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Bottling lines are
production line A production line is a set of sequential operations established in a factory A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial site, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with machinery A machine is a ...

production line
s that fill a product, generally a
beverage A drink (or beverage) is a liquid intended for human consumption. In addition to their basic function of satisfying thirst, drinks play important roles in human culture. Common types of drinks include plain drinking water, milk, juice and soft dr ...

beverage
, into
bottle A bottle is a narrow-necked container made of an impermeable material (clay, glass, plastic, aluminium etc.) in various shapes and sizes to store and transport liquids (water, milk, beer, wine, ink, cooking oil, medicine, soft drinks, shampoo ...

bottle
s on a large scale. Many prepared foods are also bottled, such as sauces, syrups, marinades, oils and vinegars.


Beer bottling process

Packaging of bottled beer typically involves drawing the product from a holding tank and filling it into bottles in a filling machine (''filler''), which are then capped, labeled and packed into cases or cartons. Many smaller
breweries brewery A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant. The commercial brewing ...

breweries
send their bulk beer to large facilities for
contract A contract is a legally binding agreement that defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview ...

contract
bottling—though some will bottle by hand. Virtually all
beer bottles A beer bottle is a bottle A bottle is a narrow-necked container made of an impermeable material (clay, glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, tec ...
are
glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most often formed by ...

glass
. The first step in bottling beer is ''depalletising'', where the empty bottles are removed from the original
pallet A pallet () (also called a skid) is a flat transport structure, which supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift A forklift (also called lift truck, jitney, fork truck, fork hoist, and forklift truck) is a powe ...
packaging delivered from the manufacturer, so that individual bottles may be handled. The bottles may then be rinsed with
filter Filter, filtering or filters may refer to: Science and technology Device * Filter (chemistry), a device which separates solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass ** Filter (aquarium), critical ...
ed
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
or
air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphere (0.04402961% at April 2019 concentration ). Number ...

air
, and may have
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
injected into them in attempt to reduce the level of
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
within the bottle. The bottle then enters a "filler" which fills the bottle with beer and may also inject a small amount of
inert gas An ''inert gas'' is a gas that does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions. The noble gases The noble gases (historically also the inert gases; sometimes referred to as aerogens) make up a class of chemical element I ...
(usually carbon dioxide or
nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...
) on top of the beer to disperse the oxygen, as oxygen can ruin the quality of the product via
oxidation Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: or ) is a type of chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter ...

oxidation
. Finally, the bottles go through a "capper", which applies a
bottle cap A bottle cap or bottle top seals the top opening of a bottle A bottle is a narrow-necked container box. File:Railroad car with container loads.jpg, A Flatcar#Spine car, spine car with a tank container and an open-top intermodal containe ...
, sealing the bottle. A few beers are bottled with a
cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
and
cage A cage is an enclosure often made of mesh A mesh is a barrier made of connected strands of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, poli ...

cage
. Next the bottle enters a labelling machine ("labeller") where a label is applied. To ensure
traceabilityTraceability is the capability to trace something. In some cases, it is interpreted as the ability to verify the history, location, or application of an item by means of documented recorded identification. Other common definitions include the capabi ...

traceability
of the product, a ''lot number'', generally the date and time of bottling, may also be printed on the bottle. The product is then packed into boxes and
warehouse A warehouse is a building for storing goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, an ...

warehouse
d, ready for sale. Depending on the magnitude of the bottling endeavor, there are many different types of bottling machinery available. Liquid level machines fill bottles so they appear to be filled to the same line on every bottle, while volumetric filling machines fill each bottle with exactly the same amount of liquid. Overflow pressure fillers are the most popular machines with beverage makers, while gravity filling machines are most cost effective. In terms of automation, inline filling machines are most popular, but rotary machines are much faster albeit much more expensive.


Wine bottling process

The process for bottling
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...

wine
is largely similar to that for bottling beer, except
wine bottle A wine bottle is a bottle A bottle is a narrow-necked container box. File:Railroad car with container loads.jpg, A Flatcar#Spine car, spine car with a tank container and an open-top intermodal container, intermodal shipping container w ...

wine bottle
s differ in volumes and shapes. Traditionally, a cork is used to provide closure to wine bottles. After filling, a bottle travels to a corking machine (''corker'') where a cork is compressed and pushed into the neck of the bottle. Whilst this is happening, the corker
vacuum A vacuum is a space Space is the boundless three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Gree ...

vacuum
s the air out of the bottle to form a negative pressure ''headspace''. This removes any oxygen from the headspace, which is useful as latent oxygen can ruin the quality of the product via
oxidation Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: or ) is a type of chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter ...

oxidation
. A negative pressure headspace will also counteract pressure caused by the
thermal expansion Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change its shape A shape or figure is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface File:Water droplet lying on a damask.jpg, Water droplet lying on a damask ...
of the wine, preventing the cork from being forced from the bottle.
Champagne Champagne (, ) is a sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus ...

Champagne
s and
sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing h ...
s may further be sealed with a
muselet
muselet
, which ensures the cork will not explode off in transit.
Alternative wine closure Alternative wine closures are substitute closure (bottle), closures used in the wine industry for sealing wine bottles in place of traditional Cork (material), cork closures. The emergence of these alternatives has grown in response to quality con ...
s such as
screw capA screw cap or closure is a common type of closure for bottle A bottle is a narrow-necked container made of an impermeable material (clay, glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, ...
s are available. Some bottling lines incorporate a ''fill height detector'' which reject under or over-filled bottles, and also a
metal detector A metal detector is an instrument that detects the presence of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustr ...

metal detector
. After filling and corking, a
plastic Plastics are a wide range of syntheticA synthetic is an artificial material produced by organic chemistry, organic chemical synthesis. Synthetic may also refer to: In the sense of both "combination" and "artificial" * Synthetic chemical or s ...

plastic
or
tin Tin is a with the Sn (from la, ) and  50. Tin is a silvery-colored metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue. Tin is soft enough to be cut with little force and a bar of tin can be bent by hand with little effort. When bent ...

tin
capsule is applied to the neck of the bottle in a ''capsular''. Next the bottle enters a ''labeller'' where a
wine label Wine labels are important sources of information for consumers since they tell the type and origin of the wine. The label A label (as distinct from signage) is a piece of paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/ ...
is applied. The product is then packed into boxes and warehoused, ready for sale.


See also

*
Beverage can A drink can (or beverage can) is a metal container designed to hold a fixed portion of liquid such as carbonated soft drinks, alcoholic drinks, fruit juices, teas, herbal teas, energy drinks, etc. Drink cans are made of aluminum ...
*
Packaging and labeling Packaging is the , and of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of designing, evaluating, and producing packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of ...


References


Further reading

* Yam, K. L., "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, {{packaging Wine packaging and storage Brewing Packaging machinery Beer vessels and serving Food storage containers Packaging Food packaging