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Bulgarian (, ; bg, label=none, български, bălgarski, ) is a South Slavic language spoken in
Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criter ...

Southeastern Europe
, primarily in
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...
. It is the language of the
Bulgarians Bulgarians ( bg, българи, Bǎlgari, ) are a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more overtly po ...
. Along with the closely related
Macedonian language Macedonian (; , , ) is an Eastern South Slavic language. Spoken as a first language by around two million people, it serves as the official language of North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until Feb ...
(collectively forming the East South Slavic languages), it is a member of the
Balkan sprachbund The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the sprachbund, ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans. Several features are found across these languages though ...
and South Slavic
dialect continuum A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language variety, language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighboring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separ ...
of the
Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
. The two languages have several characteristics that set them apart from all other
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with t ...

Slavic languages
; changes include the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed
definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of speech In traditional grammar, a part of spee ...
and the lack of a verb
infinitiveInfinitive ( abbreviated ) is a linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of li ...
. They retain and have further developed the
Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family nati ...
verb system (albeit analytically). One such major development is the innovation of evidential verb forms to encode for the source of information: witnessed, inferred, or reported. It is the official language of Bulgaria, and since 2007 has been among the official languages of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...

European Union
. It is also spoken by minorities in several other countries.


History

One can divide the development of the Bulgarian language into several periods. * The Prehistoric period covers the time between the
Slavic migration to the eastern Balkans
Slavic migration to the eastern Balkans
( 7th century CE) and the mission of
Saints Cyril and Methodius Cyril (born Constantine, 826–869) and Methodius (815–885) were two brothers and Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern pro ...

Saints Cyril and Methodius
to Great Moravia in 860 and the
language shift Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a speech community shifts to a different language, usually over an extended period of time. Often, languages that are perceiv ...
from now extinct
Bulgar language Bulgar (also Bulghar, Bolgar, Bolghar) is an extinct Oghur Turkic language which was spoken by the Bulgars. The name is derived from the Bulgars, a tribal association which established the Bulgar state, known as Old Great Bulgaria in the mid-7 ...
. *
Old Bulgarian Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic (, ) was the first Slavic literary language A literary language is the form of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures ...
(9th to 11th centuries, also referred to as "
Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic (, ) was the first Slavic literary language. Historians credit the 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible ...
") – a literary norm of the early southern dialect of the
Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family nati ...
language from which Bulgarian evolved.
Saints Cyril and Methodius Cyril (born Constantine, 826–869) and Methodius (815–885) were two brothers and Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern pro ...

Saints Cyril and Methodius
and their disciples used this norm when translating the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...
and other liturgical literature from
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
into Slavic. *
Middle Bulgarian Middle Bulgarian language was the lingua franca and the most widely spoken language of the Second Bulgarian Empire The Second Bulgarian Empire ( bg, Второ българско царство, ''Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo'') was a medieval B ...
(12th to 15th centuries) – a literary norm that evolved from the earlier Old Bulgarian, after major innovations occurred. A language of rich literary activity, it served as the official administration language of the
Second Bulgarian Empire The Second Bulgarian Empire (Middle Bulgarian Middle Bulgarian language was the lingua franca and the most widely spoken language of the Second Bulgarian Empire The Second Bulgarian Empire ( bg, Второ българско царство, ...

Second Bulgarian Empire
. * Modern Bulgarian dates from the 16th century onwards, undergoing general grammar and syntax changes in the 18th and 19th centuries. The present-day written Bulgarian language was standardized on the basis of the 19th-century Bulgarian
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language A first language, native tongue, native langua ...
. The historical development of the Bulgarian language can be described as a transition from a highly
synthetic language A synthetic language uses inflection In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories A grammatical category or grammatical feature ...
(Old Bulgarian) to a typical
analytic language In linguistic typology Linguistic typology (or language typology) is a field of linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for ...
(Modern Bulgarian) with Middle Bulgarian as a midpoint in this transition. ''Bulgarian'' was the first "Slavic" language attested in writing. As Slavic linguistic unity lasted into late antiquity, the oldest manuscripts initially referred to this language as ѧзꙑкъ словѣньскъ, "the Slavic language". In the Middle Bulgarian period this name was gradually replaced by the name ѧзꙑкъ блъгарьскъ, the "Bulgarian language". In some cases, this name was used not only with regard to the contemporary Middle Bulgarian language of the copyist but also to the period of Old Bulgarian. A most notable example of anachronism is the Service of from Skopje (Скопски миней), a 13th-century Middle Bulgarian manuscript from northern
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
according to which St. Cyril preached with "Bulgarian" books among the Moravian Slavs. The first mention of the language as the "Bulgarian language" instead of the "Slavonic language" comes in the work of the Greek clergy of the
Archbishopric of Ohrid The Archbishopric of Ohrid, also known as the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid *T. Kamusella in The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe, Springer, 2008, p. 276 *Aisling Lyon, Decentralisation and the Management of Ethnic ...
in the 11th century, for example in the
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
hagiography of
Clement of Ohrid Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian language, Bulgarian and Macedonian language, Macedonian: , ; el, Άγιος Κλήμης της Αχρίδας; sk, svätý Kliment Ochridský; – 916) was one of the first First Bulgarian Empire, Medieval Bulg ...
by
Theophylact of Ohrid Theophylact ( gr, Θεοφύλακτος, bg, Теофилакт; around 1055after 1107) was a Byzantine archbishop of Ohrid and commentator on the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is ...

Theophylact of Ohrid
(late 11th century). During the Middle Bulgarian period, the language underwent dramatic changes, losing the Slavonic case system, but preserving the rich verb system (while the development was exactly the opposite in other Slavic languages) and developing a definite article. It was influenced by its non-Slavic neighbors in the Balkan language area (mostly grammatically) and later also by
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
, which was the official language of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
, in the form of the
Ottoman Turkish language Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسَانِ عُثْمَانِى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register (sociolinguistics), register of the Turkish language used in the Ottoman Empire (14th to 20th centuries CE). It borrowed exte ...
, mostly lexically. As a
national revival National revival or national awakening is a period of ethnic self-consciousness that often precedes a political movement for national liberation but that can take place at a time when independence is politically unrealistic. In the history of Euro ...
occurred toward the end of the period of Ottoman rule (mostly during the 19th century), a modern Bulgarian literary language gradually emerged that drew heavily on Church Slavonic/Old Bulgarian (and to some extent on literary
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
, which had preserved many lexical items from Church Slavonic) and later reduced the number of Turkish and other Balkan loans. Today one difference between Bulgarian dialects in the country and literary spoken Bulgarian is the significant presence of Old Bulgarian words and even word forms in the latter. Russian loans are distinguished from Old Bulgarian ones on the basis of the presence of specifically Russian phonetic changes, as in оборот (turnover, rev), непонятен (incomprehensible), ядро (nucleus) and others. Many other loans from French, English and the
classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of ...
s have subsequently entered the language as well. Modern Bulgarian was based essentially on the Eastern dialects of the language, but its pronunciation is in many respects a compromise between East and West Bulgarian (see especially the phonetic sections below). Following the efforts of some figures of the
National awakening of Bulgaria The National awakening of Bulgaria refers to the Bulgarian nationalism that emerged in the early 19th century under the influence of western ideas such as liberalism Liberalism is a Political philosophy, political and moral philosophy based ...
(most notably Neofit Rilski and
Ivan BogorovImage:Ivan Bogorov sketch.jpg, 230px, Sketch of Ivan Bogorov Ivan Bogorov ( bg, Иван Богоров) (1818–1892) was a noted Bulgarian encyclopedia, encyclopedist from the time of the Bulgarian National Revival, National Revival. Educated i ...
), there had been many attempts to codify a
standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of ...
Bulgarian language; however, there was much argument surrounding the choice of norms. Between 1835 and 1878 more than 25 proposals were put forward and "linguistic chaos" ensued.Glanville Price. ''Encyclopedia of the languages of Europe'' (Wiley-Blackwell, 2000), p.45 Eventually the eastern dialects prevailed, Victor Roudometof. ''Collective memory, national identity, and ethnic conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian question'' (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002), p. 92 and in 1899 the Bulgarian Ministry of Education officially codified a standard Bulgarian language based on the Drinov-Ivanchev orthography.


