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The Caledonian orogeny was a mountain-building era recorded in the northern parts of the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
, the
Scandinavian Mountains #REDIRECT Scandinavian Mountains#REDIRECT Scandinavian Mountains The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian Mountains are often erroneously thought to be equivalen ...
,
Svalbard Svalbard ( , ), previously known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic ...

Svalbard
, eastern Greenland and parts of north-central Europe. The Caledonian
orogeny Orogeny is the primary mechanism by which mountains are formed on continents. An orogeny is an event that takes place at a convergent plate margin when plate motion compresses the margin. This leads to both structural deformation Deformation ...
encompasses events that occurred from the
Ordovician The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other eart ...

Ordovician
to Early
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
, roughly 490–390 million years ago ( Ma). It was caused by the closure of the
Iapetus Ocean The Iapetus Ocean (pronounced ) was an ocean that existed in the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras of the geologic timescale (between 600 and 400 million years ago). The Iapetus Ocean was situated in the southern hemisphere, between the ...
when the continents and
terrane In geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time ...
s of
Laurentia Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton A craton (, , or ; from el, κράτος ''kratos'' "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, which consists of Earth's two topmost layers, the ...
,
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
and
Avalonia Avalonia was a microcontinent Continental crustal fragments, partially synonymous A synonym is a word, morpheme, or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word, morpheme, or phrase in a given language. For example, in the E ...

Avalonia
collided. The Caledonian orogeny is named for
Caledonia Caledonia () was the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

Caledonia
, the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
name for
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
. The name was first used in 1885 by
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
n geologist
Eduard Suess Eduard Suess (; 20 August 1831 - 26 April 1914) was an Austrian geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape ...
for an episode of mountain building in northern Europe that predated the
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical composition * Period, a descriptor for a historical or period drama ...
. Geologists like Émile Haug and
Hans Stille Hans Wilhelm Stille (8 October 1876 – 26 December 1966) was an influential Germany, German geologist working primarily on tectonics and the collation of tectonic events during the Phanerozoic. Stille adhered to the contracting Earth hypothesis ...
saw the Caledonian orogeny as one of several episodic phases of mountain building that had occurred during
Earth's history The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day. Nearly all branches of natural science have contributed to understanding of the main events of Earth's past, characterized by constant geology, ...
. Current understanding has it that the Caledonian orogeny encompasses a number of
tectonic Tectonics (; ) are the processes that control the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time. These include the processes of mountain building A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, gen ...
phases that can laterally be
diachronous In geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. ...
. The name "Caledonian" can therefore not be used for an absolute period of geological time, it applies only to a series of tectonically related events.


Geodynamic history

The Caledonian orogeny was one of several
orogenies An orogeny is an event that leads to both structural Deformation (physics), deformation and compositional differentiation of the Earth's lithosphere (Crust (geology), crust and uppermost Mantle (geology), mantle) at Convergent boundary, converge ...
that would eventually form the
supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers sim ...
Pangaea Pangaea or Pangea () was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí G ...

Pangaea
in the Late
Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...
era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology Chronology (from Latin ''chronologia'', from Ancient Greek , ''chrónos'', "time"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence ...

era
. In the Early Paleozoic the majority of all continental landmasses were united in the
paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust that existed as a major landmass in the geological past. There have been many different landmasses throughout Earth's time. They range in sizes, some are just a collection ...
of
Gondwana Gondwana () or Gondwanaland was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (g ...

Gondwana
, containing the crust of future
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
,
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
, southern
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a ...

Eurasia
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
and
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oc ...

Antarctica
, which lay centered on the South Pole. Between 650 and 550 million years ago (in the
Ediacaran The Ediacaran Period ( ) is a geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of ...
period) the smaller continents of Laurentia (containing the future northeast section of
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
),
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
and
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
had separated from Gondwana to move northward towards the equator. In the process, the
Iapetus Ocean The Iapetus Ocean (pronounced ) was an ocean that existed in the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras of the geologic timescale (between 600 and 400 million years ago). The Iapetus Ocean was situated in the southern hemisphere, between the ...
between Gondwana, Baltica and Laurentia closed. In the Early
Ordovician The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other eart ...

Ordovician
period (about 480 million years ago) the
microcontinent Continental crustal fragments, partially synonymous A synonym is a word, morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bou ...
(a small fragment of
continental lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. On Earth, it is composed of the crust (geology), crust and the portion o ...
)
Avalonia Avalonia was a microcontinent Continental crustal fragments, partially synonymous A synonym is a word, morpheme, or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word, morpheme, or phrase in a given language. For example, in the E ...

