HOME

TheInfoList




A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area) is a
protected area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the ena ...
of importance for
flora Flora is all the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, ca ...

flora
,
fauna Fauna is all of the animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular r ...

fauna
, or features of
geological Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which th ...
or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for purposes of
conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservation may also refer to: Environment and natural resources * Nature conservation, the protection and manageme ...
and to provide special opportunities for study or
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

research
. They may be designated by
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research
institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic. He spent more than half a century at Harvard University Ha ...
s. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws. Normally it is more strictly protected than a
nature park A nature park, or sometimes natural park, is a designation for a protected natural area A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or ...

nature park
. Various jurisdictions may use other terminology, such as ecological protection area or
private protected area A private protected area, also known as a private reserve, is not an official category within IUCN The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an int ...
in legislation and in official titles of the reserves.


History

Cultural practices that roughly equate to the establishment and maintenance of reserved areas for animals date back to antiquity, with King Tissa of
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...

Ceylon
establishing one of the world's earliest
wildlife sanctuaries A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area) is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, or features o ...
in the 3rd century BC. Early reservations often had a religious underpinning, such as the 'evil forest' areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by many ancient cultures worldwide. The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the
naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecul ...
and
explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something previously unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to scien ...

explorer
Charles Waterton Charles Waterton (3 June 1782 – 27 May 1865) was an English naturalist, plantation overseer and explorer best known for his pioneering work regarding conservation. Family and religion Waterton was of a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually r ...

Charles Waterton
around his estate in
Walton Hall, West Yorkshire Walton Hall is a stately home An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a town house. This allowed them to spend time in the country and ...
. He spent £9000 on the construction of a three-mile long, 9 ft tall wall to enclose his park against
poacher Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are ...
s. He tried to encourage bird life by planting trees and hollowing out trunks for
owl Owls are bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological k ...

owl
s to nest in. Waterton invented artificial
nest box A nest box, also spelled nestbox, is a man-made enclosure provided for animals to nest A nest is a structure built for certain animals to hold eggs Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including bird egg, birds ...

nest box
es to house
starlings Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family (biology), family Sturnidae. The name "Sturnidae" comes from the Latin word for starling, ''sturnus''. Many Asian species, particularly the larger ones, are called mynas, and many ...

starlings
,
western jackdaw The western jackdaw (''Coloeus monedula''), also known as the Eurasian jackdaw, the European jackdaw, or simply the jackdaw, is a passerine bird in the Corvidae, crow family. Found across Europe, Palearctic, western Asia and North Africa; it i ...
s and
sand martin The sand martin (''Riparia riparia'') or European sand martin, bank swallow in the Americas, and collared sand martin in India, is a migratory passerine A passerine is any bird of the Order (biology), order Passeriformes (, Latin ''passer'' ...
s; and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce
little owl The little owl (''Athene noctua''), also known as the owl of Athena or owl of Minerva, is a bird that inhabits much of the temperate and warmer parts of Europe, the Palearctic east to Korea, and North Africa. It was introduced into Britain at t ...

little owl
s from Italy. Waterton allowed local people access to his reserve and was described by
David Attenborough Sir David Frederick Attenborough (; born 8 May 1926) is an English broadcaster, natural historian Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμό ...

David Attenborough
as "one of the first people anywhere to recognise not only that the natural world was of great importance but that it needed protection as humanity made more and more demands on it".
Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) The Drachenfels ("Dragon's Rock", ) is a hill A hill is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ...
was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany; the site was bought by the
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
n State in 1836 to protect it from further quarrying. The first major nature reserve was
Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in the western United States, largely in the northwest corner of Wyoming and extending into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by ...

Yellowstone National Park
in Wyoming, United States, followed by the
Royal National Park The Royal National Park is a protected national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, ...
near
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
, Australia and the Barguzin Nature Reserve of
Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
, the first of ''
zapovednik Zapovednik (russian: заповедник, plural заповедники, from the Russian заповедный, "sacred, prohibited from disturbance, committed
o protect O, or o, is the fifteenth letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as re ...
committed o heritage; ) is an established term on the Post-Soviet sta ...
s'' set up by a federal government entirely for the scientific study of nature.


