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The ''Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary'' (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона, abbr. ЭСБЕ, tr. ; 35 volumes, small; 86 volumes, large) is a comprehensive multi-volume encyclopedia in
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
. It contains 121,240 articles, 7,800 images, and 235 maps. It was published in
Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
in 1890–1907, as a joint venture of
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
and
St Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...
publishers. The articles were written by the prominent Russian scholars of the period, such as
Dmitri Mendeleev Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (sometimes transliterated as Mendeleyev or Mendeleef) ( ; russian: links=no, Дмитрий Иванович Менделеев,In Mendeleev's day, his name was written . tr. , ; 8 February 18342 February 1907 ) w ...

Dmitri Mendeleev
and Vladimir Solovyov. Reprints have appeared following the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, ...
.


History

In 1889, the owner of one of the
St. Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

St. Petersburg
printing houses
Ilya Efron Ilya, Illia, Illya, Iliya, Ilja, Il'ja, Ilija (given name), Ilija, or Ilia (name), Ilia (russian: Илья́, Il'ja or russian: Илия́, Ilija ; uk, Ілля́, Illya ) is the East Slavic languages, East Slavic form of the male Hebrew name El ...
on the initiative of Professor
Semyon Vengerov Semyon Afanasievich Vengerov (Семён Афанасьевич Венгеров; 1855, Lubny, Poltava Governorate – 1920) was the preeminent literary historian of Imperial Russia. Vengerov was the son of Chonon (Afanasy) Vengerov and memoiri ...
signed an agreement with the German publishing house
F.A. Brockhaus __NOTOC__ F. A. Brockhaus AG is a German book publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distrib ...
to make Russian translation of a large encyclopaedia '' Konversations-Lexikon'', issued by this publishing house. To this end the Brockhaus-Efron joint stock company was established. Originally they intended to translate the German publication with a more detailed account of issues related to Russia. It was supposed to release 16-18 volumes. The first 8 half-volumes were edited by
Ivan Andrievsky Ivan may refer to: Arts and entertainment *Ivan (1932 film), ''Ivan'' (1932 film), a Soviet drama film *Ivan (2002 film), ''Ivan'' (2002 film), a Tamil-language film *Ivan (2017 film), ''Ivan'' (2017 film), a Slovenian drama film *''Ivan, Son of ...
; the rest by
Konstantin Arsenyev Konstantin Konstantinovich Arsenyev (russian: Константин Константинович Арсеньев, 5 February 1837, Saint Petersburg, Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historica ...
and
Fyodor Petrushevsky Fyodor, Fedor (russian: Фёдор) or Feodor is the Russian form of the name "Theodore (given name), Theodore" meaning “God’s Gift”. Fedora () is the feminine form. Fyodor and Fedor are two English transliterations of the same Russian name. ...
. The ''Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary'' contains 121,240 entries, 7800 illustrations and 235 maps. The encyclopedia came out in two versions: one had 41 main and 2 additional volumes (smaller part of the circulation); the other had 82 primary and 4 additional half-volumes. Half-volumes have double numbering: e.g., 49 and 50 (the numbers on the spine) and on the title pages are numbered XXV and XXVa. In the years 1899-1902 the ''Small Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary'' (МЭСБЕ) (in 3 volumes) was produced; in 1907-1909 the second edition came out in four volumes. In the years 1911-1916 there appeared the ''New Encyclopedic Dictionary'' (Новый энциклопедический словарь); 29 volumes of the planned 48 were published, up to the entry for "
Отто
Отто
". The
National Library of Russia The National Library of Russia (russian: Российская национальная библиотека, Rossiyskaya natsional'naya biblioteka) in Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru- ...
holds proof-copies of the 30th («Падалка» — «Пермская епархия»; incomplete, without beginning), and the 31st volumes (« Пермская система» — « Познанское великое княжество»).
File:Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary b40 660-5.jpg, ''Насекомоядные'' (
Insectivora The order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and the habit of ...
'') File:A section of hydatoda in the leaf of Primula Sinensis.png, A section of
hydathode A hydathode is a type of pore, commonly found in angiosperm Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer ...
in the leaf of ''
Primula sinensis ''Primula sinensis'', () or the Chinese primrose, is a plant species in the genus ''Primula''. Primulin (anthocyanin), Primulin is an anthocyanin found in ''P. sinensis.'' References

Primula, sinensis Plants described in 1821 {{Erica ...
'' File:Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary b11 310-0.jpg, ''
Aponogeton madagascariensis ''Aponogeton madagascariensis'' is commonly known as Madagascar laceleaf, lattice leaf or lace plant. It is an aquatic plant native to Madagascar, popularly sold for use in aquariums. It is endangered in the wild. Description It is an aquatic mo ...

Aponogeton madagascariensis
'' File:Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary b15 462-1.jpg,
Coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (heraldry), escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the fu ...

Coat of arms
File:Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary b1 298-0.jpg, ''
Acropolis An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, ''akropolis''; from ''akros'' (άκρος) or ''akron'' (άκρον), "highest, topmost, outermost" and ''polis'' (πόλις), "city"; plural in English: ''acropoles'', ''acropoleis'' or ''acropol ...

Acropolis
''


See also

* ''
Brockhaus Enzyklopädie The ''Brockhaus Enzyklopädie'' is a German-language The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerlan ...
'' * Brockhaus * ''
Granat Encyclopedic Dictionary The ''Granat Encyclopedic Dictionary'' (russian: Энциклопедический словарь Гранат) is a Russian encyclopedic dictionary An encyclopedic dictionary typically includes many short listings, arranged alphabetically, ...
''


References


External links

*
digitized copy
(Full edition in
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
) –
DjVu DjVu ( , like French "déjà vu ''Déjà vu'' ( ; ) is the feeling that one has lived through the present situation before.Schnider, Armin. (2008). ''The Confabulating Mind: How the Brain Creates Reality''. Oxford University Press. pp. 167–16 ...
format at Runivers.ru {{DEFAULTSORT:Brockhaus And Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary 1890 non-fiction books Russian-language encyclopedias Russian encyclopedias 19th-century encyclopedias 20th-century encyclopedias 21st-century encyclopedias