Spanish legal regulations, the current situation is not acceptable. To address the problems, good governance and a change in the water use paradigm have been proposed. These solutions depend largely on Water conservation, controlling water use and on demand management. As this is administratively difficult and politically unpalatable, most action is currently directed at increasing the public offer of water through import from outside; a decision which is economically, politically and environmentally questionable. To bring in revenue for environmental protection, innovation, training and water sanitation a tourist tax was considered in 2018, along with a doubling of the ecotax and restrictions on holiday rents in the zones with the greatest pressure of demand. The economy is Euro, € 25 billion (2001 GDP figures). The islands experienced continuous growth during a 20-year period, up until 2001, at a rate of approximately 5% annually. This growth was fueled mainly by huge amounts of foreign direct investment, mostly to develop tourism real estate (hotels and apartments), and European Funds (near €11 billion in the period from 2000 to 2007), since the Canary Islands are labelled Region Objective 1 (eligible for euro structural funds). Additionally, the EU allows the Canary Islands Government to offer special tax concessions for investors who incorporate under the Zona Especial Canaria (ZEC) regime and create more than five jobs. Spain gave permission in August 2014 for Repsol and its partners to explore oil and natural gas prospects off the Canary Islands, involving an investment of €7.5 billion over four years, to commence at the end of 2016. Repsol at the time said the area could ultimately produce 100,000 barrels of oil a day, which would meet 10 percent of Spain's energy needs. However, the analysis of samples obtained did not show the necessary volume nor quality to consider future extraction, and the project was scrapped. Despite currently having very high dependence on fossil fuels, research on the renewable energy potential concluded that a high potential for renewable energy technologies exists on the archipelago. This, in such extent even that a scenario pathway to 100% renewable energy supply by 2050 has been put forward. The Canary Islands have great natural attractions, climate and beaches make the islands a major tourist destination, being visited each year by about 12 million people (11,986,059 in 2007, noting 29% of United Kingdom, Britons, 22% of Spanish, not residents of the Canaries, and 21% of Germany, Germans). Among the islands, Tenerife has the largest number of tourists received annually, followed by Gran Canaria and Lanzarote. The archipelago's principal tourist attraction is the
Teide National Park Teide National Park ( es, Parque nacional del Teide, ) is a national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a r ...

Teide National Park
(in Tenerife) where the highest mountain in Spain and third largest
volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet a ...

volcano
in the world (Mount
Teide Teide, or Mount Teide, ( es, El Teide, Pico del Teide, , "Teide Peak") is a volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and Volcanic gas, gases to escape from ...

Teide
), receives over 2.8 million visitors annually. The combination of high mountains, proximity to Europe, and clean air has made the Roque de los Muchachos peak (on La Palma island) a leading location for telescopes like the Grantecan. The islands, as an autonomous region of Spain, are in the European Union and the Schengen Area. They are in the European Union Customs Union but outside the VAT area,Territorial status of EU countries and certain territories
European Commission, retrieved 18 December 2018
Instead of VAT there is a local Sales Tax (IGIC) which has a general rate of 7%, an increased tax rate of 13.5%, a reduced tax rate of 3% and a zero tax rate for certain basic need products and services. Consequently, some products are subject to additional VAT if being exported from the islands into mainland Spain or the rest of the EU. Canarian time is Western European Time (WET) (or Greenwich Mean Time, GMT; in summer one hour ahead of GMT). So Canarian time is one hour behind that of mainland Spain and the same as that of the UK, Ireland and mainland Portugal all year round.


Tourism statistics

The number of tourists who visited the Canary Islands had been in 2018 16,150,054 and in the year 2019 15,589,290.


