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Brisbane ( ) is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
of and most populous city in the
Australian state The States and Territories of Australia are the regional governments in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Aust ...
of
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the i ...

Queensland
, and the third most populous city in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of approximately 2.6 million, and it lies at the centre of the
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bioregion, bio-geographical, megalopolis, metropolitan, political, and administrative Regions of Queensland, region of the States and territories of Australia, state of Queensland in Australia, with a population of ...
metropolitan region A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cult ...

metropolitan region
, which encompasses a population of approximately 3.8 million. The
Brisbane central business district Brisbane City is the central suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** ...
is situated inside a peninsula of the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
, about from its mouth at
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
, a
bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...

bay
of the
Coral Sea The Coral Sea () is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean, South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, and classified as an Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia, interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends down th ...

Coral Sea
. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the hilly
floodplain File:Flood plain 7991.JPG, Riparian vegetation on the floodplain of the Lynches River, close to Johnsonville, South Carolina. These tupelo and Taxodium, cypress trees show the ordinary high water mark, high-water mark of flooding. A floodpl ...
of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the
Taylor Taylor, Taylors or Taylor's may refer to: People * Taylor (surname) Taylor is a surname used in the British Isles of French name, French origin which came from the Normans, Norman occupational surname (meaning ''tailor'') in France. derived fr ...
and
D'Aguilar
D'Aguilar
mountain ranges. It sprawls across several of
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
's most populous
local government areas A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division of a country that a local government is responsible for. The size of an LGA varies by country but it is generally a subdivision of a State (administrative division), state, province, divis ...
(LGAs)—most centrally the
City of Brisbane The City of Brisbane is a local government area (LGA) which comprises the inner portion of the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrou ...
, the most populous LGA in the nation. The
demonym A demonym (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods ...
of Brisbane is "Brisbanite", while common nicknames include "Brissy" and "River City". One of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the traditional lands of the
Turrbal The Turrbal are an people from the region of present-day , Queensland. The name primarily referred to the dialect they spoke, the tribe itself being alternatively called ''Mianjin/Meanjin''. Mianjin was the word for the central Brisbane area. ...
people who named the area ''Meanjin''. The city is named for the Brisbane River on which it stands, which is in turn named for Sir Thomas Brisbane, the
Governor of New South Wales The governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the governor-general of Australia at the national level, the governors of the ...
at the time of the city's founding. The
Moreton Bay penal settlement The Moreton Bay Penal Settlement operated from 1825 to 1842. It became the city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. History The Moreton Bay Penal Settlement was established on the Redcliffe Peninsula on Moreton Bay in 1824, under the instructi ...
was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe as a place for secondary offenders from the , and soon moved to North Quay in 1825, opening to free settlement in 1842. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland separated from
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
in 1859. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
, Brisbane played a central role in the
Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
campaign and served as the
South West Pacific Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the eastern hemisphere, Eastern and Western Hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of and a population of over 41 million. When comp ...
headquarters for United States Army
General Douglas MacArthur General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the gener ...

General Douglas MacArthur
. A city with 32.2% of its metropolitan population being
foreign born Foreign Born was an American folk rock band. They formed in San Francisco during the late summer months of 2003, but soon relocated to Los Angeles. They self-released their first 12" single ("We Had Pleasure" b/w "Escape"), and then their debut ...
, Brisbane is classified as a
global city A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996 ...
(Beta +),Schroders Global Cities Index
Schroders Schroders plc is a British multinational asset management company, founded in 1804. The company employs over 5,000 people worldwide in 32 locations around Europe, America, Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Headquartered in the City of London ...
, 2019
and ranks highly in ratings of liveable cities. Brisbane is known for its distinct Queenslander architecture, and its outdoor dining and
cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the Earth, world, from grill ...
culture. Brisbane was also the origin of the
Anzac Day Anzac Day () is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suf ...

Anzac Day
tradition through the works of Canon David John Garland. A transportation hub, Brisbane is served by a large suburban rail network, popular
bus trolleybus in Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016, it is the List of the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by p ...
and
ferry at Samothrace island, Northern Aegean, Aegean Sea. File:Spirit of America - Staten Island Ferry.jpg, The Staten Island Ferry in the United States shuttles commuting, commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island in New York City. A ferry is ...
networks as well as Australia's third-busiest
airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and maintain aircraft, and a . An airport consists of a , which comprises an aerially accessible open space including a ...

airport
and
seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (where the palm is facing to the front), the thumb is the outermost digit ...
. Brisbane has hosted major events including the 1982 Commonwealth Games,
World Expo 88 World Expo 88, also known as Expo 88, was a specialised Expo held in Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, an ...
and the 2014 G20 summit. While a final announcement has not been made, due to being awarded "preferred bidder" status by the
International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, ''CIO'') is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, ...
, Brisbane will likely host the 2032 Summer Olympics. Brisbane is a popular tourist destination. Major landmarks and attractions include
South Bank Parklands The South Bank Parklands are located at South Bank, Queensland, South Bank within the suburb of South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The parkland, on the transformed site of Brisbane's World Expo 88, was ...
, the
Queensland Cultural Centre The Queensland Cultural Centre is a heritage-listed entertainment centre at Grey Street, South Brisbane South Brisbane is an inner southern Suburbs and localities (Australia), suburb in the City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. In the , S ...
(home to the
Queensland Museum The Queensland Museum is the state museum of Queensland, Australia. The museum currently operates from its headquarters and general museum in South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane with specialist museums located in North Ipswich, Queensland ...
, the
Queensland Art Gallery The Queensland Art Gallery (QAG) is an art museum located in South Bank, Queensland, South Bank, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The gallery is part of the Queensland Cultural Centre. It complements the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art, Gallery ...
, the Gallery of Modern Art and other institutions), the
Story Bridge The Story Bridge is a heritage-listed steel cantilever bridge spanning the Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and ...

Story Bridge
,
Fortitude Valley Fortitude Valley (also known simply as "The Valley") is an inner suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixe ...
, the
Riverwalk A riverwalk is a pedestrian zone or foreshoreway alongside a river. Riverwalk may also refer to: Asia * Riverwalk Kitakyūshū, a shopping centre in Kitakyushu, Japan Australia * Brisbane River#Brisbane Riverwalk, Brisbane Riverwalk in Brisban ...
network, the
D'Aguilar National Park D'Aguilar National Prak is a national park in Queensland, Australia. It contains the D'Aguilar Range and is located along the northwest of the Brisbane metropolitan area. The park is traversed by the winding scenic Mount Nebo Road and Mount Glorio ...
, Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, Mount Coot-tha Reserve and
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
.


History


Prehistory

Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific ...
lived in coastal South East Queensland (SEQ) for at least 22,000 years, with an estimated population between 6,000 and 10,000 individuals before European settlers arrived in the 1820s. At this time the Brisbane area was inhabited by the
Turrbal The Turrbal are an people from the region of present-day , Queensland. The name primarily referred to the dialect they spoke, the tribe itself being alternatively called ''Mianjin/Meanjin''. Mianjin was the word for the central Brisbane area. ...
people, who knew the area that is now the
central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it often coincides with ...
as ''Mian-jin'', meaning "place shaped as a spike". Archaeological evidence suggests frequent habitation around the Brisbane River, and notably at the site now known as .


18th century

Matthew Flinders Captain (Royal Navy), Captain Matthew Flinders (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814) was a British navigator and cartographer who led the first littoral zone, inshore circumnavigate, circumnavigation of the landmass that is now known as Australia. ...

Matthew Flinders
initially explored the
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
area on behalf of the British authorities. On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at present-day Woody Point, which he named "Red Cliff Point" after the red-coloured cliffs visible from the bay.


19th century

In 1823 the
Governor of New South Wales The governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the governor-general of Australia at the national level, the governors of the ...
, Sir
Thomas Brisbane Major-general (United Kingdom), Major General Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, 1st Baronet, (23 July 1773 – 27 January 1860), was a British Army officer, administrator, and astronomer. Upon the recommendation of the Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke o ...
, gave instructions for the development of a new northern
penal settlement A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer to ...
be developed, and an exploration party led by
John Oxley John Joseph William Molesworth Oxley (1784 – 25 May 1828) was an List of explorers, explorer and surveyor of Australia in the early period of British colonisation. He served as Surveyor General of New South Wales and is perhaps best known ...

John Oxley
further explored Moreton Bay in November 1823. Oxley claimed, named, and explored the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
as far as
Goodna Goodna is a Suburbs and localities (Australia), suburb on the eastern edge of the City of Ipswich in Queensland, Australia. In the , Goodna had a population of 10,461 people. Geography Goodna is from the Brisbane central business district, bei ...
, upstream from the present-day central business district of Brisbane. Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore. The convict settlement party landed in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant
Henry Miller Henry Valentine Miller (December 26, 1891 – June 7, 1980) was an American writer and artist. He was known for breaking with existing literary forms and developing a new type of semi-autobiographical novel that blended character study, social c ...
– the group included 14 soldiers (some with wives and children) and 29 convicts. However, the settlers abandoned this site after a year and moved to an area on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay, south, which offered a more reliable water-supply. The newly selected Brisbane region, at the time, was plagued by
mosquitos A mosquito is any member of a group of about 3,500 species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defin ...
. After visiting the Redcliffe settlement, Sir Thomas Brisbane then travelled up the Brisbane River in December 1824. Governor Brisbane stayed overnight in a tent and often landed ashore, thus bestowing upon the future Brisbane City the distinction of being the only Australian capital city visited by its namesake.
Chief Justice The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes betwee ...
Forbes ''Forbes'' () is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family The Forbes family is one of the Boston Brahmins—a wealthy extended American family long prominent in Boston, Massachusett ...