Geographic distribution

Bulgarian is the official language of
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...
, where it is used in all spheres of public life. As of 2011, it is spoken as a first language by about 6million people in the country, or about four out of every five Bulgarian citizens. Of the 6.64 million people who answered the optional language question in the 2011 census, 5.66 million (or 85.2%) reported being native speakers of Bulgarian (this amounts to 76.8% of the total population of 7.36 million). There is also a significant
Bulgarian diaspora The Bulgarian diaspora includes ethnic Bulgarians living outside Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a ...
abroad. One of the main historically established communities are the
Bessarabian Bulgarians The Bessarabian Bulgarians ( bg, бесарабски българи, ''besarabski bǎlgari'', ro, bulgari basarabeni) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine Ukraine ( ...
, whose settlement in the
Bessarabia Bessarabia (; gag, Besarabiya; ro, Basarabia; russian: Бессарабия, ''Bessarabiya''; tr, Besarabya; uk, Бессара́бія'', Bessarabiya''; bg, Бесарабия, ''Besarabiya'') is a historical region Historical regions (or ...

Bessarabia
region of nowadays Moldavia and Ukraine dates mostly to the early 19th century. There were Bulgarian speakers in
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the List of European countries by area, second-largest country by area in Europe after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares bo ...
at the 2001 census, in
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to a ...
as of the 2014 census (of which were habitual users of the language), and presumably a significant proportion of the 13,200 ethnic Bulgarians residing in neighbouring
Transnistria Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is a breakaway state in the narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the Ukrainian border that is internationally recognized as part of Moldova Moldova ...

Transnistria
in 2016. Another community abroad are the
Banat Bulgarians The Banat Bulgarians ( Banat Bulgarian: ''Palćene'' or ''Banátsći balgare''; common bg, Банатски българи, Banatski balgari; ro, Bulgari bănățeni; sr, / ), also known as Bulgarian Roman Catholics and Bulgarians Paulicians ...
, who migrated in the 17th century to the Banat region now split between Romania, Serbia and Hungary. They speak the Banat Bulgarian dialect, which has had its own written standard and a historically important literary tradition. There are Bulgarian speakers in neighbouring countries as well. The regional dialects of Bulgarian and Macedonian form a dialect continuum, and there is no well-defined boundary where one language ends and the other begins. Within the limits of the
Republic of North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in 1991 as one of the successor states of Socialist Federal ...
a strong separate Macedonian identity has emerged since the Second World War, even though there still are a small number of citizens who identify their language as Bulgarian. Beyond the borders of North Macedonia, the situation is more fluid, and the pockets of speakers of the related regional dialects in Albania and in Greece variously identify their language as Macedonian or as Bulgarian. In Serbia, there were speakers as of 2011, mainly concentrated in the so-called
Western Outlands The Western (Bulgarian) Outlands () is a term used by Bulgarians to describe several regions located in southeastern Serbia. The territories in question were ceded by Kingdom of Bulgaria, Bulgaria to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kingdom of the Ser ...

Western Outlands
along the border with Bulgaria. Bulgarian is also spoken in Turkey: natively by
Pomaks Pomaks ( bg, Помаци, Pomatsi; el, Πομάκοι, Pomákoi; tr, Pomaklar) are Bulgarian language, Bulgarian-speaking Slavic Muslims, Muslims inhabiting Bulgaria, northeastern Greece and mainly northwestern Turkey. The c. 220,000 strong ...

Pomaks
, and as a second language by many
Bulgarian Turks Bulgarian Turks, also referred to as Turkish Bulgarians, ( bg, български турци, ''Bǎlgarski Turci'', tr, Bulgaristan Türkleri) are a Turkish ethnic group from Bulgaria. In 2011, there were 588,318 Bulgarians of Turkish desce ...
who emigrated from Bulgaria, mostly during the "Big Excursion" of 1989. The language is also represented among the diaspora in Western Europe and North America, which has been steadily growing since the 1990s. Countries with significant numbers of speakers include
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...
,
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_ ...
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...
, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
( speakers in England and Wales as of 2011),
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...
, the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...
, and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocea ...
( in 2011).


Dialects

The language is mainly split into two broad dialect areas, based on the different reflexes of the
Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family nati ...
vowel (Ѣ). This split, which occurred at some point during the Middle Ages, led to the development of Bulgaria's: *Western dialects (informally called твърд говор/''tvurd govor'' – "hard speech") **the former ''yat'' is pronounced "e" in all positions. e.g. млеко (''mlekò'') – milk, хлеб (''hleb'') – bread. *Eastern dialects (informally called мек говор/''mek govor'' – "soft speech") **the former ''yat'' alternates between "ya" and "e": it is pronounced "ya" if it is under stress and the next syllable does not contain a
front vowel A front vowel is a class of vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in qua ...
(''e'' or ''i'') – e.g. мляко (''mlyàko''), хляб (''hlyab''), and "e" otherwise – e.g. млекар (''mlekàr'') – milkman, хлебар (''hlebàr'') – baker. This rule obtains in most Eastern dialects, although some have "ya", or a special "open e" sound, in all positions. The literary language norm, which is generally based on the Eastern dialects, also has the Eastern alternating reflex of ''yat''. However, it has not incorporated the general Eastern umlaut of ''all'' synchronic or even historic "ya" sounds into "e" before front vowels – e.g. поляна (''polyana'') vs. полени (''poleni'') "meadow – meadows" or even жаба (''zhaba'') vs. жеби (''zhebi'') "frog – frogs", even though it co-occurs with the yat alternation in almost all Eastern dialects that have it (except a few dialects along the yat border, e.g. in the
Pleven Pleven ( bg, Плèвен ) is the seventh most populous city in Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is ...

Pleven
region). More examples of the ''yat'' umlaut in the literary language are: *''mlyàko'' (milk) .→ ''mlekàr'' (milkman); ''mlèchen'' (milky), etc. *''syàdam'' (sit) b.→ ''sedàlka'' (seat); ''sedàlishte'' (seat, e.g. of government or institution, butt), etc. *''svyat'' (holy) dj.→ ''svetètz'' (saint); ''svetìlishte'' (sanctuary), etc. (in this example, ''ya/e'' comes not from historical ''yat'' but from ''small yus ''(ѧ), which normally becomes ''e'' in Bulgarian, but the word was influenced by Russian and the ''yat'' umlaut) Until 1945, Bulgarian orthography did not reveal this alternation and used the original Old Slavic
Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic , fam3 = Phoenician alphabet, Phoenician , ...
letter ''yat'' (Ѣ), which was commonly called двойно е (''dvoyno e'') at the time, to express the historical ''yat'' vowel or at least root vowels displaying the ''ya – e'' alternation. The letter was used in each occurrence of such a root, regardless of the actual pronunciation of the vowel: thus, both ''mlyako'' and ''mlekar'' were spelled with (Ѣ). Among other things, this was seen as a way to "reconcile" the Western and the Eastern dialects and maintain language unity at a time when much of Bulgaria's Western dialect area was controlled by
Serbia Serbia (, ; sr, Србија, Srbija, ),, * cs, Srbsko, * ro, Serbia * rue, Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk, Сербія * hu, Szerbia * bg, Сърбия * sq, Serbia * bs, Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, ...

Serbia
and
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A contin ...