GDP statistics

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the Canary Islands in 2015 was 40,922,914. The figure by islands is as follows: * Tenerife - 17 614 585 * Gran Canaria - 15 812 222 * Lanzarote - 3 203 394 * Fuerteventura - 2 298 120 * La Palma - 1 422 949 * La Gomera - 393 845 * El Hierro - 177 799


Transport

The Canary Islands have eight airports altogether, two of the main ports of Spain, and an extensive network of Highways in Spain, autopistas (highways) and other roads. For a road map see multimap. Traffic congestion is sometimes a problem in Tenerife and on Grand Canaria. There are large ferry boats that link islands as well as fast ferries linking most of the islands. Both types can transport large numbers of passengers and cargo (including vehicles). Fast ferries are made of aluminium and powered by modern and efficient diesel engines, while conventional ferries have a steel hull and are powered by heavy oil. Fast ferries travel relatively quickly (in excess of ) and are a faster method of transportation than the conventional ferry (some ). A typical ferry ride between La Palma and Tenerife may take up to eight hours or more while a fast ferry takes about two and a half hours and between Tenerife and Gran Canaria can be about one hour. The largest airport is the Gran Canaria Airport. Tenerife has two airports, Tenerife North Airport and Tenerife South Airport. The island of Tenerife gathers the highest passenger movement of all the Canary Islands through its two airports. The two main islands (Tenerife and Gran Canaria) receive the greatest number of passengers. Tenerife 6,204,499 passengers and Gran Canaria 5,011,176 passengers. The port of Las Palmas is first in freight traffic in the islands, while the port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is the first fishing port with approximately 7,500 tons of fish caught, according to the Spanish government publication Statistical Yearbook of State Ports. Similarly, it is the second port in Spain as regards ship traffic, only surpassed by the Port of Algeciras Bay. The port's facilities include a border inspection post (BIP) approved by the European Union, which is responsible for inspecting all types of imports from third countries or exports to countries outside the European Economic Area. The port of
Los Cristianos Los Cristianos is a town in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Los Cristianos
(Tenerife) has the greatest number of passengers recorded in the Canary Islands, followed by the port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. The Port of Las Palmas is the third port in the islands in passengers and first in number of vehicles transported. The SS America (1939), SS America was beached at the Canary islands on 18 January 1994. However, the ocean liner broke apart after the course of several years and eventually sank beneath the surface.


Rail transport

The Tenerife Tram opened in 2007 and is currently the only one in the Canary Islands, travelling between the cities of
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz (, ), is a major city, capital of the island of Tenerife, Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and capital of the Canary Islands. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its ...
and
San Cristóbal de La Laguna San Cristóbal de La Laguna (commonly known as La Laguna, ) is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands (Spain). The city is the third-most populous ci ...

San Cristóbal de La Laguna
. Three more railway lines are being planned for the Canary Islands:


Airports

* Tenerife South Airport – Tenerife * Tenerife North Airport – Tenerife * Lanzarote Airport, César Manrique-Lanzarote Airport – Lanzarote * Fuerteventura Airport – Fuerteventura * Gran Canaria Airport – Gran Canaria * La Palma Airport – La Palma * La Gomera Airport – La Gomera * El Hierro Airport – El Hierro


Ports

* Port of Puerto del Rosario – Fuerteventura * Port of Arrecife – Lanzarote * Port of Playa Blanca—Lanzarote * Port of Santa Cruz de La Palma – La Palma * Port of San Sebastián de La Gomera – La Gomera * Port of La Estaca – El Hierro * Port of Las Palmas – Gran Canaria * Port of Arinaga – Gran Canaria * Port of Agaete – Gran Canaria * Port of Los Cristianos – Tenerife * Port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife – Tenerife * Port of Garachico – Tenerife * Port of Granadilla – Tenerife


Health

The ''Servicio Canario de Salud'' is an autonomous body of administrative nature attached to the Ministry responsible for Health of the Government of the Canary Islands. The majority of the archipelago's hospitals belong to this organization: * Hospital Nuestra Señora de los Reyes – El Hierro * Hospital General de La Palma – La Palma * Hospital Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe – La Gomera * Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria – Tenerife * Hospital Universitario de Canarias – Tenerife * Hospital del Sur de Tenerife – Tenerife * Hospital del Norte de Tenerife – Tenerife * Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Doctor Negrín – Gran Canaria * Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria – Gran Canaria * Hospital General de Lanzarote Doctor José Molina Orosa – Lanzarote * Hospital General de Fuerteventura – Fuerteventura


Wildlife


Prehistoric fauna

Before the arrival of the Aborigines, the Canary Islands was inhabited by endemic animals, such as some extinct; giant lizards (''Gallotia goliath''), giant rats (''Canariomys bravoi'' and ''Canariomys tamarani'') and giant tortoises (''Geochelone burchardi'' and ''Geochelone vulcanica''), among others.


