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British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate ( so, Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a in present-day . For much of its existence, the territory was bordered by , and . From 1940 to 1941, it was occupied by the and was part of . On 26 June 1960, British Somaliland declared independence as the . Five days later, on 1 July 1960, the State of Somaliland voluntarily with the (the former ) to form the .
/ref>Encyclopædia Britannica, ''The New Encyclopædia Britannica'', (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.835 The government of , a self-declared sovereign state that is internationally as an of , regards itself as the to British Somaliland.


History


Treaties and establishment

In 1887, after signing successive treaties with the then ruling from the , , , and clans the British established a in the region referred to as British Somaliland. The British garrisoned the protectorate from and administered it from their colony until 1898. British Somaliland was then administered by the until 1905 and afterwards by the . Generally, the British did not have much interest in the resource-barren region. The stated purposes of the establishment of the protectorate were to "secure a supply market, check the traffic in slaves, and to exclude the interference of foreign powers." The British principally viewed the protectorate as a source for supplies of meat for their British Indian outpost in through the maintenance of order in the coastal areas and protection of the caravan routes from the interior. Hence, the region's nickname of "Aden's butcher's shop". Colonial administration during this period did not extend administrative infrastructure beyond the coast, and contrasted with the more interventionist colonial experience of .


Dervish Uprising

Beginning in 1899, the British were forced to expend considerable human and military capital to contain a decades-long resistance movement mounted by the resistance movement. The movement was led by , a Somali religious leader referred to colloquially by the British as the "Mad Mullah". Repeated military expeditions were unsuccessfully launched against Hassan and his Dervishes before . On 9 August 1913, the Somaliland Camel Constabulary suffered a serious defeat at the at the hands of the Dervishes. Hassan had already evaded several attempts to capture him. At Dul Madoba, his forces killed or wounded 57 members of the 110-man Constabulary unit, including the British commander, Colonel . In 1914, the British created the to assist in maintaining order in British Somaliland. In 1920, the British launched their against Hassan and his followers. Employing the then-new technology of military aircraft, the British finally managed to quell Hassan's twenty-year-long struggle. The aerial attack on the Dervish capital, , killed many members of Hassan's family who had been lured there by the British for an official visit. Hassan and his Dervish supporters fled into the Ogaden, where Hassan died in 1921.


Somaliland Camel Corps

The , also referred to as the Somali Camel Corps, was a unit of the based in British Somaliland. It lasted from the early 20th century until 1944. The troopers of the Somaliland Camel Corps had a distinctive dress. It was based on the standard British Army but included a knitted woollen pullover and drill patches on the shoulders. Shorts were worn with woollen socks on and "chaplis", boots or bare feet. Equipment consisted of leather ammunition and a leather waist belt. The officers wore and khaki drill uniforms. Other ranks wore a "kullah" with "" which ended in a long tail which hung down the back. A "chaplis" is typically a colourful sandal. A "kullah" is a type of cap. A "puggree" is typically a strip of cloth wound around the upper portion of a hat or helmet, particularly a pith helmet, and falling down behind to act as a shade for the back of the neck.


British Somaliland 1920–1930

Following the defeat of the Dervish resistance, the two fundamental goals of British policy in British Somaliland were the preservation of stability and the economic self-sufficiency of the protectorate. The second goal remained particularly elusive because of local resistance to taxation that might have been used to support the protectorate's administration. By the 1930s, the British presence had extended to other parts of British Somaliland. Growth in commercial trade motivated some livestock herders to subsequently leave the pastoral economy and settle in urban areas. also helped pay for British India's patrol of Somalia's Coast.


Italian invasion

In August 1940, during the in , British Somaliland was invaded by Italy. The few British forces that were present attempted to defend the main road to Berbera, but were dislodged from their positions and retreated after losing the . During this period, the British rounded up soldiers and governmental officials to evacuate them from the territory through Berbera. In total, 7,000 people, including civilians, were evacuated.Playfair (1954), p. 178 The Somalis serving in the were given the choice of evacuation or disbandment; the majority chose to remain and were allowed to retain their arms.Wavell
p. 2724
/ref> In March 1941, after a six-month Italian occupation, the British Imperial forces recaptured the protectorate during . The final remnants of the discontinued all resistance in British Somaliland by the autumn of 1943.


Independence and union with the Trust Territory of Somaliland

In 1947, the entire budget for the administration of the British Somaliland protectorate was only £213,139. In May 1960, the stated that it would be prepared to grant independence to the then Somaliland protectorate. The Legislative Council of British Somaliland passed a resolution in April 1960 requesting independence. The legislative councils of the territory agreed to this proposal. In April 1960, leaders of the two territories met in Mogadishu and agreed to form a unitary state. An elected president was to be head of state. Full executive powers would be held by a prime minister answerable to an elected National Assembly of 123 members representing the two territories. On 26 June 1960, the British Somaliland protectorate gained independence as the before uniting five days later with the Trust Territory of Somalia to form the (Somalia) on 1 July 1960. The legislature appointed the speaker Hagi Bashir Ismail Yousuf as first President of the Somali National Assembly and, the same day, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar become President of the Somali Republic.


Somaliland

In 1991, after a bloody civil war for independence in the northern part of , the area which formerly encompassed British Somaliland declared independence. In May 1991, the formation of the "Republic of Somaliland" was proclaimed, with the local government regarding it as the successor to the former British Somaliland as well as to the . However, the region's self-declared independence remains by any country.UN in Action: Reforming Somaliland's Judiciary
/ref> It is however recognised as one of the of .


See also

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References

{{Authority control Former polities of the Cold War