Greece
, but there were still hopes and occasional attempts to recover it. With the 1945 orthographic reform, this letter was abolished and the present spelling was introduced, reflecting the alternation in pronunciation. This had implications for some grammatical constructions: *The third person plural pronoun and its derivatives. Before 1945 the pronoun "they" was spelled тѣ (''tě''), and its derivatives took this as the root. After the orthographic change, the pronoun and its derivatives were given an equal share of soft and hard spellings: **"they" – те (''te'') → "them" – тях (''tyah''); **"their(s)" – ''tehen'' (masc.); ''tyahna'' (fem.); ''tyahno'' (neut.); ''tehni'' (plur.) *adjectives received the same treatment as тѣ: **"whole" – ''tsyal'' → "the whole...": ''tseliyat'' (masc.); ''tsyalata'' (fem.); ''tsyaloto'' (neut.); ''tselite'' (plur.) Sometimes, with the changes, words began to be spelled as other words with different meanings, e.g.: *свѣт (''svět'') – "world" became свят (''svyat''), spelt and pronounced the same as свят – "holy". *тѣ (''tě'') – "they" became те (''te''), In spite of the literary norm regarding the yat vowel, many people living in Western Bulgaria, including the capital
Sofia Sofia ( ; bg, София, Sofiya, ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Bulgaria, largest city of Bulgaria. It is situated in the Sofia Valley at the foot of the Vitosha mountain in the western parts of the country. ...

Sofia
, will fail to observe its rules. While the norm requires the realizations ''vidyal'' vs. ''videli'' (he has seen; they have seen), some natives of Western Bulgaria will preserve their local dialect pronunciation with "e" for all instances of "yat" (e.g. ''videl'', ''videli''). Others, attempting to adhere to the norm, will actually use the "ya" sound even in cases where the standard language has "e" (e.g. ''vidyal'', ''vidyali''). The latter
hypercorrection In sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural Norm (sociology), norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language ...
is called свръхякане (''svrah-yakane'' ≈"over-''ya''-ing"). ;Shift from to Bulgarian is the only Slavic language whose literary standard does not naturally contain the
iotated In Slavic languages, iotation (, ) is a form of palatalization (phonetics), palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding phoneme. The is represented by iota (ι) in the Cyrillic alp ...
sound (or its palatalized variant , except in non-Slavic foreign-loaned words). The sound is common in all modern Slavic languages (e.g.
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Au ...
''medvěd'' "bear",
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
''pięć'' "five",
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia a ...
''jelen'' "deer",
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
''немає'' "there is not...",
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
''пишување'' "writing", etc.), as well as some Western Bulgarian dialectal forms – e.g. ''ора̀н’е'' (standard Bulgarian: ''оране'' , "ploughing"), however it is not represented in standard Bulgarian speech or writing. Even where occurs in other Slavic words, in Standard Bulgarian it is usually transcribed and pronounced as pure – e.g.
Boris Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin ( rus, links=no, Борис Николаевич Ельцин, a=ru-Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin.ogg, p=bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ ˈjelʲtsɨn; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian and former Soviet ...
is "Eltsin" ( Борис Елцин),
Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburg (; rus, Екатеринбург, p=jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnˈburk), alternatively romanization of Russian, romanized Ekaterinburg, formerly known as Sverdlovsk (Свердловск, 1924–1991), is the largest city and the administrati ...
is "Ekaterinburg" ( Екатеринбург) and
Sarajevo Sarajevo ( ; cyrl, Сарајево, ; ''see Names of European cities in different languages (Q–T)#S, names in other languages'') is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,569 in its admi ...

Sarajevo
is "Saraevo" ( Сараево), although - because the sound is contained in a stressed syllable at the beginning of the word -
Jelena Janković Jelena Janković ( sr-Cyrl, Јелена Јанковић, ; born 28 February 1985) is a Serbian professional tennis player. Janković is a former List of WTA number 1 ranked players, world No. 1 in singles, a ranking achieved preceding her final ...

Jelena Janković
is "Yelena" – Йелена Янкович.


Relationship to Macedonian

Until the period immediately following the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the gr ...
, all Bulgarian and the majority of foreign linguists referred to the South Slavic dialect continuum spanning the area of modern Bulgaria,
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe ...
and parts of
Northern Greece Northern Greece ( el, Βόρεια Ελλάδα, Voreia Ellada) is used to refer to the northern parts of Greece, and can have various definitions. Administrative term The term "Northern Greece" is widely used to refer mainly to the two northern ...
as a group of Bulgarian dialects.Mazon, Andre. ''Contes Slaves de la Macédoine Sud-Occidentale: Etude linguistique; textes et traduction''; Notes de Folklore, Paris 1923, p. 4. In contrast, Serbian sources tended to label them "south Serbian" dialects. Some local naming conventions included ''bolgárski'', ''bugárski'' and so forth. The codifiers of the standard Bulgarian language, however, did not wish to make any allowances for a pluricentric "Bulgaro-Macedonian" compromise. In 1870
Marin Drinov Marin Stoyanov Drinov; bg, Марин Стоянов Дринов; russian: Марин Степанович Дринов (20 October 1838 - 13 March 1906) was a Bulgarian historian and Philology, philologist from the Bulgarian National Revival, N ...
, who played a decisive role in the standardization of the Bulgarian language, rejected the proposal of Parteniy Zografski and
Kuzman Shapkarev Kuzman Anastasov Shapkarev, ( bg, Кузман Анастасов Шапкарев), (1 January 1834 in Ohrid Ohrid ( mk, Охрид ) is a city in North Macedonia and is the seat of the Ohrid Municipality. It is the largest city on Lake Ohrid a ...

Kuzman Shapkarev
for a mixed eastern and western Bulgarian/Macedonian foundation of the standard Bulgarian language, stating in his article in the newspaper Makedoniya: "Such an artificial assembly of written language is something impossible, unattainable and never heard of." After 1944 the
People's Republic of Bulgaria The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; bg, Народна Република България (НРБ), ''Narodna Republika Bălgariya (NRB)'') was the official name of Bulgaria, when it was a socialist state, socialist republic that existed fr ...
and the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a Socialist state, socialist country in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the after ...
began a policy of making Macedonia into the connecting link for the establishment of a new Balkan Federative Republic and stimulating here a development of distinct
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
consciousness. With the proclamation of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia as part of the Yugoslav federation, the new authorities also started measures that would overcome the pro-Bulgarian feeling among parts of its population and in 1945 a separate
Macedonian language Macedonian (; , , ) is an Eastern South Slavic language. Spoken as a first language by around two million people, it serves as the official language of North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until Feb ...
was codified. After 1958, when the pressure from Moscow decreased, Sofia reverted to the view that the Macedonian language did not exist as a separate language. Nowadays, Bulgarian and Greek linguists, as well as some linguists from other countries, still consider the various Macedonian dialects as part of the broader Bulgarian pluricentric dialectal continuum.Language profile Macedonian
, UCLA International Institute
Outside Bulgaria and Greece, Macedonian is generally considered an
autonomous languageAutonomy and heteronomy are complementary attributes of a language variety describing its functional relationship with related varieties. The concepts were introduced by William A. Stewart in 1968, and provide a way of distinguishing a ''language'' ...
within the South Slavic dialect continuum. Sociolinguists agree that the question whether Macedonian is a dialect of Bulgarian or a language is a political one and cannot be resolved on a purely linguistic basis, because dialect continua do not allow for either/or judgements. Nevertheless, Bulgarians often argue that the high degree of mutual intelligibility between Bulgarian and Macedonian proves that they are not different languages, but rather dialects of the same language, whereas Macedonians believe that the differences outweigh the similarities.


Alphabet

In 886 AD, the
Bulgarian Empire In the medieval history of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarde ...

Bulgarian Empire
introduced the
Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic script (, ''glagolitsa''; Bulgarian language, Bulgarian and Macedonian language, Macedonian: глаголица, romanized as ''glagolitsa'' and ''glagolica'' respectively; Croatian language, Croatian: ; Czech language, Czech: ; ...

Glagolitic alphabet
which was devised by the
Saints Cyril and Methodius Cyril (born Constantine, 826–869) and Methodius (815–885) were two brothers and Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern pro ...