Avalonia
(now lithosphere that is scattered over the east of
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
, the south of
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
, parts of
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital city of the Canadian provinc ...

New Brunswick
and
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
, southern
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
, most of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
, the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe ...
, northern
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
and
Silesia Silesia (, also , ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), o ...

Silesia
) began to separate from the northern margin of Gondwana.


Early phases

Some early phases of deformation and/or
metamorphism Metamorphism is the change of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs nat ...
are recognized in the
Scandinavian Caledonides The Scandinavian Caledonides are the vestiges of an ancient, today deeply eroded orogenic belt formed during the Silurian The Silurian ( ) is a Period (geology), geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovic ...
. The first phase that is often included in the Caledonian orogeny is the Finnmarkian phase at 505 million years ago (late
Cambrian The Cambrian Period ( ; sometimes symbolized Ꞓ) was the first geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These peri ...
). Another phase was the Jämtlandian phase at 455 million years ago. These phases are explained by the assumption that the western edge of Baltica collided with an
island arc Island arcs are long chains of active volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical b ...

island arc
or microcontinent. In a similar way, the eastern edge of Laurentia collided with an island arc during the
Taconic orogeny 300px, Illustration of the Taconic orogeny The Taconic orogeny was a mountain building period that ended 440 million years ago and affected most of modern-day New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern Unit ...

Taconic orogeny
(from 480 to 435 million years ago). During the Ordovician, the small continent of Avalonia moved independently in a northeastern direction towards Baltica. This motion was accommodated by the
subduction Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. O ...

subduction
of the southeastern Iapetus Ocean (the so-called Tornquist Sea) beneath eastern Avalonia. In the Late Ordovician (about 450 million years ago)
continental collision Continental collision is a phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (, ; ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) ...

continental collision
started between Avalonia and Baltica. The Tornquist Sea disappeared in the process, the remaining suture is the Tornquist line, which runs under the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
, southern
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
and northern Germany and
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
.


Scandian/Grampian phase

The main phase of the Caledonian orogeny (from about 425 to 400 million years ago) is called the Scandian phase in Scandinavia and the ''Grampian phase'' in the British Isles.Jones & Blake (2003), pp. 47–50 It was caused by the collision between
Laurentia Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton A craton (, , or ; from el, κράτος ''kratos'' "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, which consists of Earth's two topmost layers, the ...
and
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
. The Iapetus Ocean first closed in the north, then in the south. Therefore, the collision between Baltica and Laurentia took place a little earlier than that between Avalonia and Laurentia. Continental collision started in the Mid
Silurian The Silurian ( ) is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician The Ordovician ( ) is a geologic period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-refere ...
and mountain building took place in the Early
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
(from 420–405 million years ago). In
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, the collision between Avalonia and Laurentia is called the
Acadian orogeny The Acadian orogeny is a long-lasting mountain building event which began in the Middle Devonian, reaching a climax in the early Late Devonian.Ryder, R.T., Swezey, C.S., Crangle, R.D., Jr., and Trippi, M.T., 2008, Geologic cross section E-E' throug ...
. According to some authors, the Caledonian continental collisions involved another microcontinent,
Armorica Armorica or Aremorica ( br, Arvorig, ) is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A contin ...
(southern
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, most of the north of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
and parts of southern Germany and the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
), even smaller than Avalonia. This microcontinent probably did not form one consistent unit, but was instead a series of fragments, of which the current Armorican and
Bohemian Massif The Bohemian Massif (Bohemian Upland, cz, Česká vysočina or ''Český masiv'', german: Böhmische Masse or ''Böhmisches Massiv'') is in the geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("stud ...
s are the most important. The ocean between the combined continental mass of Laurentia, Baltica and Avalonia (called Euramerica, Laurussia or Old Red Continent) and Armorica is called the
Rheic Ocean The Rheic Ocean was an ocean which separated two major palaeocontinents, Gondwana and Laurussia (Laurentia-Baltica-Avalonia). One of the principal oceans of the Palaeozoic, its Suture (geology), sutures today stretch from Mexico to Turkey and its ...
. The paleogeographic position of the Armorica crustal fragments between the Ordovician and
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
is highly disputed though. There are indications that the Bohemian Massif started moving northward from the Ordovician onward, but many authors place the accretion of the Armorican terranes with the southern margin of Laurussia in the Carboniferous
Hercynian orogeny The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny was a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea. Nomenclature The name ''Variscan'', comes f ...
(about 340 million years ago). The Rhenohercynian basin, a
back-arc basin Back-arc basins are geologic basins, submarine features associated with island arc Island arcs are long chains of active volcanoes with intense seismic activity found along convergent tectonic plate boundaries (such as the Ring of Fire). Most ...
, formed at the southern margin of Euramerica just after the Caledonian orogeny. According to these authors, a small rim from Euramerica rifted off when this basin formed. The basin closed when these Caledonian deformed terranes were accreted again to Laurussia during the Hercynian orogeny.See the reconstructions in Cocks & Torsvik (2006) for this view. Another reconstruction of the collision of Armorica with Euramerica can be found in Stampfli ''et al.'' (2002)