Forbes
gave the new settlement the name of "Edenglassie" before it was named "Brisbane". Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838 and the population grew strongly thereafter, with free settlers soon far outstripping the convict population. German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper (1813–1894), Carl Wilhelm Schmidt, and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Niquet, Hartenstein, Zillman, Franz, Rode, Doege and Schneider. They were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the German Station. Later in the 1860s many German immigrants from the
Uckermark The Uckermark () is a historical region in northeastern Germany, straddles the Uckermark (district), Uckermark District of Brandenburg and the Vorpommern-Greifswald District of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Its traditional capital is Prenzlau. Geograp ...
region in
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
as well as from other German regions settled in the areas of Bethania,
Beenleigh Beenleigh is a town and suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixed-use or residential area, existing eit ...
and the
Darling Downs The Darling Downs is a farming region on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range in southern Queensland, Australia. The Downs are to the west of South East Queensland and are one of the major regions of Queensland. The name was generally ...
. These immigrants were selected and assisted through immigration programs established by
John Dunmore Lang John Dunmore Lang (25 August 1799 – 8 August 1878) was a Scottish-born Australian Presbyterian minister, writer, historian, politician and activist. He was the first prominent advocate of an independent Australian nation and of Australian rep ...

John Dunmore Lang
and Johann Christian Heussler and were offered free passage, good wages, and selections of land. The penal settlement under the control of Captain
Patrick Logan Captain Patrick Logan (1791 – October 1830) was the commandant of the Moreton Bay Penal Settlement from 1826 until his death in 1830 at the hands of Aboriginal Australians who objected to him entering their lands. As he had been hated by con ...
(Commandant from 1826 to 1830) flourished, with the numbers of convicts increasing dramatically from around 200 to over 1,000 men. He developed a substantial settlement of brick and stone buildings, complete with school and hospital. He formed additional outstations and made several important journeys of exploration. Logan became infamous for his extreme use of the
cat o' nine tails The cat o' nine tails, commonly shortened to the cat, is a type of multi-tailed flail A flail is an agriculture, agricultural tool used for threshing, the process of separating cereal, grains from their husks. It is usually made from two or ...
on convicts. The maximum allowed limit of lashes was 50; however, Logan regularly applied sentences of 150 lashes. Between 1824 and 1842, almost 2,400 men and 145 women were detained at the Moreton Bay convict settlement under the control of military commandants. Free settlers entered the area from 1835, and by the end of 1840, Robert Dixon had begun work on the first plan of Brisbane Town, in anticipation of future development.
Letters patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
dated 6 June 1859, proclaimed by Sir
George Ferguson Bowen Sir George Ferguson Bowen (; 2 November 1821 – 21 February 1899), was an Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** N ...
on 10 December 1859, separated Queensland from New South Wales, whereupon Sir George became Queensland's first governor, with Brisbane chosen as the capital. In 1893 Brisbane was affected by the Black February flood, when the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
burst its banks on three occasions in February and again in June in the same year, with the city receiving more than a year's rainfall during February 1893, leaving much of the city's population homeless.


20th century

Over 20 small municipalities and shires were amalgamated in 1925 to form the
City of Brisbane The City of Brisbane is a local government area (LGA) which comprises the inner portion of the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrou ...
, governed by the
Brisbane City Council Brisbane City Council (BCC) is the democratic executive local government authority for the City of Brisbane, the capital city of the state of Queensland, Australia Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is th ...
. A significant year for Brisbane was 1930, with the completion of
Brisbane City Hall Brisbane City Hall, in Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, ...

Brisbane City Hall
, then the city's tallest building and the
Shrine of Remembrance The Shrine of Remembrance (commonly referred to as The Shrine) is a war memorial in Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, located in Kings Domain on St Kilda Road, Melbourne, St Kilda Road. It was built to honour the men and wo ...

Shrine of Remembrance
, in , which has become Brisbane's main
war memorial A war memorial is a building, monument, statue, or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or (predominating in modern times) to commemorate those who died or were injured in a war. Symbolism Historical usage It has ...

war memorial
. These historic buildings, along with the
Story Bridge The Story Bridge is a heritage-listed steel cantilever bridge spanning the Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and ...

Story Bridge
which opened in 1940, are key landmarks that help define the architectural character of the city. During World War II, Brisbane became central to the
Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
campaign when the AMP Building (now called MacArthur Central) was used as the for
General Douglas MacArthur General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the gener ...

General Douglas MacArthur
, chief of the Allied Pacific forces, until his headquarters were moved to Hollandia in August 1944. MacArthur had previously rejected use of the University of Queensland complex as his headquarters, as the distinctive bends in the river at St Lucia could have aided enemy bombers. Also used as a headquarters by the American troops during World War II was the T & G Building. About one million US troops passed through Australia during the war, as the primary co-ordination point for the South West Pacific Area, South West Pacific. In 1942, Brisbane was the site of a violent clash between visiting US military personnel and Australian servicemen and civilians, which resulted in one death and hundreds of injuries. This incident became known colloquially as the Battle of Brisbane. Post-war Brisbane had developed a "big country town" stigma, an image the city's politicians and marketers were very keen to remove. In the late 1950s, an anonymous poet known as The Brisbane Bard generated much attention to the city which helped shake this stigma. Despite steady growth, Brisbane's development was punctuated by infrastructure problems. The state government under Joh Bjelke-Petersen began a major programme of change and urban renewal, beginning with the central business district and inner suburbs. Trams in Brisbane were a popular mode of public transport until the network was closed in 1969, leaving Melbourne and one line in Adelaide as the last Australian state capitals to operate trams until Sydney began operation of a new system in 1997. The 1974 Brisbane flood was a major disaster which temporarily crippled the city. During this era, Brisbane grew and modernised, rapidly becoming a destination of interstate migration. Some of Brisbane's popular landmarks were lost to development in controversial circumstances, including the Bellevue Hotel, Brisbane, Bellevue Hotel in 1979 and Cloudland in 1982. Major public works included the Riverside Expressway, the Gateway Bridge, and later, the redevelopment of South Bank, Queensland, South Bank, starting with the
Queensland Art Gallery The Queensland Art Gallery (QAG) is an art museum located in South Bank, Queensland, South Bank, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The gallery is part of the Queensland Cultural Centre. It complements the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art, Gallery ...
. Between 1968 and 1987, when Queensland was governed by Premier of Queensland, Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen, whose government was characterised by strong social conservatism and the Queensland street marches, use of police force against demonstrators, and which ended with the Fitzgerald Inquiry into police corruption, Brisbane developed a counterculture focussed on the University of Queensland, Queensland street marches, street marches and Brisbane punk rock music. Brisbane hosted the 1982 Commonwealth Games and the 1988 World Exposition (known locally as
World Expo 88 World Expo 88, also known as Expo 88, was a specialised Expo held in Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, an ...
). These events were accompanied by a scale of public expenditure, construction, and development not previously seen in the state of Queensland. Brisbane's population growth far exceeded the national average in the last two decades of the 20th century, with a high level of interstate migration from Victoria (Australia), Victoria and
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
.


21st century

After three decades of record population growth, Brisbane was hit again by a major 2010–2011 Queensland floods, flood in January 2011. The Brisbane River did not reach the same height as the previous 1974 flood, but still caused extensive damage and disruption to the city. Brisbane also hosted major international events including the final 2001 Goodwill Games, Goodwill Games in 2001, the Rugby League World Cup Final in 2008 and again in 2017, as well as the 2014 G20 Brisbane summit. Population growth has continued to be among the highest of the Australian capital cities in the first two decades of the 21st century, and major infrastructure including the Howard Smith Wharves, Roma Street Parklands, Star Entertainment Group#Queen's Wharf, Brisbane, Queens Wharf, the Brisbane River#Brisbane Riverwalk, Brisbane Riverwalk, the Queen's Wharf, Brisbane, Queen's Wharf casino and resort precinct, the Brisbane International Cruise Terminal, the Clem Jones Tunnel, Clem Jones, Airport Link, Brisbane, Airport Link, and Legacy Way road tunnels, and the Airport railway line, Airport, Springfield railway line, Springfield, Redcliffe Peninsula railway line, Redcliffe Peninsula and Cross River Rail railway lines have been completed or are under construction. In February 2021, Brisbane was awarded "preferred bidder" status by the
International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, ''CIO'') is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, ...
, and as a result whilst a decision has not yet been made, Brisbane will likely host the 2032 Summer Olympics.


Geography and environment

Brisbane is in the southeast corner of Queensland. The city is centred along the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
, and its eastern suburbs line the shores of
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
, a bay of the
Coral Sea The Coral Sea () is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean, South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, and classified as an Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia, interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends down th ...