Terrestrial wildlife

With a range of habitats, the Canary Islands exhibit diverse plant species. The bird life includes European and African species, such as the black-bellied sandgrouse; and a rich variety of endemism, endemic (local) taxa including the: * Atlantic canary, Canary * Graja, a subspecies of red-billed chough endemic to La Palma * Blue chaffinch: ** Gran Canaria blue chaffinch endemic to Gran Canaria ** Tenerife blue chaffinch endemic to Tenerife * Canary Islands chiffchaff * Fuerteventura chat * Tenerife goldcrest * La Palma chaffinch * Canarian Egyptian vulture * Bolle's pigeon * Laurel pigeon * Plain swift * Houbara bustard * Spiders * Snakes * Scorpions * Canary Islands oystercatcher (extinct) Terrestrial fauna includes geckos, wall lizards, and three endemic species of recently rediscovered and critically endangered giant lizard: the El Hierro giant lizard (or Roque Chico de Salmor giant lizard), La Gomera giant lizard, and La Palma giant lizard. Mammals include the Canarian shrew, Canary big-eared bat, the Algerian hedgehog (which may have been introduced) and the more recently introduced mouflon. Some endemic mammals, the lava mouse, Tenerife giant rat and Gran Canaria giant rat, are extinct, as are the Canary Islands quail, long-legged bunting, the eastern Canary Islands chiffchaff and the giant prehistoric tortoises; Geochelone burchardi and Geochelone vulcanica.


Marine life

The marine life found in the Canary Islands is also varied, being a combination of Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean and endemism, endemic species. In recent years, the increasing popularity of both scuba diving and underwater photography have provided biologists with much new information on the marine life of the islands. Fish species found in the islands include many species of shark, Batoidea, ray, moray eel, Sparidae, bream, Carangidae, jack, Grunt-fish, grunt, scorpionfish, triggerfish, grouper, goby, and blenny. In addition, there are many invertebrate species, including sponge, jellyfish, anemone, crab, mollusc, sea urchin, starfish, Holothuroidea, sea cucumber and coral. There are a total of five different species of marine turtle that are sighted periodically in the islands, the most common of these being the endangered loggerhead sea turtle. The other four are the green sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle and Kemp's ridley sea turtle. Currently, there are no signs that any of these species breed in the islands, and so those seen in the water are usually wikt:migration, migrating. However, it is believed that some of these species may have bred in the islands in the past, and there are records of several sightings of leatherback sea turtle on beaches in Fuerteventura, adding credibility to the theory. Marine mammals include the large varieties of cetaceans including rare and not well-known species (see more details in the ''Marine life of the Canary Islands''). Hooded seals have also been known to be vagrant in the Canary Islands every now and then. The Canary Islands were also formerly home to a population of the rarest pinniped in the world, the Mediterranean monk seal.


Native flora gallery

File:Arbutus canariensis2.jpg, ''Arbutus canariensis'' File:Argyranthemum frutescens cv Vera 2.jpg, ''Argyranthemum frutescens'' File:Bosea yervamora berries.JPG, ''Bosea yervamora'' File:Canarina canariensis Tenerife (02).jpg, ''Canarina canariensis'' File:Digitalis (Isoplexis) canariensis by Scott zona - 004.jpg, ''Digitalis canariensis'' File:Tajinaste rojo.jpg, ''Echium wildpretii'' File:Euphorbia canariensis2.jpg, ''Euphorbia canariensis'' File:Gonospermum elegans.jpg, ''Gonospermum elegans'' File:Lavatera acerifolia var. acerifolia (Jardín Botánico Canario Viera y Clavijo).jpg, ''Lavatera acerifolia, Lavatera acerifolia var. acerifolia'' File:Lavatera phoenicea1.jpg, ''Lavatera phoenicea'' File:Lotus berthelotii1.jpg, ''Lotus berthelotii'' File:Pericallis webbii.jpg, ''Pericallis webbii'' File:Persea indica.jpg, ''Persea indica'' File:Phoenix canariensis (Puntallana) 01.jpg, ''
Phoenix canariensis ''Phoenix canariensis'' is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group ...

