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A big-box store (also hyperstore, supercenter, superstore, or megastore) is a physically large retail establishment, usually part of a
chain A chain is a assembly of connected pieces, called links, typically made of metal, with an overall character similar to that of a in that it is flexible and d in but , rigid, and load-bearing in . A chain may consist of two or more links. C ...
of stores. The term sometimes also refers, by extension, to the company that operates the store. Commercially, big-box stores can be broken down into two categories: general merchandise (examples include
Walmart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarket Asian hypermarket in the Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia">SM_Hypermarket.htm ...

Walmart
,
Kmart Kmart Corporation ( , doing business as Kmart and stylized as kmart) is an American big box department store A department store is a retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that stud ...

Kmart
, and
Target TARGET2 (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) is the real-time gross settlementReal-time gross settlement (RTGS) systems are specialist funds transfer systems where the transfer of money Image:National ...
), and specialty stores (such as
Home Depot The Home Depot, Inc., commonly known as Home Depot, is the largest home improvement retailer in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous U ...
,
Barnes & Noble Barnes & Noble, Inc., is an American bookseller Image:Libraria Carturesti Carusel - Interior ziua.jpg, 250px, Cărturești Carusel, a bookshop in a historical building from Bucharest (Romania), built in 1860 as a bank. Its interior comb ...
, or
Best Buy Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state ...

Best Buy
), which specialize in goods within a specific range, such as
hardware Hardware may refer to: Technology Computing and electronics * Computer hardware, physical parts of a computer * Digital electronics, electronics that operate on digital signals * Electronic component, device in an electronic system used to affect e ...

hardware
,
books A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a single customer’s sale at a restaurant is data – t ...

books
, or
consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum ...
, respectively. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, many traditional retailers—such as
Tesco Tesco plc () is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...

Tesco
and Praktiker—opened stores in the big-box-store format in an effort to compete with big-box chains, which are expanding internationally as their home markets reach maturity. The store may sell general
dry goods Dry goods is a historic term describing the type of product line a store carries, which differs by region. The term comes from the textile trade, and the shops appear to have spread with the mercantile trade across the British Empire (and Commonw ...
, in which case it is a general merchandise retailer (however, traditional
department store A department store is a retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), ...
s, as the predecessor format, are generally not classified as "big box"), or may be limited to a particular specialty (such establishments are often called "
category killer A category killer is a retailer Retail is the sale of and to s, in contrast to , which is sale to business or institutional customers. A retailer purchases goods in large quantities from , directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells in s ...
s"), or may also sell groceries, in which case some countries (mostly in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
) use the term
hypermarket Asian hypermarket in the Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia">SM_Hypermarket.html" ;"title="Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket">Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia in Pasay, Metro Manila A hy ...
. In the U.S., there is no specific term for general merchandisers who also sell groceries. Both Target and Walmart offer groceries in most branches in the U.S. Big-box stores are often clustered in shopping centers, which are typically called retail parks in the United Kingdom. In the United States, when they range in size from to , they are often referred to as power centers.


Big-box stores in various countries


Australia

The first company in Australia to use the big-box model was
IKEA#REDIRECT IKEA ''IKEA'' () is a Swedish multinational conglomerate that designs and sells , kitchen appliances and home accessories, among other useful goods and occasionally home services. Founded in Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), offic ...
beginning operation in Australia in 1975.
Bunnings Warehouse Bunnings Group, trading as Bunnings Warehouse, is an Australian household hardware chain. The chain has been owned by Wesfarmers since 1994, and has stores in Australia and New Zealand. Bunnings was founded in Perth, Western Australia in 1886, ...

Bunnings Warehouse
followed in 1995 and Mitre 10 Australia adopted the model with the "Mitre 10 Mega" stores first opening at
Beenleigh, Queensland Beenleigh is a town and suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixed-use or residential area, existing eit ...
in 2004.
Costco Costco Wholesale Corporation (Trade name, doing business as Costco Wholesale and also known simply as Costco) is an American multinational corporation which operates a chain of membership-only Big-box store, big-box retail stores (warehouse cl ...
has since expanded across Australia since opening its first store in 2009.