Coral Sea
in the Pacific Ocean. The greater Brisbane region is on the coastal plain east of the Great Dividing Range, with the
Taylor Taylor, Taylors or Taylor's may refer to: People * Taylor (surname) Taylor is a surname used in the British Isles of French name, French origin which came from the Normans, Norman occupational surname (meaning ''tailor'') in France. derived fr ...
and ranges extending into the metropolitan area. Brisbane's metropolitan area sprawls along the
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
floodplain between the Gold Coast, Queensland, Gold and Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Sunshine coasts, approximately from Caboolture in the north to Beenleigh in the south, and across to Ipswich, Queensland, Ipswich in the south west. The Brisbane River is a wide tide, tidal estuary and its waters throughout most of the metropolitan area are brackish and navigability, navigable. The river takes a winding course through the metropolitan area with many steep curves from the southwest to its mouth at
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
in the east. The metropolitan area is also traversed by several other rivers and creeks including the North Pine River, North Pine and South Pine River, South Pine rivers in the northern suburbs, which converge to form the Pine River (Queensland), Pine River estuary at Bramble Bay, the Caboolture River further north, the Logan River, Logan and Albert River (Queensland), Albert rivers in the south-eastern suburbs, and tributary, tributaries of the Brisbane River including the Bremer River (Queensland), Bremer River in the south-western suburbs, Breakfast Creek in the inner-north, Norman Creek (Queensland), Norman Creek in the inner-south, Oxley Creek in the south, Bulimba Creek in the inner south-east and Moggill Creek in the west. The city is on a low-lying
floodplain File:Flood plain 7991.JPG, Riparian vegetation on the floodplain of the Lynches River, close to Johnsonville, South Carolina. These tupelo and Taxodium, cypress trees show the ordinary high water mark, high-water mark of flooding. A floodpl ...
, with the risk of flooding addressed by the Brisbane City Council's FloodSmart Future Strategy 2012–2031. The waters of Moreton Bay are sheltered from large swell (ocean), swells by Moreton Island, Moreton, North Stradbroke Island, Stradbroke and Bribie Island, Bribie islands, so whilst the bay can become rough in windy conditions, the waves at the Moreton Bay coastline are generally not surfing, surfable. Unsheltered surf beaches lie on the eastern coasts of Moreton Island, Moreton, North Stradbroke Island, Stradbroke and Bribie Island, Bribie islands islands and on the Gold Coast and Sunshine Coast to the north and south. The southern part of Moreton Bay also contains smaller islands such as St Helena Island National Park, St Helena Island, Peel Island, Coochiemudlo Island, Russell Island (Moreton Bay), Russell Island, Lamb Island, Queensland, Lamb Island and Macleay Island. The city of Brisbane is hilly. The urban area, including the central business district, are partially elevated by spurs of the Taylor Range (Queensland), Herbert Taylor Range, such as the summit of Mount Coot-tha, Queensland, Mount Coot-tha, reaching up to and Enoggera Hill. The
D'Aguilar National Park D'Aguilar National Prak is a national park in Queensland, Australia. It contains the D'Aguilar Range and is located along the northwest of the Brisbane metropolitan area. The park is traversed by the winding scenic Mount Nebo Road and Mount Glorio ...
, encompassing the D'Aguilar Range, bounds the north-west of Brisbane's built-up area, and contains the taller peaks of Mount Nebo (Queensland), Mount Nebo, Camp Mountain, Mount Pleasant, Queensland (Moreton Bay Region), Mount Pleasant, Mount Glorious, Mount Samson and Mount Mee, Queensland, Mount Mee. Other prominent rises in Brisbane are Mount Gravatt, Queensland, Mount Gravatt, Toohey Mountain, Mount Petrie, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Highgate Hill, Mount Ommaney, Stephens Mountain, Queensland, Stephens Mountain, and Whites Hill, Queensland, Whites Hill, which are dotted across the city. Much of the rock upon which Brisbane is located is the characteristic Brisbane tuff, a form of welded ignimbrite, which is most prominently found at the Kangaroo Point Cliffs at Kangaroo Point, Queensland, Kangaroo Point and the New Farm Cliffs on the Petrie Bight reach of the Brisbane River. The stone was used in the construction of historical buildings such as the Commissariat Store, Brisbane, Commissariat Store and Cathedral of St Stephen, Brisbane, Cathedral of St Stephen, and the roadside curb, kerbs in inner areas of Brisbane are still manufactured of Brisbane tuff.


Ecology

Brisbane is located within the
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bioregion, bio-geographical, megalopolis, metropolitan, political, and administrative Regions of Queensland, region of the States and territories of Australia, state of Queensland in Australia, with a population of ...
Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia, biogeographic region, and is home to numerous Eucalyptus varieties. Trees considered iconic to Brisbane include the Ficus macrophylla, Moreton Bay fig, a very large evergreen banyan with imposing buttress roots named for the region which are often lit with Christmas lights, decorative lights in the inner city, as well as the Jacaranda mimosifolia, jacaranda, a subtropical tree native to South America which line avenues and parks throughout Brisbane and bloom with purple flowers during October, referred to locally as 'jacaranda season'. Other trees common to the metropolitan area include Castanospermum, Moreton Bay chestnut, Melaleuca quinquenervia, broad-leaved paperbark, Delonix regia, poinciana, Waterhousea floribunda, weeping lilli pilli and Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Bangalow palm. Some of the banks of the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
and
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
are home to Australian mangroves, mangrove wetlands. Brisbane is home to numerous bird species, with common species including rainbow lorikeets, kookaburras, galahs, Australian white ibises, Australian brushturkeys, Torresian crows, Australian magpies and noisy miners. Common reptiles include common garden skinks, Australian water dragons, Pogona, bearded dragons and Blue-tongued skink, blue-tongued lizards. Common ringtail possums and Pteropus, flying foxes are common in parks and yards throughout the city, as are Euploea core, common crow butterflies, Graphium sarpedon, blue triangle butterflies, Nephila, golden orb-weaver spiders and Argiope keyserlingi, St Andrew's Cross spiders. The
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
is home to many fish species including Acanthopagrus australis, yellowfin bream, Flathead (fish), flathead, Australasian snapper, and bull sharks. The waters of
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
are home to dugongs, humpback whales, dolphins, Scylla serrata, mud crabs, Mictyris longicarpus, soldier crabs, Thenus, Moreton Bay bugs and numerous shellfish species.


Climate

Brisbane has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: ''Cfa'') with hot, wet summers and moderately dry, moderately warm winters. Brisbane experiences an annual mean minimum of and mean maximum of , making it Australia's second-hottest capital city after Darwin. Seasonality is not pronounced, and average maximum temperatures of above persist from October through to April. Due to its proximity to the Coral Sea and a warm ocean current, Brisbane's overall temperature variability is somewhat less than most Australian capitals. Summers are long, hot, and wet, but temperatures only occasionally reach or more. Eighty percent of summer days record a maximum temperature of . Winters are short and warm, with average maximums of about ; maximum temperatures below are rare. The city's highest recorded temperature was on Australia Day 1940 at the Brisbane Regional Office, with the highest temperature at the current station being on 22 February 2004; but temperatures above are uncommon. On 19 July 2007, Brisbane's temperature fell below the freezing point for the first time since records began, registering at the airport station. The city station has never dropped below , with the average coldest night during winter being around , however locations in the west of the metropolitan area such as Ipswich, Queensland, Ipswich have dropped as low as with heavy ground frost. In 2009, Brisbane recorded its hottest winter day (from June to August) at on 24 August; The average July day however is around with sunny skies and low humidity, occasionally as high as , whilst maximum temperatures below are uncommon and usually associated with brief periods of cloud and winter rain. The highest minimum temperature ever recorded in Brisbane was on 29 January 1940 and again on 21 January 2017, whilst the lowest maximum temperature was on 12 August 1954. Annual precipitation is ample. From November to March, thunderstorms are common over Brisbane, with the more severe events accompanied by large damaging hail stones, torrential rain and destructive winds. On an annual basis, Brisbane averages 124 clear days. Dewpoints in the summer average at around ; the apparent temperature exceeds on almost all summer days. Brisbane's wettest day occurred on 21 January 1887, when of rain fell on the city, the highest maximum daily rainfall of Australia's capital cities. The wettest month on record was February 1893, when of rain fell, although in the last 30 years the record monthly rainfall has been a much lower from December 2010. Very occasionally a whole month will pass with no recorded rainfall, the last time this happened was August 1991. The city has suffered three major floods since its founding, in 1893 Brisbane flood, February 1893, 1974 Brisbane Flood, January 1974 (partially a result of Cyclone Wanda), and 2010–2011 Queensland floods, January 2011 (partially a result of Cyclone Tasha). Brisbane is within the southern reaches of the tropical cyclone risk zone. Full strength tropical cyclones rarely affect Brisbane, but they do occasionally. The biggest risk is ex-tropical cyclones which can cause destructive winds and flooding rains. The average annual temperature of the sea ranges from in July to in February.


Urban structure

The
Brisbane central business district Brisbane City is the central suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** ...
(CBD, colloquially referred to as 'the city') lies in a curve of the Brisbane river. The CBD covers and is walkable. Most central streets are named after members of the House of Hanover. Queen Street, Brisbane, Queen Street (named in honour of Queen Victoria) is Brisbane's traditional main street and contains its largest Pedestrian zone, pedestrian mall, the Queen Street Mall. Streets named after female members (Adelaide Street, Brisbane, Adelaide, Alice Street, Brisbane, Alice, Ann Street, Brisbane, Ann, Charlotte Street, Brisbane, Charlotte, Elizabeth Street, Brisbane, Elizabeth, Margaret Street, Brisbane, Margaret, and Mary Street, Brisbane, Mary) run parallel to Queen Street, Brisbane, Queen Street and perpendicular to streets named after male members (Albert Street, Brisbane, Albert, Edward Street, Brisbane, Edward, George Street, Brisbane, George, and William Street, Brisbane, William). The CBD's Town square, squares include King George Square, Post Office Square, Brisbane, Post Office Square and (home to the city's central
war memorial A war memorial is a building, monument, statue, or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or (predominating in modern times) to commemorate those who died or were injured in a war. Symbolism Historical usage It has ...

war memorial
). Brisbane's metropolitan area is broadly and colloquially divided into the 'northside' and the 'southside', with the dividing line being the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
, as crossing one of the 15 Bridges over the Brisbane River, bridges across the river is required to travel to the opposite side by land transport. This results in many areas which are south of the CBD being classified as located in the 'northside', and vice versa, as a result of the river's winding trajectory. In addition to being classified as located on the 'northside' or 'southside' there are further broad and colloquial regions such as the 'westside' for some areas to the southwest of the CBD and the 'bayside' for areas located on the coast of
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
. Greater Brisbane had a density of in 2016. Like most Australian and North American cities, Brisbane has a sprawling metropolitan area which takes in excess of one hour to traverse either north to south or east to west by car without traffic. From the 1970s onwards, there has been a large increase in the construction of apartment developments, including low-rise building, mid-rise and high-rise building, high rise buildings, which has quickened in the 21st century. At the 2016 census, 76.4% of residents lived in Single-family detached home, separate houses, 12.6% lived in apartments, and 10% lived in townhouses, terrace houses, or semidetached houses.