Phoenix canariensis
'' File:Sonchus palmensis (Barlovento) 04.jpg, ''Sonchus palmensis'' File:Spartocytisus supranubius.jpg, ''Spartocytisus supranubius''


Holidays

Some holidays of those celebrated in the Canary Islands are international and national, others are regional holidays and others are of insular character. The official day of the autonomous community is Canary Islands Day on 30 May. The anniversary of the first session of the
Parliament of the Canary Islands The Parliament of the Canary Islands is the regional legislature of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known ...
, based in the city of
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz (, ), is a major city, capital of the island of Tenerife, Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and capital of the Canary Islands. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its ...
, held on 30 May 1983, is commemorated with this day. The common festive calendar throughout the Canary Islands is as follows:
In addition, each of the islands has an island festival in which it is a holiday only on that island in question. These are the festivities of island patrons saints of each island. Organized chronologically are:
The most famous festivals of the Canary Islands is the carnival. It is the most famous and international festival of the archipelago. The carnival is celebrated in all the islands and all its municipalities, perhaps the two busiest are those of the two Canarian capitals; the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (''Tourist Festival of International Interest'') and the Carnival of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. It is celebrated on the streets between the months of February and March. But the rest of the islands of the archipelago have their carnivals with their own traditions among which stand out: The Festival of the Carneros of
El Hierro El Hierro, nicknamed ''Isla del Meridiano'' (the "Meridian Island"), is the second-smallest and farthest-south and -west of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish ...

El Hierro
, the Festival of the Diabletes of Teguise (municipality), Teguise in
Lanzarote Lanzarote (, , ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Oc ...

Lanzarote
, Los Indianos de
La Palma La Palma (), also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a ...

La Palma
, the Carnival of San Sebastián de La Gomera and the Carnival of Puerto del Rosario in
Fuerteventura Fuerteventura () is one of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. At their closest point ...

Fuerteventura
.


Science and technology

In the 1960s, Gran Canaria was selected as the location for one of the 14 ground stations in the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) to support the NASA space program. Maspalomas Station, located in the south of the island, took part in a number of space missions including the Apollo 11 Moon landings and Skylab. Today it continues to support satellite communications as part of the ESA network. Because of the remote location, a number of Observatory, astronomical observatories are located in the archipelago, including the
Teide Observatory Teide Observatory ( es, Observatorio del Teide), IAU code IAU code#954, 954, is an astronomical observatory on Mount Teide at , located on Tenerife, Spain. It has been operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias since its inauguration in 1 ...

Teide Observatory
on Tenerife, the
Roque de los Muchachos Observatory Roque de los Muchachos Observatory ( es, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, ORM) is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands. The observatory site is operated by the In ...

Roque de los Muchachos Observatory
on La Palma, and the Temisas Astronomical Observatory on Gran Canaria.


Sports

A unique form of wrestling known as Canarian wrestling (''lucha canaria'') has opponents stand in a special area called a "terrero" and try to throw each other to the ground using strength and quick movements. Another sport is the "game of the sticks" where opponents fence with long sticks. This may have come about from the shepherds of the islands who would challenge each other using their long walking sticks. Furthermore, there is the Salto del pastor, shepherd's jump (''salto del pastor''). This involves using a long stick to vault over an open area. This sport possibly evolved from the shepherd's need to occasionally get over an open area in the hills as they were tending their sheep. The two main Association football, football teams in the archipelago are: the CD Tenerife (founded in 1912) and UD Las Palmas (founded in 1949). As of the 2018/2019 season, both Tenerife and Las Palmas play in Liga Adelante. When in the same division, the clubs contest the Canary Islands derby. There are smaller clubs also playing in the mainland Spanish football league system, most notably UD Lanzarote and CD Laguna de Tenerife, CD Laguna, although no other Canarian clubs have played in the top flight. The mountainous terrain of the Canary Islands also caters to the growing popularity of ultra running and ultramarathons as host of annual competitive long-distance events including CajaMar Tenerife Bluetrail on
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
, Transvulcania on
La Palma La Palma (), also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a ...

La Palma
, Transgrancanaria on
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
, and the Half Marathon des Sables on
Fuerteventura Fuerteventura () is one of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia. At their closest point ...

Fuerteventura
. A yearly Ironman Triathlon has been taking place on
Lanzarote Lanzarote (, , ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Oc ...

Lanzarote
since 1992.