Saints Cyril and Methodius
in the 850s. The Glagolitic alphabet was gradually superseded in later centuries by the
Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt, used ...
, developed around the
Preslav Literary School The Preslav Literary School ( bg, Преславска книжовна школа), also known as the Pliska Literary School or Pliska-Preslav Literary school was the first literary school in the medieval First Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian Empire ...
,
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...
in the late 9th century. Several Cyrillic alphabets with 28 to 44 letters were used in the beginning and the middle of the 19th century during the efforts on the codification of Modern Bulgarian until an alphabet with 32 letters, proposed by
Marin Drinov Marin Stoyanov Drinov; bg, Марин Стоянов Дринов; russian: Марин Степанович Дринов (20 October 1838 - 13 March 1906) was a Bulgarian historian and Philology, philologist from the Bulgarian National Revival, N ...
, gained prominence in the 1870s. The alphabet of Marin Drinov was used until the orthographic reform of 1945, when the letters (uppercase Ѣ, lowercase ѣ) and
yus Little yus (Ѧ ѧ) and big yus (Ѫ ѫ), or jus, are letters of the Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyp ...

yus
(uppercase Ѫ, lowercase ѫ) were removed from its alphabet, reducing the number of letters to 30. With the
accession of Bulgaria to the European Union On 1 January 2007, Bulgaria and Romania became member states of the European Union (EU) in the fifth wave of EU enlargement. Negotiations Romania was the first country of Revolutions of 1989, post-communist Europe to have official relations wit ...
on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official script of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...

European Union
, following the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
and
Greek script#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
s.


Phonology

Bulgarian possesses a phonology similar to that of the rest of the South Slavic languages, notably lacking Serbo-Croatian's phonemic vowel length and tones and alveo-palatal affricates. The eastern dialects exhibit palatalization of consonants before front vowels ( and ) and reduction of vowel phonemes in unstressed position (causing mergers of and , and , and ) - both patterns have partial parallels in Russian and lead to a partly similar sound. The western dialects are like Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian in that they do not have allophonic palatalization and have only little vowel reduction. Bulgarian has six vowel phonemes, but at least eight distinct phones can be distinguished when reduced allophones are taken into consideration.


Grammar

The parts of speech in Bulgarian are divided in ten types, which are categorized in two broad classes: mutable and immutable. The difference is that mutable parts of speech vary grammatically, whereas the immutable ones do not change, regardless of their use. The five classes of mutables are: ''nouns'', ''adjectives'', ''numerals'', ''pronouns'' and ''verbs''. Syntactically, the first four of these form the group of the noun or the nominal group. The immutables are: ''adverbs'', ''prepositions'', ''conjunctions'', ''particles'' and ''interjections''. Verbs and adverbs form the group of the verb or the verbal group.


Nominal morphology

Nouns and adjectives have the
categories Category, plural categories, may refer to: Philosophy and general uses *Categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such ...
grammatical gender In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement (linguistics), agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or v ...
,
number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduct ...
,
case Case or CASE may refer to: Containers * Case (goods), a package of related merchandise * Case, the metallic enclosure component in modern firearm cartridge (firearms), cartridges * Bookcase, a piece of furniture used to store books * Briefcase or ...
(only
vocative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
) and
definiteness In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
in Bulgarian. Adjectives and adjectival pronouns agree with nouns in number and gender. Pronouns have gender and number and retain (as in nearly all
Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
) a more significant part of the case system.


Nominal inflection


=Gender

= There are three grammatical genders in Bulgarian: ''masculine'', ''feminine'' and ''neuter''. The gender of the noun can largely be inferred from its ending: nouns ending in a consonant ("zero ending") are generally masculine (for example, 'city', 'son', 'man'; those ending in –а/–я (-a/-ya) ( 'woman', 'daughter', 'street') are normally feminine; and nouns ending in –е, –о are almost always neuter ( 'child', 'lake'), as are those rare words (usually loanwords) that end in –и, –у, and –ю ( '
tsunami A tsunami ( ; from ja, 津波, lit=harbour wave, ) is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater exp ...

tsunami
', 'taboo', 'menu'). Perhaps the most significant exception from the above are the relatively numerous nouns that end in a consonant and yet are feminine: these comprise, firstly, a large group of nouns with zero ending expressing quality, degree or an abstraction, including all nouns ending on –ост/–ест - ( 'wisdom', 'vileness', 'loveliness', 'sickness', 'love'), and secondly, a much smaller group of irregular nouns with zero ending which define tangible objects or concepts ( 'blood', 'bone', 'evening', 'night'). There are also some commonly used words that end in a vowel and yet are masculine: 'father', 'grandfather', / 'uncle', and others. The plural forms of the nouns do not express their gender as clearly as the singular ones, but may also provide some clues to it: the ending (-i) is more likely to be used with a masculine or feminine noun ( 'facts', 'sicknesses'), while one in belongs more often to a neuter noun ( 'lakes'). Also, the plural ending occurs only in masculine nouns.


=Number

= Two numbers are distinguished in Bulgarian–
singular Singular may refer to: * Singular, the grammatical number In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verb agreement (linguistics), agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", ...
and
plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phr ...

plural
. A variety of plural suffixes is used, and the choice between them is partly determined by their ending in singular and partly influenced by gender; in addition, irregular declension and alternative plural forms are common. Words ending in (which are usually feminine) generally have the plural ending , upon dropping of the singular ending. Of nouns ending in a consonant, the feminine ones also use , whereas the masculine ones usually have for polysyllables and for monosyllables (however, exceptions are especially common in this group). Nouns ending in (most of which are neuter) mostly use the suffixes (both of which require the dropping of the singular endings) and . With
cardinal number 150px, Aleph null, the smallest infinite cardinal In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and ca ...
s and related words such as ('several'), masculine nouns use a special count form in , which stems from the Proto-Slavonic
dual Dual or Duals may refer to: Paired/two things * Dual (mathematics), a notion of paired concepts that mirror one another ** Dual (category theory), a formalization of mathematical duality ** . . . see more cases in :Duality theories * Dual ...
: ('two/three chairs') versus ('these chairs'); cf. feminine ('two/three/these books') and neuter ('two/three/these beds'). However, a recently developed language norm requires that count forms should only be used with masculine nouns that do not denote persons. Thus, ('two/three students') is perceived as more correct than , while the distinction is retained in cases such as ('two/three pencils') versus ('these pencils').


=Case

= Cases exist only in the personal and some other
pronoun In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a word or a group of words that one may substitute for a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns have traditionally been regarded as one of the part of speech, parts of ...

pronoun
s (as they do in many other modern
Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
), with
nominative In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The te ...
,
accusative The accusative case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all) prepositions. It is ...
,
dative In grammar, the dative case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated , or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate the recipient or beneficiary of an action, as in "Maria Jacobo potum dedit" ...
and
vocative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
forms. Vestiges are present in a number of phraseological units and sayings. The major exception are
vocative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
forms, which are still in use for masculine (with the endings -е, -о and -ю) and feminine nouns (- and -е) in the singular.


=Definiteness (article)

= In modern Bulgarian, definiteness is expressed by a
definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of speech In traditional grammar, a part of spee ...
which is postfixed to the noun, much like in the
Scandinavian languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also re ...
or
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
(indefinite: , 'person'; definite: , "''the'' person") or to the first nominal constituent of definite noun phrases (indefinite: , 'a good person'; definite: , "''the'' good person"). There are four singular definite articles. Again, the choice between them is largely determined by the noun's ending in the singular. Nouns that end in a consonant and are masculine use –ът/–ят, when they are grammatical subjects, and –а/–я elsewhere. Nouns that end in a consonant and are feminine, as well as nouns that end in –а/–я (most of which are feminine, too) use –та. Nouns that end in –е/–о use –то. The plural definite article is –те for all nouns except for those whose plural form ends in –а/–я; these get –та instead. When postfixed to adjectives the definite articles are –ят/–я for masculine gender (again, with the longer form being reserved for grammatical subjects), –та for feminine gender, –то for neuter gender, and –те for plural.


Adjective and numeral inflection

Both groups agree in gender and number with the noun they are appended to. They may also take the definite article as explained above.


Pronouns

Pronouns may vary in gender, number, and definiteness, and are the only parts of speech that have retained case inflections. Three cases are exhibited by some groups of pronouns – nominative, accusative and dative. The distinguishable types of pronouns include the following: personal, relative, reflexive, interrogative, negative, indefinitive, summative and possessive.