Canada

Apart from major
American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ...

American
big-box stores such as
Walmart Canada Walmart Canada is the Canadian subsidiary of Walmart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarket Asian hypermarket in the Philippines, a branch o ...
and briefly now-defunct
Target Canada Target Canada Co. was the Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections ex ...
, there are many retail chains operating exclusively in Canada. These include stores such as (followed after each slash by the owner) Hudson's Bay/
Home Outfitters Home Outfitters (known as Déco Découverte in Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , imag ...
,
Loblaws Loblaws Inc. is a Canadian supermarket chain with stores located in the provinces of British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordi ...
/
Real Canadian Superstore Real Canadian Superstore is a chain of supermarkets owned by Canadian food retailing giant Loblaw Companies Loblaw Companies Limited is the largest Canadian food retailer, encompassing corporate and franchise supermarkets operating under 22 reg ...
,
Rona Rona, RONA or Róna may refer to: Places *North Rona, a Scottish island in the North Atlantic *South Rona, a Scottish island in the Inner Hebrides *Rona, Switzerland, a village *Rona, a village in Jibou town, Sălaj County, Romania *Rona, a penins ...
,
Winners Winners Merchants International L.P is a chain of off-price Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, man ...

Winners
/
HomeSense HomeSense (stylized as Homesense in Europe and the United States) is a Canadian chain of discount home furnishing stores owned by TJX Companies. It originated in Canada in 2001, and was expanded to Europe in 2008 and the United States in 2017. O ...
,
Canadian Tire Canadian Tire Corporation Limited is a Canadian retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, ...
/
Mark's Mark's (known as L'Équipeur in Quebec) is a Canadian clothing and footwear retailer specializing in casual and industrial wear. Beginning in 1977 as Mark’s Work Wearhouse in Calgary, Alberta, it evolved from an industrial accessories dealer ...
/
Sport Chek A Sport Chek store in The Promenade Shopping Centre, Thornhill, Ontario with a very rare sign, without the red check. Sport Chek is the largest Canadian retailer of sporting clothing and sports equipment, with 191 stores throughout Canada as o ...
,
Shoppers Drug Mart Shoppers Drug Mart Inc. (named Pharmaprix in Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image ...
, Chapters/
Indigo Books and Music IndigoTech at the Eaton Centre Indigo Store in April 2014 Indigo Books & Music Inc., known as "Indigo" and stylized "!ndigo", is a Canada, Canadian bookstore chain. It is Canada's largest book, gift, and specialty toy retailer, operating stor ...
,
Sobeys Sobeys Inc. is the second largest food retailer in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to ...
, and many others. The indigenous
Loblaw Companies Limited Loblaw Companies Limited is the largest Canadian food retailer, encompassing corporate and franchise supermarkets operating under 22 regional and market segment banners (including Loblaws), as well as pharmacies, banking and apparel. Loblaw opera ...
has expanded and multiplied its
Real Canadian Superstore Real Canadian Superstore is a chain of supermarkets owned by Canadian food retailing giant Loblaw Companies Loblaw Companies Limited is the largest Canadian food retailer, encompassing corporate and franchise supermarkets operating under 22 reg ...
(and Maxi & Cie in Quebec) branded outlets to try to fill any genuine big-box market and fend off the damaging competition that a large Walmart penetration would inflict on Canadian-based retailers. In the early 21st century, commercial developers in Canada such as
RioCan RioCan Real Estate Investment Trust is the second-largest real estate investment trust (REIT) in Canada. It has an enterprise value of approximately $14 billion, and owns 289 primarily retail properties, with a net leasable area of 44 million s ...
chose to build big-box stores (often grouped together in so-called " power centres") in lieu of traditional
shopping mall A shopping mall (or simply mall) is a North American term for a large indoor shopping center A shopping center (American English) or shopping centre (Commonwealth English), also called a shopping complex, shopping arcade, shopping plaza or ga ...

shopping mall
s. Examples include
Deerfoot Meadows Deerfoot (1828 – 18 January 1896, Cattaraugus Reservation) was an American Seneca runner. His most noted achievements took place in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It sha ...
(
Calgary Calgary Calgary ( ) is a city in the western Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America ...