Parklands

Brisbane's major parklands include the riverside City Botanic Gardens at Gardens Point, Brisbane, Gardens Point, Roma Street Parkland, the 27-hectare Victoria Park, Brisbane, Victoria Park at Spring Hill, Queensland, Spring Hill and Herston, Queensland, Herston,
South Bank Parklands The South Bank Parklands are located at South Bank, Queensland, South Bank within the suburb of South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The parkland, on the transformed site of Brisbane's World Expo 88, was ...
along the river at South Bank, Queensland, South Bank, the Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mount Coot-tha, Brisbane Botanic Gardens at Mount Coot-tha, Queensland, Mount Coot-tha and the riverside New Farm Park at New Farm, Queensland, New Farm. There are many national parks surrounding the Brisbane metropolitan area. The
D'Aguilar National Park D'Aguilar National Prak is a national park in Queensland, Australia. It contains the D'Aguilar Range and is located along the northwest of the Brisbane metropolitan area. The park is traversed by the winding scenic Mount Nebo Road and Mount Glorio ...
is a major national park along the northwest of the metropolitan area in the D'Aguilar Range. The Glass House Mountains National Park is located to the north of the metropolitan area in the Glass House Mountains, Queensland, Glass House Mountains and provides green space between the Brisbane metropolitan area and the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Sunshine Coast. The Tamborine National Park at Tamborine Mountain is located in the Gold Coast hinterland to the south of the metropolitan area. The eastern metropolitan area is built along the Moreton Bay Marine Park, encompassing
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
. Significant areas of Moreton Island, Moreton, North Stradbroke Island, North Stradbroke and Bribie Island, Bribie islands also covered by the Moreton Island National Park, Naree Budjong Djara National Park and the Bribie Island National Park respectively. The Boondall Wetlands in the suburb of Boondall, Queensland, Boondall include 1,100 hectares of wetlands which are home to Australian mangroves, mangroves and wader, shorebirds as well as walking tracks.


Architecture

Brisbane has retained many heritage buildings, some of which date back to the 1820s, including The Old Windmill, Brisbane, The Old Windmill in Wickham Park, Brisbane, Wickham Park, built by convict labour in 1824,Campbell Newman, ''"bmag"'', 3 November 2009 which is the oldest surviving building in Brisbane, and the Commissariat Store, Brisbane, Commissariat Store on William Street, Brisbane, William Street, built by convict labour in 1828, was originally used as a grainhouse, and is now the home of the Royal Historical Society of Brisbane and contains a museum. Other 19th and early 20th-century buildings of architectural significance include the Treasury Building, Brisbane, Treasury Building, Brisbane City Hall, City Hall, Customs House, Brisbane, Customs House, the Land Administration Building, MacArthur Chambers, The Mansions, Brisbane, The Mansions and the National Australia Bank (308 Queen Street), National Australia Bank Building. Brisbane is the origin of a distinctive architectural style known as Queenslander (architecture), Queenslander architecture, which developed in the 1840s and characterises the majority of pre-war homes built in the metropolitan area. Queenslander homes typically feature timber construction with large verandahs, gable roof, gabled corrugated iron roofs, high ceilings. Most of these houses are elevated on stumps (also called "stilts"), traditionally built of timber, which allow for a void under the houses which aid in cooling. Queenslander houses are considered iconic to Brisbane and are typically sold at a significant premium to equivalent modern houses. The relatively low cost of timber in south-east Queensland meant that until recently, most residences were constructed of timber, rather than brick or stone. Early legislation decreed a minimum size for residential blocks leading to few terrace houses being constructed in Brisbane. The high-density housing that historically existed came in the form of miniature Queenslander (architecture), Queenslander-style houses which resemble the much larger traditional styles, but are sometimes only one-quarter the size. These houses are most common in the inner-city suburbs. Brisbane is home to several of List of tallest buildings in Australia, Australia's tallest buildings and it is ranked among List of cities with the most skyscrapers, world cities with the most skyscrapers. All of Brisbane's skyscrapers (buildings with a height greater than 150 metres) are located within the CBD, with large numbers of high-rise buildings also proliferating in the inner suburbs of South Brisbane, Kangaroo Point, Fortitude Valley, Newstead, Teneriffe, New Farm, Bowen Hills, Spring Hill, Milton, Auchenflower, Toowong, Taringa, St Lucia, West End and Woolloongabba. Brisbane's 91-metre City Hall was the city's tallest building for decades after its completion in 1930 and was finally surpassed in 1970, which marked the beginning of the widespread construction of high-rise buildings. List of tallest buildings in Brisbane, Brisbane's tallest building is currently Brisbane Skytower, which has a height of 270 metres. Architecturally prominent skyscrapers include the Harry Seidler-designed Riparian Plaza, One One One Eagle Street, which incorporates LED lighting resembling the buttress roots of the Ficus macrophylla, Moreton Bay fig, and 1 William Street, Brisbane, 1 William Street, the executive headquarters of the Queensland Government.


Demographics

Brisbane's Greater Capital City Statistical Area includes the Local Government Areas of
City of Brisbane The City of Brisbane is a local government area (LGA) which comprises the inner portion of the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrou ...
, City of Ipswich, Moreton Bay Region, Logan City and Redland City, as well as parts of Lockyer Valley Region, Scenic Rim Region and Somerset Region, which form a continuous metropolitan area. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates that the population of Greater Brisbane is 2,560,720 as of June 2020, making it the List of cities in Australia by population, third largest city in Australia.


Ancestry and immigration

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: The 2016 census showed that 32.2% of Brisbane's inhabitants were Immigration to Australia, born overseas and 50.9% of inhabitants had at least one parent born overseas. Brisbane has the Foreign born#Metropolitan and Urban regions with largest foreign born populations, 26th largest immigrant population among world metropolitan areas. Of inhabitants born outside of Australia, the four most prevalent countries of birth were New Zealand, England, Mainland China, and India. Brisbane has the largest New Zealand and Taiwanese-born populations of any city in Australia. The areas of Sunnybank, Queensland, Sunnybank, Sunnybank Hills, Queensland, Sunnybank Hills, Stretton, Queensland, Stretton, Robertson, Queensland, Robertson, Calamvale, Queensland, Calamvale, MacGregor, Queensland, Macgregor, Eight Mile Plains, Queensland, Eight Mile Plains, Runcorn, Queensland, Runcorn and Rochedale, Queensland, Rochedale, are home to a large proportion of Brisbane's Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong-born population, with Chinese being the most commonly-reported ancestry in each of these areas. The Vietnamese-born are the largest immigrant group in Inala, Queensland, Inala, Darra, Queensland, Darra, Durack, Queensland, Durack, Willawong, Queensland, Willawong, Richlands, Queensland, Richlands and Doolandella, Queensland, Doolandella. The Indian-born are the largest immigrant group in Chermside, Queensland, Chermside. 2.4% of the population, or 54,158 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (
Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific ...
and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016.


Language

At the 2016 census, 78% of inhabitants spoke only English at home, with the next most common languages being Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin (2.4%), Vietnamese language, Vietnamese (1.0%), Cantonese (0.9%), Spanish language, Spanish (0.7%), Hindi (0.6%), Samoan language, Samoan (0.6%), Korean language, Korean (0.6%) and Punjabi language, Punjabi (0.6%).


Religion

At the 2016 census, the most commonly cited religious affiliation was 'No religion' (30.6%). Brisbane's most popular religion at the 2016 census was Christianity, and the most popular denominations were Catholic Church in Australia, Catholicism (21.5%) and Anglican Church of Australia, Anglicanism (13.3%). Other Christian denominations including Uniting Church of Australia, Uniting Church, Baptists, Pentecostalism, Lutheranism and Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox made up 18.8% of the population. All Christian denominations totalled 53.6% of the population. Brisbane central business district, Brisbane's CBD is home to two cathedrals – St John's Cathedral (Brisbane), St John's (Anglican) and Cathedral of St Stephen, Brisbane, St Stephen's (Catholic). The most popular non-Christian religions at the 2016 census were Buddhism, Buddhist (2%), Islam, Muslim (1.5%) and Hinduism, Hindu (1.5%).


Economy

Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Categorised as a
global city A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996 ...
, Brisbane is among Asia-Pacific List of cities by GDP, cities with largest GDPs and is one of the major business hubs in Australia, with strengths in mining, banking, insurance, transportation, information technology, real estate and food industry, food. Some of the largest companies headquartered in Brisbane, all among Australia's largest, include Suncorp Group, Virgin Australia, Aurizon, Bank of Queensland, Flight Centre, CUA (company), CUA, Sunsuper, QSuper, Domino's Pizza Enterprises, Star Entertainment Group, ALS Limited, ALS, TechnologyOne, NEXTDC, Super Retail Group, New Hope Coal, Jumbo Interactive, National Storage, Collins Foods and Boeing Australia. Most major Australian companies, as well as numerous international companies, have contact offices in Brisbane. Brisbane throughout its history has been one of Australia's most important seaport cities. The Port of Brisbane located at the Brisbane River's mouth on
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
and on the adjacent Fisherman's Island, created by means of land reclamation. It is the 3rd busiest port in Australia for value of goods. Containerization, Container freight, sugar, grain, coal and bulk liquids are the major exports. Most of the port facilities are less than three decades old and some are built on reclaimed mangroves and wetlands. The Port is a part of the Australia TradeCoast, which includes the Brisbane Airport along with large industrial estates located along both banks at the mouth of the Brisbane River. White-collar industries include information technology, financial services, higher education and public sector administration generally concentrated in and around the central business district and satellite hubs located in the inner suburbs such as South Brisbane, Fortitude Valley, Spring Hill, Queensland, Spring Hill, Milton, Queensland, Milton and Toowong. Blue-collar industries, including petroleum refining, stevedoring, paper milling, metalworking and Queensland Rail, QR railway workshops, tend to be located on the lower reaches of the Brisbane River proximal to the Port of Brisbane and in new industrial zones on the urban fringe. Tourism is an important part of the Brisbane economy, both in its own right and as a gateway to other areas of Queensland, as international students, international education, with over 95,000 international students enrolled in universities and other tertiary education institutions in the central
City of Brisbane The City of Brisbane is a local government area (LGA) which comprises the inner portion of the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrou ...
local government area alone in 2018.