Verbal morphology and grammar

The Bulgarian verb can take up to 3,000 distinct forms, as it varies in person, number, voice, aspect, mood, tense and in some cases gender.


Finite verbal forms

Finite verbal forms are ''simple'' or ''compound'' and agree with subjects in person (first, second and third) and number (singular, plural). In addition to that, past compound forms using participles vary in gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) and voice (active and passive) as well as aspect (perfective/aorist and imperfective).


Aspect

Bulgarian verbs express lexical aspect: perfective verbs signify the completion of the action of the verb and form past perfective (aorist) forms; imperfective ones are neutral with regard to it and form past imperfective forms. Most Bulgarian verbs can be grouped in perfective-imperfective pairs (imperfective/perfective: "come", "arrive"). Perfective verbs can be usually formed from imperfective ones by suffixation or prefixation, but the resultant verb often deviates in meaning from the original. In the pair examples above, aspect is stem-specific and therefore there is no difference in meaning. In Bulgarian, there is also grammatical aspect. Three grammatical aspects are distinguishable: neutral, perfect and pluperfect. The neutral aspect comprises the three simple tenses and the future tense. The pluperfect is manifest in tenses that use double or triple auxiliary "be" participles like the past pluperfect subjunctive. Perfect constructions use a single auxiliary "be".


Mood

The traditional interpretation is that in addition to the four moods (наклонения ) shared by most other European languages – indicative mood, indicative (изявително, ) imperative mood, imperative (повелително ), subjunctive mood, subjunctive ( ) and conditional mood, conditional (условно, ) – in Bulgarian there is one more to describe a general category of unwitnessed events – the inferential mood, inferential (преизказно ) mood. However, most contemporary Bulgarian linguists usually exclude the subjunctive mood and the inferential mood from the list of Bulgarian moods (thus placing the number of Bulgarian moods at a total of 3: indicative, imperative and conditional) and don't consider them to be moods but view them as verbial morphosyntactic constructs or separate gramemes of the verb class. The possible existence of a few other moods has been discussed in the literature. Most Bulgarian school grammars teach the traditional view of 4 Bulgarian moods (as described above, but excluding the subjunctive and including the inferential).


Tense

There are three grammatically distinctive positions in time – present, past and future – which combine with aspect and mood to produce a number of formations. Normally, in grammar books these formations are viewed as separate tenses – i. e. "past imperfect" would mean that the verb is in past tense, in the imperfective aspect, and in the indicative mood (since no other mood is shown). There are more than 40 different tenses across Bulgarian's two aspects and five moods. In the indicative mood, there are three simple tenses: *''Present tense'' is a temporally unmarked simple form made up of the verbal stem and a complex suffix composed of the thematic vowel , or and the person/number ending (, , "I arrive/I am arriving"); only imperfective verbs can stand in the present indicative tense independently; *''Past imperfect'' is a simple verb form used to express an action which is contemporaneous or subordinate to other past actions; it is made up of an imperfective or a perfective verbal stem and the person/number ending ( , , 'I was arriving'); *''Past aorist'' is a simple form used to express a temporarily independent, specific past action; it is made up of a perfective or an imperfective verbal stem and the person/number ending (, , 'I arrived', , , 'I read'); In the indicative there are also the following compound tenses: *''Future tense'' is a compound form made of the particle and present tense ( , 'I will study'); negation is expressed by the construction and present tense ( , or the old-fashioned form , 'I will not study'); *''Past future tense'' is a compound form used to express an action which was to be completed in the past but was future as regards another past action; it is made up of the past imperfect of the verb ('will'), the particle ('to') and the present tense of the verb (e.g. , , 'I was going to study'); *''Present perfect'' is a compound form used to express an action which was completed in the past but is relevant for or related to the present; it is made up of the present tense of the verb съм ('be') and the past participle (e.g. , 'I have studied'); *''Past perfect'' is a compound form used to express an action which was completed in the past and is relative to another past action; it is made up of the past tense of the verb съм and the past participle (e.g. , 'I had studied'); *''Future perfect'' is a compound form used to express an action which is to take place in the future before another future action; it is made up of the future tense of the verb съм and the past participle (e.g. , 'I will have studied'); *''Past future perfect'' is a compound form used to express a past action which is future with respect to a past action which itself is prior to another past action; it is made up of the past imperfect of , the particle the present tense of the verb съм and the past participle of the verb (e.g. , , 'I would have studied'). The four perfect constructions above can vary in aspect depending on the aspect of the main-verb participle; they are in fact pairs of imperfective and perfective aspects. Verbs in forms using past participles also vary in voice and gender. There is only one simple tense in the imperative mood, the present, and there are simple forms only for the second-person singular, -и/-й (-i, -y/i), and plural, -ете/-йте (-ete, -yte), e.g. уча ('to study'): , sg., , pl.; 'to play': , . There are compound imperative forms for all persons and numbers in the present compound imperative (, ), the present perfect compound imperative (, ) and the rarely used present pluperfect compound imperative (, ). The conditional mood consists of five compound tenses, most of which are not grammatically distinguishable. The present, future and past conditional use a special past form of the stem би- (bi – "be") and the past participle (, , 'I would study'). The past future conditional and the past future perfect conditional coincide in form with the respective indicative tenses. The subjunctive mood is rarely documented as a separate verb form in Bulgarian, (being, morphologically, a sub-instance of the quasi-
infinitiveInfinitive ( abbreviated ) is a linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of li ...
construction with the particle да and a normal finite verb form), but nevertheless it is used regularly. The most common form, often mistaken for the present tense, is the present subjunctive ( , 'I had better go'). The difference between the present indicative and the present subjunctive tense is that the subjunctive can be formed by ''both'' perfective and imperfective verbs. It has completely replaced the infinitive and the supine from complex expressions (see below). It is also employed to express opinion about ''possible'' future events. The past perfect subjunctive ( , 'I'd had better be gone') refers to ''possible'' events in the past, which ''did not'' take place, and the present pluperfect subjunctive ( ), which may be used about both past and future events arousing feelings of incontinence, suspicion, etc. and has no perfect English translation. The grammatical mood, inferential mood has five pure tenses. Two of them are simple – ''past aorist inferential'' and ''past imperfect inferential'' – and are formed by the past participles of perfective and imperfective verbs, respectively. There are also three compound tenses – ''past future inferential'', ''past future perfect inferential'' and ''past perfect inferential''. All these tenses' forms are gender-specific in the singular. There are also conditional and compound-imperative crossovers. The existence of inferential forms has been attributed to Turkic influences by most Bulgarian linguists. Morphologically, they are derived from the #Tense, perfect.


Non-finite verbal forms

Bulgarian has the following participles: *''Present active participle'' (сегашно деятелно причастие) is formed from imperfective stems with the addition of the suffixes –ащ/–ещ/–ящ (четящ, 'reading') and is used only attributively; *''Present passive participle'' (сегашно страдателно причастие) is formed by the addition of the suffixes -им/аем/уем (четим, 'that can be read, readable'); *''Past active aorist participle'' (минало свършено деятелно причастие) is formed by the addition of the suffix –л– to perfective stems (чел, '[have] read'); *''Past active imperfect participle'' (минало несвършено деятелно причастие) is formed by the addition of the suffixes –ел/–ал/–ял to imperfective stems (четял, '[have been] reading'); *''Past passive aorist participle (минало свършено страдателно причастие) is formed from aorist/perfective stems with the addition of the suffixes -н/–т (прочетен, 'read'; убит, 'killed'); it is used predicatively and attributively; *''Past passive imperfect participle (минало несвършено страдателно причастие) is formed from imperfective stems with the addition of the suffix –н (прочитан, '[been] read'; убиван, '[been] being killed'); it is used predicatively and attributively; *''Adverbial participle'' (деепричастие) is usually formed from imperfective present stems with the suffix –(е)йки (четейки, 'while reading'), relates an action contemporaneous with and subordinate to the main verb and is originally a Western Bulgarian form. The participles are inflected by gender, number, and definiteness, and are coordinated with the subject when forming compound tenses (see tenses above). When used in an attributive role, the inflection attributes are coordinated with the noun that is being attributed.