Around the world

There are several national and international organizations that oversee the numerous non-profit
animal sanctuaries Image:FarmSanctuary.JPG, Farm Sanctuary's shelter in upstate New York provides a home to hundreds of rescued goats, sheep, cows, pigs, poultry, rabbits, and other Livestock, farm animals. An animal sanctuary is a facility where animals are brought t ...
and refuges in order to provide a general system for sanctuaries to follow. Among them, the
American Sanctuary Association The American Sanctuary Association (ASA) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization founded in 1998 to set standards for animal care and housing. The goal of ASA is to link together sanctuary directors and founders in order to share experiences and to e ...
monitors and aids in various facilities to care for exotic wildlife. The number of sanctuaries has substantially increased over the past few years.


Australia

In
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, a nature reserve is the title of a type of
protected area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the ena ...
used in the jurisdictions of the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national ...
,
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
,
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
and
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
. The term "nature reserve" is defined in the relevant
statute A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...

statute
s used in those states and territories rather than by a single national statute. As of 2016, 1767 out of a total of 11044 protected areas listed within the Australian
National Reserve System Australia's National Reserve System (NRS) is a network of more than 10,000 Commonwealth of Australia, Commonwealth plus States and territories of Australia, state and territory protected areas which, in combination, on a national scale, protect m ...
used the term "nature reserve" in their names.


Brazil

In Brazil, nature reserves are classified by the National System of Conservation Units as ecological stations ( pt, estações ecológicas) or biological reserves ( pt, reservas biológicas). Their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, excluding direct human interference. Visits are allowed only with permission, and only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the natural balance, biological diversity and natural ecological processes. Ecological stations are also allowed to change the environment within strictly defined limits (e.g. affecting no more than three percent of the area or , whichever is less) for the purpose of scientific research. A wildlife reserve in Brazil is also protected, and hunting is not allowed, but products and by-products from research may be sold. Wildlife refuges in Brazil have as their objective the protection of natural flora and fauna where conditions are assured for the existence and reproduction of species or communities of the local flora and the resident or migratory fauna. The refuges can consist of privately owned land, as long as the objectives of the unit are compatible with the landowners' usage of the land and natural resources. Public visits are subject to the conditions and restrictions established by the management plan of the unit and are subject to authorisation by and regulations of the main administrative and scientific research body.


Canada

In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, UNESCO has recognized 18 nature reserves, mostly along the Niagara Escarpment and St. Lawrence River in Ontario. Federally, Canada recognizes 55 National Wildlife Areas across the country, containing species of ecological significance. The relevant Ministry is known as Environment and Climate Change Canada, which protects these areas under legislation known as the Canada Wildlife Act. The areas comprise approximately of habitat, half of which is marine habitat, for the purpose of conservation and research. Many conservation groups protect nature reserves in Canada as well, including Nature Conservancy Canada, Ducks Unlimited, and Escarpment Biosphere Conservancy. These charities operate to protect wilderness on privately owned lands, including through Canada's Ecological Gifts Program.


Egypt

There are 30 nature reserves in
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
which cover 12% of Egyptian land. Those nature reserves were built according to the laws no. 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to help protect the natural resources and the culture and history of those areas. The largest nature reserve in Egypt is
Gebel Elba Gabal Elba ( ar, جَبَل علْبَة ' , ), or Elba Mountain, is a peak and, in general, includes the associated mountainous area in the Halaib Triangle of Northeast Africa Northeast Africa, or ''Northeastern Africa'' or Northern East Africa ...
() in the southeast, on the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
coast.


Europe


Denmark

Denmark has three
national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

national park
s and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas. The largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers and is part of Thy National Park.


Sweden

In
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
, there are 30 national parks. The first of them was established in 1909. In fact, Sweden was the first European country that established 9 national parks. There are almost 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden. They comprise about 85% of the surface that is protected by the Swedish Environmental Code.


Estonia

In Estonia, there are 5 national parks, more than 100 nature reserves, and around 130 landscape protection areas. The largest nature reserve in Estonia is
Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve ( et, Alam-Pedja looduskaitseala) is the largest nature reserve in Estonia. It is a vast wilderness area which covers and consists of a complex of 5 large bogs separated by unregulated rivers, their floodplains, and exten ...
, which covers .


France

As of 2017,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
counts 10
national parks#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...
, around 50 regional nature parks, and 8 marine parks.


Germany

In 1995
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
had 5,314 nature reserves (german: Naturschutzgebiete) covering , the largest total areas being in Bavaria with and Lower Saxony with .