Calgary
), Stonegate Shopping Centre and
Preston Crossing Preston Crossing is a big box shopping area (or "Power center (retail), power centre") in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is located at Preston Avenue North and Circle Drive. History Preston Crossing's development coincided with the construct ...
(
Saskatoon Saskatoon () is the largest city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It straddles a bend in the South Saskatchewan River in the central region of the province. It is located along the Trans-Canada Hig ...

Saskatoon
),
South Edmonton Common South Edmonton Common is one of Canada's largest retail power centre, and when it will be completely developed, it will spread over and contain some of retail space, making it one of the largest open-air retail development in North America. The ...
(
Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, which is surrounded by Central Albert ...

Edmonton
), and Heartland Town Centre (
Mississauga Mississauga ( ) is a city in the Canadian province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, fir ...
). There are currently more than 300 power centers, which usually contain multiple big-box stores, located throughout Canada.


China

Most large grocery stores in China are of the big-box variety, selling big screen TVs, computers, mobile phones, bicycles, and clothing. Many foreign names appear, such as
Carrefour Carrefour S.A. () is a French multinational corporation specialized in retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Producti ...

Carrefour
,
Auchan Auchan () is a French multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a soverei ...

Auchan
,
Tesco Tesco plc () is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...

Tesco
,
Lotte Mart Lotte Mart is a South Korean hypermarket that sells a variety of groceries, clothing, toys, electronics, and other goods, with headquarters in South Korea. Lotte Mart is a division of the Lotte (conglomerate), Lotte Co., Ltd. which sells food and ...
, and
Walmart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarket Asian hypermarket in the Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia">SM_Hypermarket.htm ...

Walmart
, as well as dozens of Chinese chains. Most stores are three stories with moving sidewalk-style escalators. Some stores are so large as to have 60 checkout terminals and their own fleet of buses to bring customers to the store at no charge. Note: This does not include big-box stores in the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
(
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
).


France

Many configurations exist: the
hypermarket Asian hypermarket in the Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia">SM_Hypermarket.html" ;"title="Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket">Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia in Pasay, Metro Manila A hy ...
that sells many kinds of goods under one roof (like French chains
Carrefour Carrefour S.A. () is a French multinational corporation specialized in retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Producti ...

Carrefour
,
Auchan Auchan () is a French multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a soverei ...

Auchan
, and E.Leclerc), most of which are integrated within a
shopping mall A shopping mall (or simply mall) is a North American term for a large indoor shopping center A shopping center (American English) or shopping centre (Commonwealth English), also called a shopping complex, shopping arcade, shopping plaza or ga ...

shopping mall
; the
supermarket A supermarket is a self-service Retail#Types of outlets, shop offering a wide variety of food, Drink, beverages and Household goods, household products, organized into sections. This kind of store is larger and has a wider selection than earli ...

supermarket
that is a smaller version of a hypermarket; the market located in city centres; the
department store A department store is a retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), ...
, which first appeared in Paris, then opened in other parts of the world; the "category killer" superstore that mainly sells goods in a particular domain (automotive, electronics, home furniture, etc.); and the
warehouse store A warehouse store or warehouse supermarket is a food and grocery retailer that operates stores geared toward offering deeper discounted prices than a traditional supermarket. These stores offer a no-frills experience and warehouse shelving stocked ...
.


Hong Kong

To contend against
Carrefour Carrefour S.A. () is a French multinational corporation specialized in retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Producti ...

Carrefour
, PARKnSHOP opened the first superstore in 1996 based on the concept of a
wet market A wet market (also called a public market or a traditional market) is a marketplace A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly go to gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In di ...
. Most superstores in Hong Kong emphasizes one-stop shopping, such as providing car park services. Today, PARKnSHOP has more than 50 superstores and megastores, making it the largest superstore network in
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
. The first
Wellcome Wellcome (; Cantonese: ''Wai Hong'' in Hong Kong; in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japa ...