Reflexive verbs

Bulgarian uses reflexive verbal forms (i.e. actions which are performed by the Agent (grammar), agent onto him- or herself) which behave in a similar way as they do in many other Indo-European languages, such as French and Spanish. The reflexive is expressed by the invariable particle ''se'',Unlike in French and Spanish, where ''se'' is only used for the 3rd person, and other particles, such as ''me'' and ''te'', are used for the 1st and 2nd persons singular, e.g. ''je me lave/me lavo'' – I wash myself. originally a clitic form of the accusative reflexive pronoun. Thus – *''miya'' – I wash, ''miya se'' – I wash myself, ''miesh se'' – you wash yourself *''pitam'' – I ask, ''pitam se'' – I ask myself, ''pitash se'' – you ask yourself When the action is performed on others, other particles are used, just like in any normal verb, e.g. – *''miya te'' – I wash you *''pitash me'' – you ask me Sometimes, the reflexive verb form has a similar but not necessarily identical meaning to the non-reflexive verb – *''kazvam'' – I say, ''kazvam se'' – my name is (lit. "I call myself") *''vizhdam'' – I see, ''vizhdame se'' – "we see ourselves" ''or'' "we meet each other" In other cases, the reflexive verb has a completely different meaning from its non-reflexive counterpart – *''karam'' – to drive, ''karam se'' – to have a row with someone *''gotvya'' – to cook, ''gotvya se'' – to get ready *''smeya'' – to dare, ''smeya se'' – to laugh ;Indirect actions When the action is performed on an indirect object, the particles change to ''si'' and its derivatives – *''kazvam si'' – I say to myself, ''kazvash si'' – you say to yourself, ''kazvam ti'' – I say to you *''peya si'' – I am singing to myself, ''pee si'' – she is singing to herself, ''pee mu'' – she is singing to him *''gotvya si'' – I cook for myself, ''gotvyat si'' – they cook for themselves, ''gotvya im'' – I cook for them In some cases, the particle ''si'' is ambiguous between the indirect object and the possessive meaning – *''miya si ratsete'' – I wash my hands, ''miya ti ratsete'' – I wash your hands *''pitam si priyatelite'' – I ask my friends, ''pitam ti priyatelite'' – I ask your friends *''iskam si topkata – I want my ball (back) The difference between transitive and intransitive verbs can lead to significant differences in meaning with minimal change, e.g. – *''haresvash me'' – you like me, ''haresvash mi'' – I like you (lit. you are pleasing to me) *''otivam'' – I am going, ''otivam si'' – I am going home The particle ''si'' is often used to indicate a more personal relationship to the action, e.g. – *''haresvam go'' – I like him, ''haresvam si go'' – no precise translation, roughly translates as "he's really close to my heart" *''stanahme priyateli'' – we became friends, ''stanahme si priyateli'' – same meaning, but sounds friendlier *''mislya'' – I am thinking (usually about something serious), ''mislya si'' – same meaning, but usually about something personal and/or trivial


Adverbs

The most productivity (linguistics), productive way to form adverbs is to derive them from the neuter singular form of the corresponding adjective—e.g. (fast), (hard), (strange)—but adjectives ending in use the masculine singular form (i.e. ending in ), instead—e.g. (heroically), (bravely, like a man), (skillfully). The same pattern is used to form adverbs from the (adjective-like) ordinal numerals, e.g. (firstly), (secondly), (thirdly), and in some cases from (adjective-like) cardinal numerals, e.g. (twice as/double), (three times as), (five times as). The remaining adverbs are formed in ways that are no longer productive in the language. A small number are original (not derived from other words), for example: (here), (there), (inside), (outside), (very/much) etc. The rest are mostly fossilized case forms, such as: *Archaic locative forms of some adjectives, e.g. (well), (badly), (too, rather), and nouns (up), (tomorrow), (in the summer) *Archaic instrumental forms of some adjectives, e.g. (quietly), (furtively), (blindly), and nouns, e.g. (during the day), (during the night), (one next to the other), (spiritually), (in figures), (with words); or verbs: (while running), (while lying), (while standing) *Archaic accusative forms of some nouns: (today), (tonight), (in the morning), (in winter) *Archaic genitive forms of some nouns: (tonight), (last night), (yesterday) *Homonymous and etymologically identical to the feminine singular form of the corresponding adjective used with the definite article: (hard), (gropingly); the same pattern has been applied to some verbs, e.g. (while running), (while lying), (while standing) *Derived from cardinal numerals by means of a non-productive suffix: (once), (twice), (thrice) Adverbs can sometimes be reduplicated to emphasize the qualitative or quantitative properties of actions, moods or relations as performed by the subject of the sentence: "" ("rather slowly"), "" ("with great difficulty"), "" ("quite", "thoroughly").


Syntax

Bulgarian employs clitic doubling, mostly for emphatic purposes. For example, the following constructions are common in colloquial Bulgarian: : :(lit. "I gave ''it'' the present to Maria.") : :(lit. "I gave ''her it'' the present to Maria.") The phenomenon is practically obligatory in the spoken language in the case of inversion signalling information structure (in writing, clitic doubling may be skipped in such instances, with a somewhat bookish effect): : :(lit. "The present [''to her''] ''it'' I-gave to Maria.") : :(lit. "To Maria ''to her'' [''it''] I-gave the present.") Sometimes, the doubling signals syntactic relations, thus: : :(lit. "Petar and Ivan ''them'' ate the wolves.") :Transl.: "Petar and Ivan were eaten by the wolves". This is contrasted with: : :(lit. "Petar and Ivan ate the wolves") :Transl.: "Petar and Ivan ate the wolves". In this case, clitic doubling can be a colloquial alternative of the more formal or bookish passive voice, which would be constructed as follows: : :(lit. "Petar and Ivan were eaten by the wolves.") Clitic doubling is also fully obligatory, both in the spoken and in the written norm, in clauses including several special expressions that use the short accusative and dative pronouns such as "" (I feel like playing), студено ми е (I am cold), and боли ме ръката (my arm hurts): : :(lit. "To me ''to me'' it-feels-like-sleeping, and to Ivan ''to him'' it-feels-like-playing") :Transl.: "I feel like sleeping, and Ivan feels like playing." : :(lit. "To us ''to us'' it-is cold, and to you-plur. ''to you-plur.'' it-is warm") :Transl.: "We are cold, and you are warm." : :(lit. Ivan ''him'' aches the throat, and me ''me'' aches the head) :Transl.: Ivan has sore throat, and I have a headache. Except the above examples, clitic doubling is considered inappropriate in a formal context.


Other features


Questions

Questions in Bulgarian which do not use a question word (such as who? what? etc.) are formed with the particle ли after the verb; a subject is not necessary, as the verbal conjugation suggests who is performing the action: * – 'you are coming'; – 'are you coming?' While the particle generally goes after the verb, it can go after a noun or adjective if a contrast is needed: * – 'are you coming with us?'; * – 'are you coming with ''us'''? A verb is not always necessary, e.g. when presenting a choice: * – 'him?'; – 'the yellow one?'The word ('either') has a similar etymological root: и + ли ('and') – e.g. ( – '(either) the yellow one or the red one.
wiktionary
/ref> Rhetorical questions can be formed by adding to a question word, thus forming a "double interrogative" – * – 'Who?'; – 'I wonder who(?)' The same construction +не ('no') is an emphasized positive – * – 'Who was there?' – – 'Nearly everyone!' (lit. 'I wonder who ''wasn't'' there')


Significant verbs


=Съм

= The verb съм is pronounced similar to English ''"sum"''. – 'to be' is also used as an auxiliary verb, auxiliary for forming the perfect (grammar), perfect, the grammatical voice, passive and the conditional mood, conditional: *past tense – – 'I have hit' *passive – – 'I am hit' *past passive – – 'I was hit' *conditional – – 'I would hit' Two alternate forms of exist: * – interchangeable with съм in most tenses and moods, but never in the present indicative – e.g. ('I want to be'), ('I will be here'); in the imperative, only бъда is used – ('be here'); * – slightly archaic, imperfective form of бъда – e.g. ('he used to get threats'); in contemporary usage, it is mostly used in the negative to mean "ought not", e.g. ('you shouldn't smoke').It is a common reply to the question ''Kak e?'' 'How are things?' (lit. 'how is it?') – 'alright' (lit. 'it [repetitively] is') or 'How are you?' - 'I'm OK'.


