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The Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ( ar, الأخ القائد ومرشد الثورة) was a title held by former
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, the ...

Libya
n leader
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized in various ways. A 1986 column by '' The Straight Dope'' ...
, who claimed to be merely a symbolic figurehead of the country's official governance structure. However, critics have long described him as a
demagogue A demagogue (from Greek , a popular leader, a leader of a mob, from , people, populace, the commons + leading, leader) or rabble-rouser is a political leader in a democracy who gains popularity by arousing the common people against elites, es ...
, referring to his position as the ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with '' de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' former
political office The incumbent is the current holder of an official, office or position, usually in relation to an election. For example, in an election for president, the incumbent is the person holding or acting in the office of president before the election, ...
, despite the Libyan state's denial of him holding any power.


History

After the coup d'état on 1 September 1969, in which
King Idris I Idris ( ar, إدريس الأول; El Sayyid Prince Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi; 12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983) was a Demographics of Libya, Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and then as ...
was deposed, Libya was governed by the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) headed by Gaddafi. On 2 March 1977, after the adoption of the ''
Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People The Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People was brought into force on 2 March 1977 by the General People's Congress (Libya), General People's Congress, in the name of the Arab people of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. This amendm ...
'', the RCC was abolished and the supreme power passed into the hands of the General People's Congress. Gaddafi then became Secretary-General of the General People's Congress. On 2 March 1977, Gaddafi renounced all public functions and was designated the "Leader" (') of the Libyan state and was accorded the honorifics "Guide of the First of September Great Revolution of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" or "Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution" in government statements and the official press. Although this title was officially used only from 1979, it is often applied for the whole period of Gaddafi's rule. Although Gaddafi had no official government function from 1979, it was understood that he exercised near-absolute control over the government and the country. His 42 years in power prior to the
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independenc ...
in 2011 have made him the fifth longest-ruling non-royal national leader since 1900, as well as the longest-ruling Arab leader. Although ousted from Tripoli at the end of August 2011, Gaddafi retained this ''de facto'' position as leader of the Pro-Gaddafi forces, until his defeat and
death (1906) Death is the permanent, Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of all biological process, biological functions that sustain a living organism. Brain death is sometimes used as a legal definition of death. The remains of a previ ...
by the
Anti-Gaddafi forces The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Libya, ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībīyā) is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the n ...
in the Battle of Sirte on 20 October 2011.


Political system of Libya under Gaddafi

The Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya was formally managed on the basis of political ideology set out in '' The Green Book''. The ideology was based on the idea of
direct democracy upright=1.5, A Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 2006, Switzerland">canton_of_Glarus.html" ;"title="Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus">Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 200 ...
, and direct decision-making of all citizens on all political matters. Across the country there were the basic people's congresses, which were considered the original holders of sovereignty. These included the composition of its adult citizens  both men and women. Of their managerial and executive bodies formed the municipal people's congresses and committees, and then the General People's Congress (legislative body) and the
General People's Committee The General People's Committee ( ar, اللجنة الشعبية العامة, ''al-lajna ash-sha'biyya al-'āmma''), often abbreviated as the GPCO, was the executive branch of government during the era of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Gaddafi a ...
(executive body). Gaddafi rejected the parliamentary representation of the people or by elected representatives, as the General People's Congress was seen as a coordinating body that brought together all the popular congresses and committees, and not elected members who made decisions on behalf of the people. All laws were approved by the basic people's congresses, and then finally adopted by the General People's Congress.


See also

*
List of heads of state of Libya This article lists the Head of state, heads of state of Libya since the country's independence in 1951. Heads of state of Libya (1951–present) See also * List of Governors-General of Italian Libya * List of heads of government of Libya * B ...
*
List of heads of government of Libya A ''list'' is any set of items. List or lists may also refer to: People * List (surname)List or Liste is a European surname. Notable people with the surname include: List * Friedrich List (1789–1846), German economist * Garrett List (1943 ...


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Gaddafi Politics of Libya Positions of authority Titles of national or ethnic leadership Titles held only by one person