Retail

Retail in the Brisbane central business district, CBD is centred around the Queen Street Mall, which is Queensland's largest pedestrian mall. Shopping mall, Shopping centres in the CBD include the The Myer Centre, Brisbane, Myer Centre, the Wintergarden, Brisbane, Wintergarden, MacArthur Central and QueensPlaza, with the last of these along with Edward Street, Brisbane, Edward Street forming the city's focus for Luxury goods, luxury brands. There are historical shopping arcades at Brisbane Arcade and Tattersalls Club, Tattersalls Arcade. Suburbs adjacent to the CBD such as
Fortitude Valley Fortitude Valley (also known simply as "The Valley") is an inner suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixe ...
(particularly Fortitude Valley, Queensland#Commercial area, James Street), South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane and West End, Queensland, West End are also a major inner-city retail hubs. Outside of the inner-city, retail is focused on indoor Shopping mall, shopping centres, including numerous regional shopping centres along with six super regional shopping centres, all of which are List of largest shopping centres in Australia, among Australia's largest, namely: Westfield Chermside in the north; Westfield Garden City in the south; Westfield Carindale in the east; Indooroopilly Shopping Centre in the west; Westfield North Lakes in the outer-north; and Logan Hyperdome in the outer-south. Brisbane's major outlet store, factory outlet centres are the Direct Factory Outlets at Brisbane Airport (suburb), Skygate and Jindalee, Queensland, Jindalee. The 100 hectare Rocklea, Queensland#Fruit and vegetable market, Brisbane Markets at Rocklea, Queensland, Rocklea are Brisbane's largest Wholesale marketing of food, wholesale markets, whilst smaller markets operate at numerous locations throughout the city including
South Bank Parklands The South Bank Parklands are located at South Bank, Queensland, South Bank within the suburb of South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The parkland, on the transformed site of Brisbane's World Expo 88, was ...
, Davies Park in West End, Queensland and the Eat Street Markets at Hamilton, Queensland, Hamilton.


Culture and sport

Brisbane is home to several art galleries, the largest of which are the
Queensland Art Gallery The Queensland Art Gallery (QAG) is an art museum located in South Bank, Queensland, South Bank, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The gallery is part of the Queensland Cultural Centre. It complements the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art, Gallery ...
and the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art (GOMA), which is the largest modern art gallery in Australia. GOMA holds the Asia Pacific Triennial (APT) which focuses on contemporary art from the Asia and Pacific in a variety of media from painting to video work. In addition, its size enables the gallery to exhibit particularly large shows. Dramatic and musical theatre performances are held at the multiple large theatres located at Queensland Performing Arts Centre (QPAC). The Brisbane Powerhouse in New Farm, Queensland, New Farm and the Judith Wright Arts Centre in
Fortitude Valley Fortitude Valley (also known simply as "The Valley") is an inner suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixe ...
also feature diverse programmes featuring exhibitions and festivals of visual art, music and dance. Brisbane is also home to numerous small theatres including the Brisbane Arts Theatre in Petrie Terrace, Queensland, Petrie Terrace, the La Boite Theatre Company which performs at the Roundhouse Theatre at Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Kelvin Grove, the Twelfth Night Theatre at Bowen Hills, Queensland, Bowen Hills, the Metro Arts Theatre in Edward Street, Brisbane, Edward Street, and the Queensland Theatre Company's Bille Brown Theatre in West End, Queensland, West End. The Queensland Performing Arts Centre (QPAC) at South Bank, Queensland, South Bank, consists of the Lyric Theatre, the Concert Hall, the Cremorne Theatre and the Playhouse Theatre and is home to the Queensland Ballet, Opera Queensland, the Queensland Theatre Company, and the Queensland Symphony Orchestra. The Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University, Queensland Conservatorium, a musical conservatorium in which professional music companies and conservatorium students also stage performances, is located within the
South Bank Parklands The South Bank Parklands are located at South Bank, Queensland, South Bank within the suburb of South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The parkland, on the transformed site of Brisbane's World Expo 88, was ...
. Numerous choirs present performances across the city annually. These choirs include the Brisbane Chorale, Queensland Choir, Brisbane Chamber Choir, Canticum Chamber Choir, Brisbane Concert Choir, Imogen Children's Chorale and Brisbane Birralee Voices. Brisbane has maintained a constantly evolving live music scene, producing acts spanning genres including punk rock, punk (see Brisbane punk rock), indie rock, electronic music, experimental music, noise rock, Metal music, metal and post-punk. Brisbane's live music history is often intertwined with social unrest and authoritarian politics, as retold by journalist Andrew Stafford in Pig City (music festival)#Pig City (book), ''Pig City: From The Saints to Savage Garden'', ''Radical Brisbane: An Unruly History'', edited by academics Raymond Evans and Carole Ferrier, and ''BNE – The Definitive Archive: Brisbane Independent Electronic Music Production 1979–2014'', produced by record label director Dennis Remmer. There are also popular entertainment pubs and clubs within both the Brisbane CBD, City and
Fortitude Valley Fortitude Valley (also known simply as "The Valley") is an inner suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixe ...
. The Brisbane Entertainment Centre at Boondall, Queensland, Boondall is an arena which hosts many musical concerts, with some of the largest being held at Lang Park. Musicians from Brisbane include the Bee Gees (raised in Redcliffe and Cribb Island, Queensland, Cribb Island), Powderfinger (who met at Brisbane Grammar School and the University of Queensland), The Go-Betweens (after whom Brisbane's Go Between Bridge is named, and whose songs and albums, such as ''Spring Hill Fair'', reflect the attitude of 1980s Brisbane), The Veronicas (born and raised in Albany Creek, Queensland, Albany Creek), The Saints (Australian band), The Saints (based in Brisbane since 1974, one of the first punk rock bands), Savage Garden, Sheppard (band), Sheppard, Pete Murray (Australian singer-songwriter), Pete Murray, Ball Park Music, and TwoSet Violin. The city is featured in music including The Saints (Australian band), The Saints' "Prehistoric Sounds, Brisbane (Security City)" (1978); The Stranglers' "Nuclear Device (The Wizard of Aus), Nuclear Device" (1979) about Joh Bjelke-Petersen; Midnight Oil's single "Dreamworld (Midnight Oil song), Dreamworld" (1987); and Powderfinger's album ''Vulture Street (album), Vulture Street'' (2003). Prominent writers from Brisbane include David Malouf (whose 1975 novel ''Johnno'' is set in Brisbane and at Brisbane Grammar School during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
), Nick Earls (whose 1996 novel ''Zigzag Street'' is set at Zigzag Street in Red Hill, Queensland, Red Hill), and Li Cunxin, author of Mao's Last Dancer (book), Mao's Last Dancer and artistic director of the Queensland Ballet. The State Library of Queensland, the state's largest library, is located at the
Queensland Cultural Centre The Queensland Cultural Centre is a heritage-listed entertainment centre at Grey Street, South Brisbane South Brisbane is an inner southern Suburbs and localities (Australia), suburb in the City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. In the , S ...
. Brisbane is home to over 6,000 restaurants and dining establishments, with Al fresco dining, outdoor dining featuring prominently. The most popular cuisines by number of dining establishments are Japanese cuisine, Japanese, Chinese cuisine, Chinese, Modern Australian cuisine, Modern Australian, Italian cuisine, Italian, American cuisine, American, Indian cuisine, Indian, and Vietnamese cuisine, Vietnamese. Thenus, Moreton Bay bugs, less commonly known as flathead lobsters, are an ingredient named for the Brisbane region and which feature commonly in Cuisine of Brisbane, the city's cuisine, along with Macadamia, macadamia nuts, also native to the region.


Annual events

The Ekka, Royal Queensland Exhibition (known locally as the Ekka), an agricultural exhibition held each August at the Brisbane Showgrounds in Bowen Hills, Queensland, Bowen Hills is the longest-running major annual event held in Brisbane, during which there is a public holiday for each local government area across Brisbane so as to enable widespread public attendance. The Brisbane Festival, which includes one of the nation's largest annual fireworks displays called 'Riverfire', and which is held each September at
South Bank Parklands The South Bank Parklands are located at South Bank, Queensland, South Bank within the suburb of South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The parkland, on the transformed site of Brisbane's World Expo 88, was ...
, the Brisbane central business district, CBD and surrounding areas is the second of Brisbane's major annual events, with the 'Riverfire' fireworks displays attended by hundreds of thousands of residents annually. The Brisbane International Film Festival (BIFF) is held in July/August each year in a variety of venues around Brisbane. BIFF features new films and retrospectives by domestic and international filmmakers along with seminars and awards. The Buddha's Birthday, Buddha Birth Day festival at South Bank parklands attracts over 200,000 visitors each year, and is the largest event of its type in Australia. There are also many smaller community events such as the Paniyiri festival (a Greek cultural festival held over two days in May), the Brisbane Medieval Fayre and Tournament (held each June), the Bridge to Brisbane charity fun run, the Anywhere Festival and the Caxton Street Seafood and Wine Festival. Major events are often held at the 171,000 square metre Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre in South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane.


