The 2016 Canadian Census is the most recent detailed enumeration of
Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the At ...
residents, which counted a population of 35,151,728, a change from its 2011 population of 33,476,688. The census, conducted by
Statistics Canada Statistics Canada (StatCan; french: Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of ...
, was Canada's seventh quinquennial census. The official census day was May 10, 2016. Census web access codes began arriving in the mail on May 2, 2016. The 2016 census marked the reinstatement of the mandatory long-form census, which had been dropped in favour of the voluntary National Household Survey for the 2011 census. With a response rate of 98.4%, this census is said to be the best one ever recorded since the
1666 census of New France upJean Talon, statue in front of the Quebec Parliament Building The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in Canada (and also North America). It was organized by Jean Talon, the first Intendant of New France, between 1665 and ...
. Canada's next census is scheduled for 2021.


Consultation with census data users, clients, stakeholders and other interested parties closed in November 2012. Qualitative content testing, which involved soliciting feedback regarding the questionnaire and tests responses to its questions, was scheduled for the fall of 2013, with more extensive testing occurring in May 2014. Statistics Canada was scheduled to submit its census content recommendations for review by the
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the Canadian federalism, federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of three parts: the Monarch, the Senate of Canada, Senate, and the House of C ...

Parliament of Canada
in December 2014 for subsequent final approval by the
Cabinet of Canada The Cabinet of Canada (french: Cabinet du Canada) is a body of Minister of the Crown, ministers of the Crown that, along with the Monarchy of Canada, Canadian monarch, and within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Cana ...
. On November 5, 2015, during the first Liberal caucus meeting after forming a majority government, the party announced that it would reinstate the mandatory long-form census, starting in 2016. By early January 2016, Statistics Canada had announced a need for 35,000 people to complete this survey to commence in May.

Data release schedule

The release dates for geography products from the 2016 Census were: *November 16, 2016, for boundary files (first edition), road network files, hydrography files, reference maps (first edition), attribute information products (correspondence files), and reference guides and documents (first edition); and *February 8, 2017, for boundary files (second edition), reference maps (second edition), attribute information products (GeoSuite and geographic attribute file), and reference guides and documents (second edition). The release dates for data by release topic from the 2016 Census are: *February 8, 2017, for population and dwelling counts; *May 3, 2017, for age and sex, type of dwelling; *May 10, 2017, for Census of Agriculture; *August 2, 2017, for language and families, households and marital status; *September 13, 2017, for income; *October 25, 2017, for immigration and ethnocultural diversity, housing and Aboriginal peoples; and *November 29, 2017, for education, labour, journey to work, language of work and mobility and migration.


Portions of Canada's three territories and remote areas within
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital ...

Labrador , nickname = "The Big Land" , etymology = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = Canada , subdivision_type1 = Province A province is al ...

Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Saskatchewan ("From Many Peoples Strength") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English , capital = Regina, S ...
were subject to early enumeration between February 1, 2016, and March 31, 2016. Enumeration of the balance of Canada began on May 2, 2016, with the unveiling of the online census questionnaire, eight days prior to the official census day of May 10, 2016. Because of a wildfire in early May in northeast Alberta, Statistics Canada suspended enumeration efforts in the
Fort McMurray Fort McMurray ( ) is an urban service area in the Regional Municipality (RM) of Wood Buffalo in Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , ...
area with alternate means to collect data from its evacuated residents to be determined at a later date. Shortly after re-entry, residents were encouraged to complete their census form online or over the phone; however door-to-door enumeration remained suspended.

Public response

Non-binary Non-binary or genderqueer is an umbrella term for gender identities Gender identity is the personal sense of one's own gender.''Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression in Social Work Practice'', edited by Deana F. Morrow and Lori Messinger ...
activists expressed concern that the choice between "male" and "female" on the "sex" question left them with no valid options. In response, Statistics Canada stated that "Respondents who cannot select one category ... can leave the question blank and indicate, in the Comments section at the end of the questionnaire, the reason(s) for which they've chosen to leave this question unanswered." Statistics Canada stated that they intend to analyze these comments but that because of the technical difficulties of analyzing free-form text, this analysis will not be released on the same schedule as the binary gender data.


In the 2016 Census of Population, Canada recorded a population of 35,151,728 living in 14,072,079 of its 15,412,443 total private dwellings, a change from its 2011 population of 33,476,688. With a land area of , it had a population density of in 2016. Canada's most and least populous provinces were
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

at 13,448,494 and
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English (''d ...

Prince Edward Island
at 142,907 respectively. Among the three territories, the
Northwest Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subd ...

Northwest Territories
was the largest with a population of 41,786 while
Yukon Yukon ( ; ; formerly called Yukon Territory and sometimes referred to as The Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three territories. It also is the least populated province or territory in Canada, with a population of 35,874 peo ...

was the smallest with a population of 35,874 after
Nunavut Nunavut ( iu, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ; ) is the largest and northernmost provinces and territories of Canada, territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the ''Nunavut Act'' and the ''Nunavut ...
's population overtook Yukon for the first time in its history. The majority of Canada's population in 2016 were females at , while were males. The average age of the population was 41.0 years (40.1 years for males and 41.9 years for females). In terms of occupied private dwellings, of them were single detached dwellings, followed by being units in apartment buildings less than five storeys, and being apartment units in buildings with five or more storeys. The average household size was 2.4 people per household. Two-person households were the most frequent size among private households at . In regards to the journey to work data in Ottawa, there was an increase of people driving their car to work of 51.3% which has the highest mode of transportation. On the other hand, public transit decreased to 25.1% comparing to the 2011 census. The census data in 2016 shows that people have been using other modes of transportation more than other years, this includes walking and cycling.

Population and dwellings

Ethnic origins

See also

Demographics of Canada Statistics Canada Statistics Canada (StatCan; french: Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the government agency, agency of the Government of Canada commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, re ...
Statistics Act The ''Statistics Act'' (the ''Act'') is an Act of the Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the Canadian federalism, federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of ...



External links

2016 Census Program Content Consultation
{{People of Canada 2016 censuses
Census A census is the procedure of systematically calculating, acquiring and recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In ...
Censuses in Canada May 2016 events in Canada