Hungary

In Hungary, there are 10 national parks, more than 15 nature reserves and more than 250 protected areas. Hortobágy National Park is the largest continuous natural grassland in Europe and the oldest national park in Hungary. It is situated on the eastern part of Hungary, on the plain of the Alföld. It was established in 1972. There are alkaline grasslands interrupted by marshes. They have a sizable importance because there are the fishponds. One of the most spectacular sights of the park is the autumn migration of cranes. Some famous Hungarian animal species live in Hortobágy National Park, such as the grey cattle, racka long-wool sheep living only in Hungary, Hungarian horses and buffalo. Hortobágy National Park has been a UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
since 1 December 1999.


Poland

As of 2011, Poland has 1469 nature reserves.


Portugal

Nature reserves are one of the 11 types of protected areas in Portugal. As of 2012, Portugal had a total of 46 protected areas, which represented of land and of marine surfaces. Among the protected areas, nine are classified as nature reserve ( pt, reserva natural).


Romania

About 5.18% of the area of Romania has a protected status (), including the
Danube Delta The Danube Delta ( ro, Delta Dunării, ; uk, Дельта Дунаю, Deľta Dunaju, ) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent. The greater part of the Danube Delta lies in R ...
, which makes up half of this area (2.43% of Romania's total area).


Spain

There are 15 National Parks, and around 90 Natural Parks in Spain. Spain is the country with the most sites listed in the
World Network of Biosphere Reserves The UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised ...
.


Switzerland

The
Swiss National Park The Swiss National Park ( rm, Parc Naziunal Svizzer; german: Schweizerischer Nationalpark; it, Parco Nazionale Svizzero; french: Parc National Suisse) is located in the Western Rhaetian Alps The Western Rhaetian Alps ( it, Alpi Retiche occidenta ...
, created in 1914, was one of the earliest national parks in Europe. In addition to the Swiss National Park, Switzerland also has sixteen regional nature parks. The
environmental organization An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the Conservation movement, conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against misuse or environmental degradation, degradation Huma ...
Pro Natura takes care of about 650 nature reserves of various sizes throughout Switzerland ().


Iran

The biosphere reserves of Iran has a total land area of 1.64 million km2. The "reserves" support more than 8,000 recorded species of plants (almost 2,421 are
endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest gro ...
), 502 species of
bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

bird
s, 164 species of
mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
s, 209 species of
reptile Reptiles, as most commonly defined, are the animals in the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or ...

reptile
s, and 375 species of
butterflies Butterflies are insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', m ...

butterflies
.


India

India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
's 18 biospheres extend over a total of and protect larger areas than typical national parks in other countries. The first national reserve of India was established in 1986.


Israel

Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
's national parks are declared historic sites or nature reserves, which are mostly operated and maintained by the National Nature and Parks Authority. As of 2019, Israel maintains more than 490 nature reserves that protect 2,500 species of indigenous wild plants, 20 species of fish, 530 species of birds and 70 species of mammals. In total, they cover of nature reserves, approximately 28% of the country's land area. In 1984, the two areas with the highest number of nature reserves were the South (15.2%) and
Samaria Samaria, , also known as , 'Nablus Mountains' () is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of the Land of Israel, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south. For the beginning of the Common Era, Josephus set t ...

Samaria
(the Shomron, 13.5%).


Japan

Under the Nature Conservation Law, places can be designated as 'wilderness areas', 'nature conservation areas' and 'prefectural nature conservation areas'. In 1995, when the Japanese Government published its information in English, there were 5 wildernesses, 10 nature conservation areas and 516 prefectural nature conservation areas.


Jordan

There are seven nature reserves in
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
. In 1966 the organization that would later start Jordan's nature reserves, the
Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature The Royal Society for The Conservation of Nature (RSCN) is an independent voluntary organization that is devoted to the conservation of Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a c ...
, was founded. RSCN's first efforts involved bringing back severely endangered species. In 1973, RSCN was given the right to issue hunting licenses, giving RSCN an upper hand in preventing extinction. The first step was the founding of Jordan's first nature reserve,
Shaumari Wildlife Reserve The Shaumari Wildlife Reserve is a Jordanian nature reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area), is ...
, in 1975. The primary purpose was to create means to breed endangered species, specifically: the
Arabian oryx The Arabian oryx or white oryx (''Oryx leucoryx'') is a medium-sized antelope The term antelope is used to refer to many species of even-toed ruminant Ruminants (suborder In biological classification, the order ( la, wikt:ordo#Latin, ord ...

Arabian oryx
,
gazelles A gazelle is any of many antelope The term antelope is used to refer to many species of even-toed ruminant Ruminants are herbivorous mammals of the suborder Ruminantia that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by Enteric ferm ...

gazelles
,
ostriches ''Struthio'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...

ostriches
, and
Persian onager #REDIRECT Persian onager#REDIRECT Persian onager The Persian onager (''Equus hemionus onager''), also called the Persian wild ass or Persian zebra, is a subspecies of onager The onager (; ''Equus hemionus''), also known as hemione or Asiatic wild ...
s in their natural environment.