See also

*
Scandinavian Mountains #REDIRECT Scandinavian Mountains#REDIRECT Scandinavian Mountains The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian Mountains are often erroneously thought to be equivalen ...
*
Świętokrzyskie Mountains
Świętokrzyskie Mountains
*
Geological structure of Great BritainThe geological structure of Great Britain is complex, resulting as it does from a long and varied Historical geology, geological history spanning more than two billion years. This piece of the Earth's crust (geology), crust has experienced several ep ...
*
Central Pangean Mountains The Central Pangean Mountains were an extensive northeast-southwest trending mountain range in the central portion of the supercontinent Pangaea during the Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic periods. They were formed as a result of collision betw ...
*
Iapetus Suture The Iapetus Suture is one of several major geological fault In geology, a fault is a Plane (geometry), planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of Rock (geology), rock across which there has been significant displacement as a result of r ...
*
Queen Louise Land Queen Louise Land ( da, Dronning Louise Land; kl, Nuna Dronning Louise) is a vast mountainous region located west of Dove Bay, King Frederick VIII Land, northeastern Greenland. Administratively it is part of the Northeast Greenland National Park ...
*
Trans-European Suture Zone The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ), also known as the Tornquist Zone, is the crustal boundary between the Precambrian East European Craton The East European Craton (EEC) is the core of the Baltica proto-Tectonic plate, plate and consists of t ...


References


Literature

*; 2006
''European geography in a global context from the Vendian to the end of the Palaeozoic''
in: (''eds.''): ''European Lithosphere Dynamics'',
Geological Society of London The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an ...

Geological Society of London
Memoirs 32, pp. 83–95. *; 1997: ''The margins of Avalonia'', Geological Magazine 134, pp. 627–636. *; 1998: Timing and kinematics of Caledonian thrusting and extensional collapse, southern Norway: evidence from 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology. Journal of Structural Geology 20, 765-781. *; 2003: ''Mountain building in Scotland'', . *; 2001: ''The Variscan collage and orogeny (480–290 Ma) and the tectonic definition of the Armorica microplate: a review'', Terra Nova 13, 122–128. *; 2000: ''The Caledonian Orogeny redefined'', Journal of the
Geological Society The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an ...
157, pp. 1149–1154. *; 2002: ''The Early Palaeozoic break-up of northern Gondwana, new palaeomagnetic and geochronological data from the Saxothuringian Basin, Germany'', International Journal of Earth Sciences 91(5), pp. 838–849. *; 2002: ''Paleozoic evolution of pre-Variscan terranes: From Gondwana to the Variscan collision'',
Geological Society of America The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences. History The society was founded in Ithaca, New York, in 1888 by Alexander Winchell, John J. Stevenson, Charles Henry Hitchco ...
Special Paper 364, pp. 263–28

*; 2004: ''Earth Geography from 400 to 250 Ma: a palaeomagnetic, faunal and facies review'', Journal of the
Geological Society of London The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an ...

Geological Society of London
161, pp. 555–572. *; 2003: ''The Tornquist Sea and Baltica–Avalonia docking'', Tectonophysics 362, pp. 67– 82. *; 1996: ''Continental break-up and collision in the Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic – A tale of Baltica and Laurentia'', Earth-Science Reviews 40, p. 229–258. *; 1990: ''Geological Atlas of Western and Central Europe'', Royal Dutch Shell, Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV (2nd ed.), {{ISBN, 90-6644-125-9.


External links


''Middle Ordovician'' (Continent Map)Re-defining the Caledonian
Ordovician orogenies Silurian orogenies Devonian orogenies Orogenies of Europe Paleozoic Europe Geology of the United Kingdom Geology of Norway Ordovician England Ordovician Norway Silurian England Silurian Norway Devonian England Devonian Norway