Sport

Brisbane has hosted several major sporting events including the 1982 Commonwealth Games and the 2001 Goodwill Games, as well as events during the 1987 Rugby World Cup, 1992 Cricket World Cup, 2000 Summer Olympics, 2000 Sydney Olympics, 2003 Rugby World Cup, 2008 Rugby League World Cup, 2017 Rugby League World Cup and the 2018 Commonwealth Games. It holds the Brisbane International tennis competition every year. Rugby league is popular in Brisbane and the city hosts the Brisbane Broncos, who play in the National Rugby League competition and the Queensland Maroons who play in the State of Origin series. In rugby union the city hosts the Queensland Reds who play in the Super Rugby competition. Cricket is popular in the Brisbane and the city hosts the Brisbane Heat who play in the Big Bash League and the Queensland Bulls who play in the Sheffield Shield and the Ryobi One Day Cup. Brisbane also hosts an A-League soccer team, the Brisbane Roar FC; an Australian Football League team, the Brisbane Lions; a basketball team, the Brisbane Bullets; a baseball team, the Brisbane Bandits; a netball team, the Queensland Firebirds; a field hockey team, the Brisbane Blaze; and water polo teams the Brisbane Barracudas and Queensland Breakers. The city's major stadiums and sporting venues include the Gabba (a 42,000 seat round stadium at Woolloongabba), Lang Park (a 52,500 seat rectangular stadium at Milton, Queensland, Milton also known by its corporate name Suncorp Stadium), Ballymore Stadium, the Queensland Sport and Athletics Centre, the Sleeman Centre (Brisbane), Sleeman Centre (swimming), the Tennyson Tennis Centre, State Tennis Centre, the Eagle Farm Racecourse and the Doomben Racecourse. The city is also home to numerous golf courses, with the largest being the Indooroopilly Golf Club at Indooroopilly, Queensland, the Brookwater Golf and Country Club at Brookwater, Queensland, Brookwater, the Keperra Country Golf Club at Keperra, Queensland, Keperra and the Royal Queensland Golf Club at Eagle Farm, Queensland, Eagle Farm. In addition to its flagship sport franchises, Brisbane and its regions and suburbs have numerous teams in secondary leagues including the Intrust Super Cup, National Rugby Championship, Queensland Premier Rugby, National Premier Leagues Queensland, National Premier League Queensland, North East Australian Football League, National Basketball League (Australia), National Basketball League, ANZ Championship, Australian Baseball League, Hockey One, Australian National Water Polo League, National Water Polo League and F-League.


Tourism and recreation

Tourism plays a major role in Brisbane's economy, being the third-most popular destination for international tourists after Sydney and Melbourne. Popular tourist and recreation areas in Brisbane include the
South Bank Parklands The South Bank Parklands are located at South Bank, Queensland, South Bank within the suburb of South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The parkland, on the transformed site of Brisbane's World Expo 88, was ...
(including the Wheel of Brisbane), the City Botanic Gardens, Roma Street Parkland, New Farm Park, the Howard Smith Wharves, the Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, the Teneriffe, Queensland, Teneriffe woolstores precinct,
Fortitude Valley Fortitude Valley (also known simply as "The Valley") is an inner suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixe ...
(including Fortitude Valley, Queensland#Commercial area, James Street and Chinatown, Brisbane, Chinatown), West End, Queensland, West End, Brisbane City Hall, City Hall (including the Museum of Brisbane), the Parliament of Queensland, the
Story Bridge The Story Bridge is a heritage-listed steel cantilever bridge spanning the Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and ...

Story Bridge
and bridge climb; St John's Cathedral (Brisbane), St John's Cathedral, and the
Queensland Cultural Centre The Queensland Cultural Centre is a heritage-listed entertainment centre at Grey Street, South Brisbane South Brisbane is an inner southern Suburbs and localities (Australia), suburb in the City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. In the , S ...
(including the
Queensland Museum The Queensland Museum is the state museum of Queensland, Australia. The museum currently operates from its headquarters and general museum in South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane with specialist museums located in North Ipswich, Queensland ...
, Queensland Performing Arts Centre,
Queensland Art Gallery The Queensland Art Gallery (QAG) is an art museum located in South Bank, Queensland, South Bank, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The gallery is part of the Queensland Cultural Centre. It complements the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art, Gallery ...
, the Gallery of Modern Art and the State Library of Queensland), the Kangaroo Point Cliffs and park, and the Queensland Maritime Museum. Brisbane is notable for its Brisbane River#Brisbane Riverwalk, Brisbane Riverwalk network, which runs along much of the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
foreshore throughout the inner-city area, with the longest span running between Newstead, Queensland, Newstead and Toowong. Another popular stretch runs beneath the Kangaroo Point Cliffs between South Brisbane, Queensland, South Brisbane and Kangaroo Point, Queensland, Kangaroo Point. Several spans of the Riverwalk are built out over the Brisbane River. Brisbane also has over of bicycle pathways, mostly surrounding the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
and city centre. Other popular recreation activities include the
Story Bridge The Story Bridge is a heritage-listed steel cantilever bridge spanning the Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and ...

Story Bridge
adventure climb and rock climbing at the Kangaroo Point Cliffs.
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
and its Moreton Bay Marine Park, marine park is also a major attraction, and its three primary islands Moreton Island, North Stradbroke Island and Bribie Island, accessible by ferry, contain popular surf beaches and resorts. Tangalooma resort on Moreton Island is popular for its nightly wild dolphin feeding attraction, and for operating Australia's longest running whale watching cruises. The Fort Lytton National Park including a Fort Lytton Historic Military Precinct, colonial defence fort and museum is also a historical bayside attraction. Beachside suburbs such as those on the Redcliffe Peninsula, as well as Shorncliffe, Queensland, Shorncliffe, Sandgate, Queensland, Sandgate, Wynnum, Queensland, Wynnum, Manly, Queensland, Manly and Wellington Point, Queensland, Wellington Point are also popular attractions for their bayside beaches, piers, and infrastructure for boating, sailing, fishing and Kiteboarding, kitesurfing. The Mount Coot-tha Reserve, including Mount Coot-tha, the Mount Coot-tha Lookout, the Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mount Coot-tha, Mount Coot-tha Botanic Gardens and the Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium is a popular recreational attraction for hiking and bushwalking. There are many national parks surrounding the Brisbane metropolitan area which are popular recreational attractions for hiking and bushwalking. The
D'Aguilar National Park D'Aguilar National Prak is a national park in Queensland, Australia. It contains the D'Aguilar Range and is located along the northwest of the Brisbane metropolitan area. The park is traversed by the winding scenic Mount Nebo Road and Mount Glorio ...
runs along the northwest of the metropolitan area in the D'Aguilar Range, and contains popular bushwalking and hiking peaks at Mount Nebo (Queensland), Mount Nebo, Camp Mountain, Mount Pleasant, Queensland (Mackay Region), Mount Pleasant, Mount Glorious, Mount Samson and Mount Mee, Queensland, Mount Mee. The Glass House Mountains National Park is located to the north of the metropolitan area in the Glass House Mountains, Queensland, Glass House Mountains between it and that of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Sunshine Coast. The Tamborine National Park at Tamborine Mountain is located in the Gold Coast hinterland to the south of the metropolitan area. Moreton Island, Moreton, North Stradbroke Island, North Stradbroke and Bribie Island, Bribie islands are substantially covered by the Moreton Island National Park, Naree Budjong Djara National Park and the Bribie Island National Park respectively. The Boondall Wetlands in the suburb of Boondall, Queensland, Boondall are protected Australian mangroves, mangrove wetlands with floating walking trails. Immediately to the south and north of Brisbane are the Gold Coast, Queensland, Gold Coast and Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Sunshine Coast respectively, which are home to several of Australia's most popular swimming and surfing beaches, and are popular day and weekend destinations for Brisbanites. In 2015, a competition by travel guidebook ''Rough Guides'' saw Brisbane elected as one of the top ten most beautiful cities in the world, citing reasons such as "its winning combination of high-rise modern architecture, lush green spaces and the enormous Brisbane River that snakes its way through the centre before emptying itself into the azure Moreton Bay".


Governance

Unlike other Australian capital cities, a large portion of the greater metropolitan area, or Greater Capital City Statistical Area (GCCSA) of Brisbane is controlled by a single Local government in Australia, local government area, the
City of Brisbane The City of Brisbane is a local government area (LGA) which comprises the inner portion of the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrou ...
, which is the largest local government area (in terms of population and budget) in Australia, serving more than 40% of the GCCSA's population. It was formed by the merger of twenty smaller LGAs in 1925, and covers an area of . The remainder of the metropolitan area falls into the LGAs of Logan City to the south, Moreton Bay Region in the northern suburbs, the City of Ipswich to the south west, Redland City to the south east, and into the Somerset Region, Somerset, Scenic Rim Region, Scenic Rim and Lockyer Valley Region, Lockyer Valley regions on the urban periphery. Several of these are also among the nation's most populous LGAs. Each LGA is governed under a similar structure, including a directly elected mayor (including the Lord Mayor of Brisbane), as well as a council composed of councillors representing geographical wards. Brisbane City Hall, City Hall is the seat of the
Brisbane City Council Brisbane City Council (BCC) is the democratic executive local government authority for the City of Brisbane, the capital city of the state of Queensland, Australia Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is th ...
, the governing corporation of the City of Brisbane LGA, and the bulk of its executive offices are located at the Brisbane Square skyscraper. As the capital city of
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the i ...

Queensland
, Brisbane is home to the Parliament of Queensland at Parliament House, Brisbane, Parliament House at Gardens Point, Brisbane, Gardens Point in the Brisbane central business district, CBD, adjacent to Old Government House, Queensland, Old Government House. Queensland's current Government House, Brisbane, Government House is located in Paddington, Queensland, Paddington. The bulk of the state government's executive offices are located at the 1 William Street, Brisbane, 1 William Street skyscraper. The Queensland Supreme Court of Queensland, Supreme and District Court of Queensland, District courts are located at the Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law, Brisbane, Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law in George Street, Brisbane, George Street, while the Magistrates Court of Queensland, Magistrates court is located at the adjacent Brisbane Magistrates Court building. The various federal courts are loced at the Commonwealth Law Courts building on North Quay. The Australian Army's Enoggera Barracks is located in Enoggera, Queensland, Enoggera, while the historic Victoria Barracks, Brisbane, Victoria Barracks in Petrie Terrace, Queensland, Petrie Terrace now hosts a military museum. The Royal Australian Navy's HMAS Moreton base is located at Bulimba, Queensland, Bulimba. The Royal Australian Air Force's RAAF Base Amberley is located in Amberley, Queensland, Amberley in the outer south-west of the metropolitan area. Brisbane's largest prisons and correctional facilities, the Brisbane Correctional Centre, Brisbane Women's Correctional Centre, Arthur Gorrie Correctional Centre and Wolston Correctional Centre are located at Wacol, Queensland, Wacol, while the city's main historical prison, the Boggo Road Gaol, is now a museum.