Notable athletes

* Paco Campos, (1916–1995); a footballer who played as a forward. With 127 goals, 120 of which were for Atlético Madrid, he is the highest scoring player from the Canary Islands in La Liga. * Nicolás García (taekwondo), Nicolás García Hemme, born 20 June 1988 in
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital (jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife), the most populous city in the Autonom ...
, Canary Islands, 2012 London Olympics, Taekwondo Silver Medalist in Men's Welterweight category (−80 kg). * Al Cabrera, Alfredo Cabrera, (1881–1964); shortstop for the St. Louis Cardinals in 1913 * Sergio Rodríguez, born in
San Cristóbal de La Laguna San Cristóbal de La Laguna (commonly known as La Laguna, ) is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands (Spain). The city is the third-most populous ci ...

San Cristóbal de La Laguna
in 1986, played point guard for the Portland Trail Blazers, Sacramento Kings, and New York Knicks. * David Silva, born in Arguineguín in 1986, plays association football for Real Sociedad, member of the 2010 FIFA World Cup champion Spain national football team * Juan Carlos Valerón, born in Arguineguín in 1975, played association football for Deportivo de La Coruña, Deportivo la Coruna and UD Las Palmas, Las Palmas. * Pedro (footballer, born 1987), Pedro, born in
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz (, ), is a major city, capital of the island of Tenerife, Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and capital of the Canary Islands. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its ...
in 1987, plays association football for AS Roma, member of the 2010 FIFA World Cup champion Spain national football team * Carla Suárez Navarro, born in
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital (jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife), the most populous city in the Autonom ...
in 1988, professional tennis player * Paola Tirados, born in
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital (jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife), the most populous city in the Autonom ...
in 1980, synchronized swimmer, who participated in the Olympic Games of 2000, 2004 and 2008. She won the silver medal in Beijing in 2008 in the team competition category. * Jesé, born in
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital (jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife), the most populous city in the Autonom ...
in 1993, plays association football for UD Las Palmas, Las Palmas. * Christo Bezuidenhout, born in
Tenerife Tenerife (; ; formerly spelled ''Teneriffe'') is the largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ) ...

Tenerife
in 1970, played rugby union for Gloucester Rugby, Gloucester and South Africa national rugby union team, South Africa. * Pedri, born in Tegueste in 2002, plays association football for FC Barcelona, Barcelona.


See also


History

* Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1797) * First Battle of Acentejo * Pyramids of Güímar * Second Battle of Acentejo * Tanausu * Tenerife airport disaster; the deadliest commercial aviation accidents and incidents, aviation disaster in history.


Geography

* Cumbre Vieja, a volcano on La Palma * Guatiza (Lanzarote) * La Matanza de Acentejo * Los Llanos de Aridane * Orotava Valley * San Andrés, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, San Andrés *Islands of
Macaronesia 240px, Macaronesia Macaronesia (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Macaronésia'') is a collection of four volcanic archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, off the coasts of the continents of Europe and Africa. Each archipelago ...

Macaronesia
**
Azores The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal ( pt, Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (''Região ...

Azores
**Madeira **Cabo Verde


Culture

* Canarian cuisine * Canarian Spanish * Religion in Canary Islands * Isleños * Military of the Canary Islands * Music of the Canary Islands * Silbo Gomero, a whistled language, is an indigenous variant of Spanish * Virgin of Candelaria (Patron saint of Canary Islands)


References


Informational notes


Citations


References

* Alfred Crosby, ''Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900'' (Cambridge University Press) * Felipe Fernández-Armesto, ''The Canary Islands after the Conquest: The Making of a Colonial Society in the Early-Sixteenth Century'', Oxford U. Press, 1982. ; * Sergio Hanquet, ''Diving in Canaries'', Litografía A. ROMERO, 2001. * Martin Wiemers:
The butterflies of the Canary Islands. – A survey on their distribution, biology and ecology (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)
' – Linneana Belgica 15 (1995): 63–84 & 87–118


Further reading

* * * * * *


External links


Canary Islands Government


{{Authority control Canary Islands, Archipelagoes of Spain Autonomous communities of Spain Archipelagoes of Africa North Africa NUTS 1 statistical regions of the European Union NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union Outermost regions of the European Union Physiographic sections