Kyrgyzstan

By the end of 2009 there were 10 nature reserves ( ky, корук, ) in Kyrgyzstan covering or about three percent of the total area of the country.


New Zealand

New Zealand has a variety of types of reserve, including
national parks#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...
, various types of conservation areas (including stewardship land that is yet to be officially classified), and seven specific types of "reserve", each of which prioritize various degrees of
protection Protection is any measure taken to guard a thing against damage caused by outside forces. Protection can be provided to physical objects, including organisms, to systems, and to intangible things like civil and political rights. Although th ...
to different amenities such as scenery, recreation, flora and fauna, scientific value, or history. Land is often sub-categorised beneath its general classification, as defined in law between the '' Reserves Act of 1977'', the '' National Parks Act of 1980'', and the '' Conservation Act of 1987''. Under these classifications, the
Department of Conservation An environmental ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for the environment and/or natural resources. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of the Environment, ...
administers more than —nearly 30% of the nation's total area—with at least some degree of protection. This land is composed of 14 National Parks, 30 Conservation Parks, and approximately 8,900 discrete areas of land in total. Although the most public land is strongly protected for natural preservation, the term ''nature reserve'' is specifically defined in the Reserves Act to mean a reserve that prioritizes the protection of rare flora and fauna, to the extent that public access is by permit only. Some of these reserves include
Ecological Island An ecological island is not necessarily an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in_Lower_Saran ...
s, a comparatively new concept in wildlife preservation, pioneered in New Zealand to help rebuild the populations of nearly extinct birds, and other species that are heavily threatened by introduced predators.


Nicaragua

In
Nicaragua Nicaragua (; ), officially the Republic of Nicaragua (), is the largest Sovereign state, country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean Sea, Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and th ...

Nicaragua
, the
Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources{{unreferenced, date=July 2013 The Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA), is in charge of environmental protection and of the study, planning, and management of the Nicaragua's natural resources. It was formerly known as the Nica ...
(MARENA) is in charge of environmental protection and of the study, planning, and management of Nicaragua's natural resources. Nearly one-fifth of the territory is designated as protected areas like national parks, nature reserves (including the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve), and biological reserves. Nicaragua has 78 protected areas that cover , about 17.3% of the nation's landmass. Private nature reserves exist with land excluded from private land trusts and maintained at the sole cost of the proprietor. For example
O Parks, WildLife, and Recreation
Or El_Ostional Private Wildlife Reserve, was established within the
Mesoamerican Biological Corridor The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC) is a region that consists of Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and some southern states of Mexico. The area acts as a natural land bridge from South America ...
by retired
FDNY The New York City Fire Department, officially the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY), is an American department of the government of New York City A government is the system or group of people governing an organized com ...
firefighter Kevin Michael Shea, who purchased of land for the purpose of restoring the ecological system of a
dry tropical forest The tropical and subtropical dry forest is a habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961 that works in the field of wildernes ...
, ravaged during the
Nicaraguan Revolution The Nicaraguan Revolution ( es, Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista, link=no) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the violent campaign led by the Sandinista National Liber ...
. The
park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is ...

park
provides a private nature reserve,
wildlife corridor A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat Ibex in an alpine habitat In ecology, the term habitat summarises the array of resources, physical and biotic factors that are present in an area, such as to s ...
and verified
carbon credits A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the carbon dioxide equivalent, equivalent amount of a different greenhouse gas (tCO2e). Carbon credits and car ...
.


Russia

There are around 100 nature reserves (russian: заповедник, ''zapovednik'') in Russia, covering some , or about 1.4% of the country's total area. A few of them predate the
October Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence ...

October Revolution
of 1917, but most have been created during the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
era. There are also natural protected areas where only certain species are protected, or only certain activities are prohibited; those are known as ''zakaznik'' (russian: заказник). Unofficial sanctuaries can also occur as a result of human accidents; the
Chernobyl Exclusion Zone The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Zone of Alienation ( uk, Зона відчуження Чорнобильської АЕС, translit=zona vidchuzhennya Chornobyl's'koyi AES, russian: Зона отчуждения Чернобыльской А ...

Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
has in practice become a wildlife refuge since very few people live in the area. Wildlife has flourished in the zone since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986.