Education

There are five major multi-campus universities with campuses in Brisbane's metropolitan area, namely: * The University of Queensland (UQ), which is Queensland's oldest university and frequently College and university rankings, ranks among the world's top 50, with campuses in St Lucia, Queensland, St Lucia, Herston, Queensland, Herston and Gatton, Queensland, Gatton * Queensland University of Technology (QUT), with campuses in the central business district (Gardens Point, Brisbane, Gardens Point) and Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Kelvin Grove * Griffith University (GU), with campuses in Nathan, Queensland, Nathan, Mount Gravatt, Queensland, Mount Gravatt, South Bank, Queensland, South Bank and Meadowbrook, Queensland, Meadowbrook * The University of Southern Queensland (USQ), with campuses in Springfield, Queensland, Springfield and Ipswich, Queensland, Ipswich * The University of the Sunshine Coast (USC), with campuses in Petrie, Queensland, Petrie and Caboolture, Queensland, Caboolture Other universities which have campuses in Brisbane include the Australian Catholic University, Central Queensland University, James Cook University and the University of the Sunshine Coast. Brisbane is a major destination for international students, who constitute a large proportion of enrolments in Brisbane's universities and are important to the city's economy and real estate market. In 2018, there were over 95,000 international students enrolled in universities and other tertiary education institutions in the central City of BrisbaneCity of Brisbane, l local government area alone. The majority of Brisbane's international students originate from China, India and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region. There are biotechnology and research facilities at several universities in Brisbane, including the Institute for Molecular Bioscience and CSIRO at the University of Queensland and the Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation at Queensland University of Technology. There are three major TAFE colleges in Brisbane; the Brisbane North Institute of TAFE, the Metropolitan South Institute of TAFE, and the Southbank Institute, Southbank Institute of TAFE. Brisbane is also home to numerous other independent tertiary providers, including the Australian College of Natural Medicine, the Queensland Theological College, the Brisbane College of Theology, SAE Institute, Jschool: Journalism Education & Training, JMC Academy, and American College (Brisbane), American College and the Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts. Many of Brisbane's pre-school, primary, and secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of Education Queensland, a branch of the Queensland Government. Independent (private), Roman Catholic and other religious schools also constitute a large share of Brisbane's primary and secondary schooling sectors, with the oldest such independent schools composing the memberships of the Great Public Schools Association of Queensland (GPS) for boys' schools and Queensland Girls' Secondary Schools Sports Association (QGSSSA) for girls' schools.


Infrastructure


Transport

Brisbane has an extensive transportation network within the city, as well as connections to regional centres, interstate and to overseas destinations. Like all Australian cities, the most popular mode of transport is private car. Public transport is provided by rail, bus and ferry services and is co-ordinated by TransLink (South East Queensland), TransLink, which provides a unified ticketing and electronic payment system (known as 'go card') for
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bioregion, bio-geographical, megalopolis, metropolitan, political, and administrative Regions of Queensland, region of the States and territories of Australia, state of Queensland in Australia, with a population of ...
. The region is divided into seven Fare, fare zones radiating outwards from the
Brisbane central business district Brisbane City is the central suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** ...
(CBD), with Brisbane's built-up area falling within zones 1–3. Bus services are operated by public and private operators whereas trains and ferries are operated by public agencies. The CBD is the central hub for all public transport services with services focusing on Roma Street railway station, Roma Street, Central railway station, Brisbane, Central and Fortitude Valley railway station, Fortitude Valley railway stations; King George Square busway station, King George Square, Queen Street bus station, Queen Street and Roma Street busway station, Roma Street busway stations; and North Quay ferry wharf, North Quay, Riverside ferry wharf, Riverside and QUT Gardens Point ferry wharf, QUT Gardens Point ferry wharves.


Roads

Brisbane is served by a large network of urban and inter-urban motorways. The Pacific Motorway (Brisbane–Brunswick Heads), Pacific Motorway (M3/M1) connects the inner-city with the southern suburbs, Gold Coast, Queensland, Gold Coast and
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
. The Ipswich Motorway (M7/M2) connects the inner-city with the outer south-western suburbs. The Western Freeway, Brisbane, Western Freeway and Centenary Motorway (M5) connect the city's inner-west and outer south-west. The Bruce Highway and Gympie Arterial Road (M1/M3) connect the city's northern suburbs with the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Sunshine Coast and northern Queensland. The Logan Motorway (M2/M6) connects the southern and south-western suburbs. The Gateway Motorway is a toll road which connects the Gold and Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Sunshine Coast. The Port of Brisbane Motorway links the Gateway Motorway to the Port of Brisbane. The Inner City Bypass, Brisbane, Inner City Bypass and Riverside Expressway serve as an inner ring freeway system to prevent motorists from travelling through the city's congested centre. Brisbane also has a large network of major road tunnels under the metropolitan area, known as the TransApex network, which include the Clem Jones Tunnel between the inner-north and inner-south, the Airport Link, Brisbane, Airport Link tunnel in the north-east and the Legacy Way, Legacy Way tunnel in the south-west. They are the three longest road tunnels in Australia.


Bridges

The Brisbane River creates a barrier to road transport routes. In total there are Bridges over the Brisbane River, sixteen bridges over the river, mostly concentrated in the inner city area. The road bridges (which usually also include provision for pedestrians and cyclists) by distance from the river mouth are the Sir Leo Hielscher Bridges, the
Story Bridge The Story Bridge is a heritage-listed steel cantilever bridge spanning the Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and ...

Story Bridge
, the Captain Cook Bridge, Brisbane, Captain Cook Bridge, the Victoria Bridge, Brisbane, Victoria Bridge, the William Jolly Bridge, the Go Between Bridge, the Eleanor Schonell Bridge, the Walter Taylor Bridge the Centenary Bridge and Colleges Crossing. There are three railway bridges, namely the Merivale Bridge, the Albert Bridge, Brisbane, Albert Bridge and the Indooroopilly Railway Bridge. There are also three pedestrian only bridges: the Goodwill Bridge, the Kurilpa Bridge and the Jack Pesch Bridge. The Houghton Highway (northbound) and Ted Smout Memorial Bridge (southbound) bridges, over Bramble Bay between Brighton and the Redcliffe Peninsula, are the longest bridges in the state. The abutment arches of the original crossing The Hornibrook Bridge still remain in place.


Rail

The Queensland Rail City network consists of 152 train stations along 13 suburban rail lines and across the metropolitan area, namely: the Airport railway line, Brisbane, Airport line; the Beenleigh railway line, Beenleigh line; the Caboolture railway line, Caboolture line; the Cleveland railway line, Cleveland line; the Doomben railway line, Doomben line; the Exhibition railway line, Exhibition line; the Ferny Grove railway line, Ferny Grove line; the Ipswich and Rosewood railway line, Ipswich/Rosewood line; the Redcliffe Peninsula railway line, Redcliffe Peninsula line; the Shorncliffe railway line, Shorncliffe line; and the Springfield railway line, Springfield line. The network extends to the Gold Coast, Queensland, Gold and Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Sunshine coasts, which are fully integrated into the network on the Gold Coast railway line, Gold Coast line and Sunshine Coast railway line, Sunshine Coast line. The Airport railway line, Brisbane, Airtrain service which runs on the Airport railway line, Brisbane, Airport line is jointly operated between the
City of Brisbane The City of Brisbane is a local government area (LGA) which comprises the inner portion of the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrou ...
and Brisbane Airport. 55 million passenger trips were taken across the network in 2018–19. Construction of the network began in 1865 and has been progressively expanded in the subsequent centuries. Rail electrification in Queensland, Electrification of the network was completed between 1979 and 1988. The Cross River Rail project includes a twin rail tunnel ( long) which will pass under the Brisbane River to link two new railway stations at Albert Street, Brisbane, Albert Street in the CBD and Woolloongabba, Wooloongabba is under construction and scheduled to be completed in early 2025.


Bus

Brisbane has a large dedicated bus rapid transit network, the Busways in Brisbane, Brisbane busway network. The network comprises the South East Busway, the Northern Busway, Brisbane, Northern Busway and the Eastern Busway, Brisbane, Eastern Busway. The main network hubs are the King George Square busway station, King George Square, Queen Street bus station, Queen Street, and Roma Street busway station, Roma Street busway stations. There are also numerous suburban bus routes operating throughout the metropolitan area, including the high-frequency Blue and Maroon CityGlider routes which run between Newstead, Queensland, Newstead and West End, Queensland, West End (Blue), and Ashgrove, Queensland, Ashgrove and Stones Corner, Queensland, Stones Corner (Maroon) respectively.