=Ще

= The impersonal verb (lit. 'it wants')ще – from the verb ща – 'to want.' The present tense of this verb in the sense of 'to want' is archaic and only used colloquially. Instead, искам is used. is used to for forming the (positive) future tense: * – 'I am going' * – 'I will be going' The negative future is formed with the invariable construction (see below):Formed from the impersonal verb (lit. 'it does not have') and the subjunctive particle ('that') * – 'I will not be going' The past tense of this verb – щях is conjugated to form the past conditional ('would have' – again, with да, since it is ''irrealis''): * – 'I would have gone;' 'you would have gone'


=Имам and нямам

= The verbs ('to have') and ('to not have'): *the third person singular of these two can be used impersonally to mean 'there is/there are' or 'there isn't/aren't any,'They can also be used on their own as a reply, with no object following: – 'there are some'; – 'there aren't any' – compare German ''keine''. e.g. ** ('there is still time' – compare Spanish ''hay''); ** ('there is no one there'). *The impersonal form няма is used in the negative future – (see ще above). ** used on its own can mean simply 'I won't' – a simple refusal to a suggestion or instruction.


Conjunctions and particles


=But

= In Bulgarian, there are several conjunctions all translating into English as "but", which are all used in distinct situations. They are (), (), (), (), and () (and () – "however", identical in use to ). While there is some overlapping between their uses, in many cases they are specific. For example, is used for a choice – – "not this one, but that one" (compare Spanish ), while is often used to provide extra information or an opinion – – "I said it, but I was wrong". Meanwhile, provides contrast between two situations, and in some sentences can even be translated as "although", "while" or even "and" – – "I'm working, and he's daydreaming". Very often, different words can be used to alter the emphasis of a sentence – e.g. while and both mean "I smoke, but I shouldn't", the first sounds more like a statement of fact ("...but I mustn't"), while the second feels more like a ''judgement'' ("...but I oughtn't"). Similarly, and both mean "I don't want to, but he does", however the first emphasizes the fact that ''he'' wants to, while the second emphasizes the ''wanting'' rather than the person. is interesting in that, while it feels archaic, it is often used in poetry and frequently in children's stories, since it has quite a moral/ominous feel to it. Some common expressions use these words, and some can be used alone as interjections: * (lit. "yes, but no") – means "you're wrong to think so". * can be tagged onto a sentence to express surprise: – "he's sleeping!" * – "you don't say!", "really!"


=Vocative particles

= Bulgarian has several abstract particles which are used to strengthen a statement. These have no precise translation in English.Perhaps most similar in use is the tag "man", but the Bulgarian particles are more abstract still. The particles are strictly informal and can even be considered rude by some people and in some situations. They are mostly used at the end of questions or instructions. * () – the most common particle. It can be used to strengthen a statement or, sometimes, to indicate derision of an opinion, aided by the tone of voice. (Originally purely masculine, it can now be used towards both men and women.) ** – tell me (insistence); – is that so? (derisive); – you don't say!. * ( – expresses urgency, sometimes pleading. ** – come on, get up! * () (feminine only) – originally simply the feminine counterpart of , but today perceived as rude and derisive (compare the similar evolution of the vocative forms of feminine names). * (, masculine), (, feminine) – similar to and , but archaic. Although informal, can sometimes be heard being used by older people.


=Modal particles

= These are "tagged" on to the beginning or end of a sentence to express the mood of the speaker in relation to the situation. They are mostly interrogative or slightly imperative mood, imperative in nature. There is no change in the grammatical mood when these are used (although they may be expressed through different grammatical moods in other languages). * () – is a universal affirmative tag, like "isn't it"/"won't you", etc. (it is invariable, like the French ). It can be placed almost anywhere in the sentence, and does not always require a verb: ** – you are coming, aren't you?; – didn't they want to?; – that one, right?; **it can express quite complex thoughts through simple constructions – – "I thought you weren't going to!" or "I thought there weren't any!" (depending on context – the verb presents general negation/lacking, see "nyama", above). * () – expresses uncertainty (if in the middle of a clause, can be translated as "whether") – e.g. – "do you think he will come?" * () – presents disbelief ~"don't tell me that..." – e.g. – "don't tell me you want to!". It is slightly archaic, but still in use. Can be used on its own as an interjection – * () – expresses hope – – "he will come"; – "I hope he comes" (compare Spanish ). Grammatically, is entirely separate from the verb – "to hope". * () – means "let('s)" – e.g. – "let him come"; when used in the first person, it expresses extreme politeness: – "let us go" (in colloquial situations, , below, is used instead). **, as an interjection, can also be used to express judgement or even schadenfreude – – "he deserves it!".


=Intentional particles

= These express intent or desire, perhaps even pleading. They can be seen as a sort of cohortative mood, cohortative side to the language. (Since they can be used by themselves, they could even be considered as verbs in their own right.) They are also highly informal. * () – "come on", "let's" **e.g. – "faster!" * () – "let me" – exclusively when asking someone else for something. It can even be used on its own as a request or instruction (depending on the tone used), indicating that the speaker wants to partake in or try whatever the listener is doing. ** – let me see; or – "let me.../give me..." * () (plural ) – can be used to issue a negative instruction – e.g. – "don't come" ( + subjunctive). In some dialects, the construction ( + preterite) is used instead. As an interjection – – "don't!" (See section on Bulgarian grammar#Mood, imperative mood). These particles can be combined with the vocative particles for greater effect, e.g. (let me see), or even exclusively in combinations with them, with no other elements, e.g. (come on!); (I told you not to!).


Pronouns of quality

Bulgarian has several pronouns of quality which have no direct parallels in English – ''kakav'' (what sort of); ''takuv'' (this sort of); ''onakuv'' (that sort of – colloq.); ''nyakakav'' (some sort of); ''nikakav'' (no sort of); ''vsyakakav'' (every sort of); and the relative pronoun ''kakavto'' (the sort of ... that ... ). The adjective ''ednakuv'' ("the same") derives from the same radical.Like the demonstrative pronoun, demonstratives, these take the same form as pronouns as they do as adjectives – ie. ''takuv'' means both "this kind of..." (adj.) and ''this kind of person/thing'' (pron., depending on the context). Example phrases include: *''kakav chovek?!'' – "what person?!"; ''kakav chovek e toy?'' – what sort of person is he? *''ne poznavam takuv'' – "I don't know any (people like that)" (lit. "I don't know this sort of (person)") *''nyakakvi hora'' – lit. "some type of people", but the understood meaning is "a bunch of people I don't know" *''vsyakakvi hora'' – "all sorts of people" *''kakav iskash?'' – "which type do you want?"; ''nikakav!'' – "I don't want any!"/"none!" An interesting phenomenon is that these can be strung along one after another in quite long constructions, e.g. An extreme (colloquial) sentence, with almost no ''physical'' meaning in it whatsoever – yet which ''does'' have perfect meaning to the Bulgarian ear – would be : *"kakva e taya takava edna nyakakva nikakva?!" *inferred translation – "what kind of no-good person is she?" *literal translation: "what kind of – is – this one here (she) – this sort of – one – some sort of – no sort of" —Note: the subject of the sentence is simply the pronoun "taya" (lit. "this one here"; colloq. "she"). Another interesting phenomenon that is observed in colloquial speech is the use of ''takova'' (neuter of ''takyv'') not only as a substitute for an adjective, but also as a substitute for a verb. In that case the base form ''takova'' is used as the third person singular in the present indicative and all other forms are formed by analogy to other verbs in the language. Sometimes the "verb" may even acquire a derivational prefix that changes its meaning. Examples: * ''takovah ti shapkata'' – I did something to your hat (perhaps: I took your hat) * ''takovah si ochilata'' – I did something to my glasses (perhaps: I lost my glasses) * ''takovah se'' – I did something to myself (perhaps: I hurt myself) Another use of ''takova'' in colloquial speech is the word ''takovata'', which can be used as a substitution for a noun, but also, if the speaker doesn't remember or is not sure how to say something, they might say ''takovata'' and then pause to think about it: * ''i posle toy takovata...'' – and then he [no translation] ... * ''izyadoh ti takovata'' – I ate something of yours (perhaps: I ate your dessert). Here the word ''takovata'' is used as a substitution for a noun. As a result of this versalitity, the word ''takova'' can be used as a euphemism for ''literally anything.'' It is commonly used to substitute words relating to reproductive organs or sexual acts, for example: * ''toy si takova takovata v takovata i'' - he [verb] his [noun] in her [noun] Similar "meaningless" expressions are extremely common in spoken Bulgarian, especially when the speaker is finding it difficult to describe something.