South Africa

South Africa is well known for its many nature reserves. The oldest nature reserve in the country (and oldest conservation area in the world) is the
Groenkloof Nature Reserve The Groenkloof Nature Reserve, located adjacent to the Fountains Valley at the southern entrance to Pretoria, was the first game sanctuary in Africa. The reserve of 600 ha is managed by the Department of Nature Conservation. The National Herita ...
that was established in 1892 in the capital city Pretoria in the old South African Republic and current Republic of South Africa. The country has many national parks but the best-known is the Kruger National Park, which was announced in 1898, and is the largest, at nearly . The Kruger Park and Table Mountain National Park are two of South Africa's most visited tourist attractions. South Africa also has a number of
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
s and provincial game reserves including Shamwari Game Reserve, Shamwari, Londolozi Private Game Reserve, Londolozi, Sanbona and Lalibela. The country currently has 20 national parks covering , about 3% of the total area of South Africa.


Sri Lanka

The area around Mihintale, Sri Lanka, was a sanctuary for wildlife, probably the first of its generation in the ancient world. According to stone inscriptions found in the vicinity, the king commanded the people not to harm animals or destroy trees within the area.


Ukraine

There are 4 biosphere reserves (two of them are dated 1927 and 1874) and 17 nature reserves in Ukraine, covering . Ukraine administers 40 national parks, 2632 habitat management areas, 3025 nature monuments, and 1430 other preservations.


United Kingdom

There are some differences between the regulations for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, which are separately managed. At the end of March 2004, there were 215 national nature reserves in England with a total area of . The reserves are scattered through England, from Lindisfarne in Northumberland to The Lizard in Cornwall. Nearly every rural county has at least one. Many national nature reserves contain nationally important populations of rare flowers, ferns and mosses, butterflies and other insects, and nesting and wintering
bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

bird
s. Examples include unique alpine plants at Upper Teesdale and the field of Fritillaria meleagris, snake's head fritillaries at North Meadow, Cricklade, Wiltshire. There are now over 1,050 local nature reserves in England. They range from windswept coastal headlands, ancient woodlands and flower-rich meadows to former inner-city railways, long-abandoned landfill sites and industrial areas now re-colonized by wildlife. In total, they cover almost —an impressive natural resource which makes an important contribution to England's biodiversity. A good example is Rye Harbour SSSI, Rye Harbour Nature Reserve in East Sussex, where a network of footpaths enables visitors to explore shingle, saltmarsh, saline lagoon, reedbed, and grazing marsh habitats. Through the Natural Heritage (Scotland) Act 1991 the Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) was established in 1992 as a government body, responsible to the Scottish Government Ministers and through them to the Scottish Parliament. At 31 March 2008, there were 65 national nature reserve (Scotland), Scottish national nature reserves with a total area of approximately . Section 21 of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 gives local authorities the exclusive statutory power to establish a List of local nature reserves in Scotland, local nature reserve in consultation with the SNH.


United States

In the United States, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, managed by the United States Secretary of the Interior, Secretary of the Interior, is responsible for managing many of the federal nature reserves including the National Wildlife Refuge, National Wildlife Refuge System. The National Wildlife Refuge System includes areas administered for the protection and conservation of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction, as well as wildlife ranges, game ranges, wildlife management areas, and waterfowl production areas. The first North American wildlife refuge, Lake Merritt Wildlife sanctuary at Lake Merritt, was established by Samuel Merritt and enacted in California state law in 1870 as the first government owned refuge. The first federally owned refuge in the United States is Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge and was established by Theodore Roosevelt in 1903 as part of his Square Deal campaign to improve the country. At the time, setting aside land for wildlife was not a United States Constitution, constitutional right of the president. In 2006, a bi-partisan group of US House of Representatives members established the Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus to further support the needs of the National Wildlife Refuge System in US Congress, Congress. There are also state-level administered State Nature Reserves found throughout the country, as well as smaller reserves operated by local governments, private trusts, or even funded through public donations. Private nature reserves also exist, with land excluded from private land trusts and maintained at the sole cost of the proprietor, such as the Wilbur Hot Springs.


See also

* ''Half-Earth'', a proposal to increase global coverage * National Wildlife Refuge Association * Refuge (ecology) * Wildlife corridor * Zoo


References


External links


American Sancutuary Association

IUCN Protected Areas Categories System

Wildlife refuges in Brazil

Wildanimalsanctuary.org
{{Authority control Protected areas Wildlife sanctuaries Nature reserves, Land use Regional parks Types of formally designated forests