Ferry

RiverCity Ferries operates three ferry services along the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
, CityCat, Cityferry, Cross River and CityHopper. Brisbane's ferries, and particularly its catamaran CityCats, are considered iconic to the city. The CityCat high-speed catamaran ferry service, popular with tourists and commuters, operates services along the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
between the University of Queensland and Northshore Hamilton ferry wharf, Northshore Hamilton, with wharves at University of Queensland ferry wharf, UQ St Lucia, West End ferry wharf, West End, Guyatt Park ferry wharf, Guyatt Park, Regatta ferry wharf, Regatta, Milton ferry wharf, Milton, North Quay ferry wharf, North Quay, South Bank 1 & 2 ferry wharf, South Bank, QUT Gardens Point ferry wharf, QUT Gardens Point, Riverside ferry wharf, Riverside, Sydney Street ferry wharf, Sydney Street, Mowbray Park ferry wharf, Mowbray Park, New Farm Park ferry wharf, New Farm Park, Hawthorne ferry wharf, Hawthorne, Bulimba ferry wharf, Bulimba, Teneriffe ferry wharf, Teneriffe, Bretts Wharf, Apollo Road ferry wharf, Apollo Road and Northshore Hamilton ferry wharf, Northshore Hamilton. The Cross River services operate smaller vessels for popular cross-river routes, namely: Bulimba ferry wharf, Bulimba–Teneriffe ferry wharf, Teneriffe and Holman Street ferry wharf, Holman Street–Riverside ferry wharf, Riverside. The free CityHopper service operates smaller vessels along a route between North Quay ferry wharf, North Quay and Sydney Street ferry wharf, Sydney Street, stopping at South Bank 3 ferry wharf, South Bank, Maritime Museum ferry wharf, Maritime Museum, Riverside ferry wharf, Riverside and Holman Street ferry wharf, Holman Street.


Pedestrian

An extensive network of pedestrian and cyclist pathways span the banks of the
Brisbane River The Brisbane River ( urrball Meeannjin, or informally Maiwar) is the longest river in South East Queensland, South-East Queensland, Australia, and flows through the city of Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay on the Coral Sea. John O ...

Brisbane River
in the inner suburbs to form the
Riverwalk A riverwalk is a pedestrian zone or foreshoreway alongside a river. Riverwalk may also refer to: Asia * Riverwalk Kitakyūshū, a shopping centre in Kitakyushu, Japan Australia * Brisbane River#Brisbane Riverwalk, Brisbane Riverwalk in Brisban ...
network. In some segments, the Riverwalk is built over the river. The longest span of the Riverwalk connects Newstead, Queensland, Newstead in the east with Toowong in the west.


Airports

Brisbane Airport (IATA code: ''BNE'') is the city's main airport, the List of the busiest airports in Australia, third busiest in Australia after Sydney Airport and Melbourne Airport. It is located north-east of the city centre on Moreton Bay and provides domestic and international passenger services. In the 2017, Brisbane Airport handled over 23 million passengers.Airport traffic data
– Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics, 2017
The airport is an airline hub for Qantas, Virgin Australia and Jetstar as well as a number of minor and freight airlines. The airport is served by the Airtrain service which runs on the Airport railway line, Brisbane, Airport line, providing a direct service to the Brisbane central business district, CBD. Archerfield Airport in Brisbane's southern suburbs, Redcliffe Airport (Queensland), Redcliffe Airport on the Redcliffe Peninsula and Caboolture Airfield in the far north of the metropolitan area serve Brisbane as general aviation airports. Brisbane is also served by other major airports in
South East Queensland South East Queensland (SEQ) is a bioregion, bio-geographical, megalopolis, metropolitan, political, and administrative Regions of Queensland, region of the States and territories of Australia, state of Queensland in Australia, with a population of ...
, including Gold Coast Airport at Coolangatta, Sunshine Coast Airport at Marcoola, Queensland, Marcoola and Toowoomba Wellcamp Airport at Wellcamp, Queensland, Wellcamp.


Seaport

The Port of Brisbane is located at the mouth of the Brisbane River on
Moreton Bay Moreton Bay is a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approxi ...

Moreton Bay
and on the adjacent Fisherman's Island, an artificial island created by land reclamation. It is the third busiest port in Australia for value of goods. The port is the endpoint of the main shipping channel across Moreton Bay which extends 90 kilometres north near Mooloolaba. The port has 29 operating berths including nine deep-water container Berth (moorings), berths and three deep-water bulk berths as well as 17 bulk and general cargo berths. There are two cruise ship terminals in Brisbane. Portside Wharf at Hamilton, Queensland, Hamilton is an international standard facility for cruise liners. Due to the height of the Gateway Bridge which must be passed to reach the terminal, the wharf services small and medium-sized cruise ships. The Port of Brisbane#Facilities, Brisbane International Cruise Terminal at Luggage Point in Pinkenba, Queensland, Pinkenba is able to accommodate the largest cruise vessels in the world, and will be opened in 2020.


Healthcare

Brisbane is covered by Queensland Health's "Metro North" and "Metro South" Health Service Networks. Within the greater Brisbane area there are eight major public hospitals, four major private hospitals, and numerous smaller public and private facilities. The Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Princess Alexandra Hospital are two of Queensland's three major trauma centres. Standing alone, they are the largest hospitals in Australia. The Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Princess Alexandra Hospital houses the Translational Research Institute (Australia) along with the state's renal and liver transplant services. The Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital includes a specialist burns unit. The Prince Charles Hospital is the state's major cardiac transplant centre. Other major public hospitals include the Mater Group, Mater Hospital, the Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Hospital, and the Queensland Children's Hospital. Specialist and General practitioner, general medical practices are located in the CBD, and most suburbs and localities. Brisbane is also home to the headquarters of the Queensland Ambulance Service central executive, located at the Emergency Services Complex Kedron Park, along with the headquarters of the Queensland Fire and Emergency Services and the Queensland Emergency Operations Centre.


Other utilities

Water storage, treatment and delivery for Brisbane is handled by SEQ Water, which sells on to Queensland Urban Utilities (previously Brisbane Water) for distribution to the greater Brisbane area. Water for the area is stored in three major dams to the north-west of the metropolitan area: Wivenhoe Dam, Wivenhoe, Lake Somerset, Somerset and North Pine Dam, North Pine. There is an open market in relation to the supply of electricity and gas in Brisbane with the largest providers being Energex (electricity) and Origin Energy (gas). Metropolitan Brisbane is serviced by all major and most minor telecommunications companies and their networks, including Telstra, Optus and Vodafone Australia (brand), Vodafone Australia. Brisbane is home to numerous cemetery, cemeteries including the following large 19th-century historical cemeteries: the 44-hectare Toowong Cemetery (the largest cemetery in Queensland, which is a popular destination for walkers and joggers), Balmoral Cemetery, Brisbane, Balmoral Cemetery, Lutwyche Cemetery, Nudgee Cemetery & Crematorium, Nudgee Cemetery, Nundah Cemetery and South Brisbane Cemetery.


Media


Print

The main local print newspapers of Brisbane are ''The Courier-Mail'' and its sibling ''The Sunday Mail (Brisbane), The Sunday Mail'', both owned by News Corporation (1980–2013), News Corporation. Brisbane also receives the national daily, ''The Australian'', its sibling the ''Weekend Australian'', as well as ''The Australian Financial Review''. Sydney's ''The Sydney Morning Herald'' and Melbourne's ''The Age'' also sell in Brisbane in smaller numbers. The ''Brisbane Times'' is Brisbane's second major local news source, owned by Nine Entertainment Co., Nine, and is online only. There are community and suburban newspapers throughout the metropolitan area, including ''Brisbane News'' and ''City News'', many of which are produced by Quest Community Newspapers.


Television

Brisbane is served by all five major television networks in Australia, which broadcast from prominent Transmission tower, television transmission towers on the summit of Mount Coot-tha, Queensland, Mount Coot-tha. The three commercial stations, Seven Network, Seven, Nine Network, Nine, and Network Ten, Ten, are accompanied by two government networks, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, ABC and Special Broadcasting Service, SBS. Channels provided by these networks include 10 Bold, 10 Peach, TVSN, Spree TV, ABC HD (Australian TV channel), ABC HD (ABC broadcast in HD), ABC TV Plus/ABC Kids (Australia), KIDS, ABC ME, ABC News (TV channel), ABC News, SBS HD (SBS broadcast in HD), SBS Viceland, SBS Viceland HD (SBS Viceland broadcast in HD), Food Network (Australia), Food Network, National Indigenous Television, NITV, 7HD (Seven broadcast in HD), 7Two, 7mate, 7flix, TV4ME, Racing.com, 9HD (Nine broadcast in HD), 9Gem, 9Go!, 9Life and 9Rush. 31 Brisbane, 31, a community station, also broadcasts in Brisbane. Optus and Foxtel operate PayTV services in Brisbane, via Cable television, cable and Satellite television, satellite means.


Radio

Brisbane is serviced by five major public radio stations including major commercial radio stations, including 612 ABC Brisbane (local news, current affairs and talk); ABC Radio National (national news and current affairs); ABC NewsRadio (national news); ABC Classic FM (classical music); Triple J (alternative music); and SBS Radio (multicultural broadcasting). Brisbane is serviced by numerous major commercial and community radio stations including 4BC (local and national talk, news and current affairs); 4KQ (oldies); Magic 882 (oldies); 4BH; 97.3 FM (ARN), 97.3 (pop); B105 FM, B105 (pop); Nova 106.9 (pop); Triple M (rock); 96five Family FM (pop); Radio TAB (betting) and 4MBS (classical). Brisbane is also serviced by community radio stations such as VAC Radio (Standard Chinese, Mandarin); Radio Brisvaani (Hindi); 2ME Radio Arabic, Radio Arabic (Arabic); 4EB (multiple languages); 98.9 FM (Brisbane), 98.9 FM (Indigenous Australians, indigenous); 4RPH (vision impaired); Switch 1197 (youth broadcasting); 4ZZZ (community radio); and Vision Christian Radio (Christianity, Christian). Additional channels are also available via Digital audio broadcasting, DAB digital radio.


See also

* Climate of Brisbane * Culture of Brisbane * Demographics of Brisbane * Economy of Brisbane * Geography of Brisbane * History of Brisbane * List of Brisbane suburbs * List of museums in Brisbane * List of people from Brisbane * Sport in Brisbane * Transport in Brisbane


Notes


References


External links


City of Brisbane

Official tourism website of Brisbane



Historical footage of Brisbane and Southern Queensland
{{Authority control Brisbane, 1824 establishments in Australia Australian capital cities Cities in Queensland Coastal cities in Australia Populated places established in 1824 Port cities in Queensland