Miscellaneous

*The commonly cited phenomenon of Bulgarian people shaking their head for "yes" and nodding for "no" is true but, with the influence of Western culture, ever rarer, and almost non-existent among the younger generation. (The shaking and nodding are ''not'' identical to the Western gestures. The "nod" for ''no'' is actually an ''upward'' movement of the head rather than a downward one, while the shaking of the head for ''yes'' is not completely horizontal, but also has a slight "wavy" aspect to it.) **A dental click (similar to the English "tsk") also means "no" (informal), as does ''ъ-ъ'' (the only occurrence in Bulgarian of the glottal stop). The two are often said with the upward 'nod'. *Bulgarian has an extensive vocabulary covering Kinship terminology, family relationships. The biggest range of words is for uncles and aunts, e.g. ''chicho'' (your father's brother), ''vuicho'' (your mother's brother), svako (your aunt's husband); an even larger number of synonyms for these three exists in the various dialects of Bulgarian, including ''kaleko, lelincho, tetin'', etc. The words do not only refer to the closest members of the family (such as ''brat'' – brother, but ''batko''/''bate'' – older brother, ''sestra'' – sister, but ''kaka'' – older sister), but extend to its furthest reaches, e.g. ''badzhanak'' from
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
''bacanak'' (the relationship of the husbands of two sisters to each other) and ''etarva'' (the relationships of two brothers' wives to each other). For all in-laws, there are specific names, e.g. a woman's husband's brother is her ''dever'' and her husband's sister is her ''zalva''. In the traditional rural extended family before 1900, there existed separate subcategories for different brothers-in-law/sisters-in-law of a woman with regard to their age relative to hers, e.g. instead of simply a ''dever'' there could be a ''braino'' (older), a ''draginko'' (younger), or an ''ubavenkyo'' (who is still a child). *As with many Slavic languages, the double negative in Bulgarian is grammatically correct, while some forms of it, when used instead of a single negative form, are grammatically incorrect. The following are literal translations of grammatically correct Bulgarian sentences that utilize a double or multiple negation: "Никой никъде никога нищо не е направил." (multiple negation without the use of a compound double negative form, i.e. using a listing of several successive single negation words) – "Nobody never nowhere nothing did not do." (translated as "nobody has ever done anything, anywhere"); "Никога не съм бил там." (double negation without the use of a compound double negative form, i.e. using a listing of several successive single negation words) – I never did not go there ("[I] have never been there"); Никога никакви чувства не съм имал! – I never no feelings had not have! (I have never had any feelings!). The same applies for Macedonian.


Vocabulary

Most of the vocabulary of modern Bulgarian consists of terms inherited from Proto-Slavic and local Bulgarian innovations and formations of those through the mediation of Old Bulgarian, Old and
Middle Bulgarian Middle Bulgarian language was the lingua franca and the most widely spoken language of the Second Bulgarian Empire The Second Bulgarian Empire ( bg, Второ българско царство, ''Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo'') was a medieval B ...
. The native terms in Bulgarian account for 70% to 80% of the lexicon. The remaining 25% to 30% are loanwords from a number of languages, as well as derivations of such words. Bulgarian adopted also a few words of Thracian language, Thracian and Bulgar language, Bulgar origin. The languages which have contributed most to Bulgarian as a way of foreign vocabulary borrowings are: *Latin language, Latin 26%, *
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
23%, *French language, French 15%, *Ottoman Turkish language, Ottoman Turkish (including Arabic language, Arabic via Ottoman Turkish) 14%, *
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
10%, *Italian language, Italian 4%, *German language, German 4%, *English language, English 4%. The classical languages Latin and
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
are the source of many words, used mostly in international terminology. Many Latin terms entered Bulgarian during the time when present-day Bulgaria was part of the Roman Empire and also in the later centuries through Romanian, Aromanian, and Megleno-Romanian during Bulgarian Empires. The loanwords of Greek origin in Bulgarian are a product of the influence of the liturgical language of the Orthodox Church. Many of the numerous loanwords from another Turkic language, Ottoman Turkish language, Ottoman Turkish and, via Ottoman Turkish, from Arabic language, Arabic were adopted into Bulgarian during the long period of Ottoman empire, Ottoman rule, but have been replaced with native Bulgarian terms. Furthermore, after the independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire in 1878, Bulgarian intellectuals imported many French language vocabulary. In addition, both specialized (usually coming from the field of science) and commonplace English language, English words (notably abstract, commodity/service-related or technical terms) have also penetrated Bulgarian since the second half of the 20th century, especially since 1989. A noteworthy portion of this English-derived terminology has attained some unique features in the process of its introduction to native speakers, and this has resulted in peculiar derivations that set the newly formed loanwords apart from the original words (mainly in pronunciation), although many loanwords are completely identical to the source words. A growing number of international neologisms are also being widely adopted, causing controversy between younger generations who, in general, are raised in the era of digital globalization, and the older, more conservative educated Linguistic purism, purists.


See also

*Abstand and ausbau languages *
Balkan sprachbund The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the sprachbund, ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans. Several features are found across these languages though ...
*Banat Bulgarian language *Bulgarian name *Orthodox Slavs *
Macedonian language Macedonian (; , , ) is an Eastern South Slavic language. Spoken as a first language by around two million people, it serves as the official language of North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until Feb ...
*Slavic language (Greece) *Swadesh list of Slavic languages *Torlakian dialect *The BABEL Speech Corpus


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * *Бояджиев и др. (1998) ''Граматика на съвременния български книжовен език. Том 1. Фонетика'' *Жобов, Владимир (2004) ''Звуковете в българския език'' *Кръстев, Боримир (1992) ''Граматика за всички'' *Пашов, Петър (1999) ''Българска граматика'' * * s:Notes on the Grammar of the Bulgarian language, Notes on the Grammar of the Bulgarian language - 1844 - Smyrna (now Izmir) - Elias Riggs


External links

Linguistic reports
Bulgarian at OmniglotBulgarian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words
(from Wiktionary'
Swadesh list appendix

Information about the linguistic classification of the Bulgarian language (from Glottolog)The linguistic features of the Bulgarian language (from WALS, The World Atlas of Language Structures Online)Information about the Bulgarian language
from the PHOIBLE project.
Locale Data Summary for the Bulgarian language
from Unicode's CLDR * Dictionaries
Eurodict — multilingual Bulgarian dictionariesRechnik.info — online dictionary of the Bulgarian languageRechko — online dictionary of the Bulgarian languageBulgarian–English–Bulgarian Online dictionary
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Bulgarian bilingual dictionariesEnglish, Bulgarian bidirectional dictionary
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UniLang {{DEFAULTSORT:Bulgarian Language Bulgarian language, Analytic languages Languages of Bulgaria Languages of Greece Languages of Romania Languages of Serbia Languages of North Macedonia Languages of Turkey Languages of Moldova Languages of Ukraine South Slavic languages Subject–verb–object languages Languages written in Cyrillic script