Wellcome
superstore opened in 2000 and it has only 17 superstores. In addition, CRC has four superstores in Hong Kong. Because Hong Kong is a very densely populated city, the sizes of superstores are considerably smaller than those in other countries. Some superstores are running at deficit, such as Chelsea Heights which therefore has stopped selling fresh
fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the ...

fish
. Furthermore, some PARKnSHOP superstores and megastores, such as Fortress World, belong to the same corporation,
Hutchison Whampoa Hutchison Whampoa Limited (HWL) was an investment holding company based in Hong Kong. It was a Fortune Global 500 The ''Fortune'' Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporation A corporation is an ...
.


India

India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
has been going through a retail revolution since the late 1990s, following the introduction of
Big Bazaar Big Bazaar is an Indian retail chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores. The retail chain was founded by Kishore Biyani under his parent organisation Future Group, which is known for having a significant prominence ...
in 2001. However, even before that, large retail stores were not uncommon in India. Spencer's, a popular hypermart, traces its history as far back as 1863. Likewise
Saravana Stores Saravana Stores, founded in 1969, is a chain of retail stores in India. It is the largest family owned business retail chain in India. According to Kishore Biyani of Big Bazaar, it is India's No.1 retail store in one locality. Locations Sarava ...

Saravana Stores
operating as a large independent showroom format since 1969, continue to grow in a mammoth manner. Saravana Stores operating format is said to be the inspiration for Big Bazaar's Kishore Biyani. Similarly, conglomerates, such as Raheja's, Future Group, Bharti, Godrej, Reliance, and TATA, have over the last decade ventured into large-format retail chains. However, most of the stores opened in large malls and not as independent big-box format stores, even though small and medium enterprises (SMEs) still account for the majority of the daily consumer transaction needs. However, the most successful consumer retail chain that took the market and penetrated also to tier 2 and tier 3 cities was D Mart, owned by Avenue Supermarkets Limited. An attempt was made to allow international large format retailers such as Walmart into the country. However, it was successfully opposed by small retailers citing job elimination due to increased efficiency and lowered prices due to fewer losses and lower costs. A big-box format store in India was opened by
IKEA#REDIRECT IKEA ''IKEA'' () is a Swedish multinational conglomerate that designs and sells , kitchen appliances and home accessories, among other useful goods and occasionally home services. Founded in Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), offic ...
in the city of Hyderabad.


Republic of Ireland

In
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
, large merchandise stores in the style of U.S. superstores were not a part of the retail sector until the late 20th century.
Dunnes Stores Dunnes Stores is an Irish multinational retail chain that primarily sells food, clothes and household wares. In addition to its main customer base in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in ...
have traditionally had a supermarket-plus-household-and-clothes model and now have some large stores.
Tesco Ireland Tesco Ireland is the Republic of Ireland subsidiary of supermarket group Tesco. Tesco Ireland was formed by Tesco plc's 1997 purchase of the Irish retailing operations of Associated British Foods, namely Powers' Supermarkets Limited and its sub ...
now runs upwards of 19 hypermarkets across the country.


New Zealand

The big-box phenomenon hit
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
in the late 1980s, with the introduction of
Kmart Australia Kmart Australia Limited is an Australian-based chain of affordable retail stores owned by the Kmart Group division of Wesfarmers. The company operates 234 stores across Australia and New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island ...
and later the "
Warehouse A warehouse is a building for storing goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, an ...
" superstore, a local company. Mitre 10 New Zealand opened their first Mega in 2004 at
Hastings, New Zealand Hastings (; mi, Heretaunga) is an inland city of New Zealand and is one of the two major urban areas of New Zealand, urban areas in Hawke's Bay Region, Hawke's Bay, on the east coast of the North Island. The population of Hastings (including Fl ...
six months before the Australian Mega store; it opened to great success with 20 more stores opening within two years. Australian-owned Bunnings Warehouse opened its first store in New Zealand in 2006.


United Kingdom

In the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
,
Makro Makro is an international brand of warehouse club A warehouse club (or wholesale club) is a store, usually selling a wide variety of , in which customers may buy large, quantities of the store's products, which makes these clubs attra ...

Makro
and
Costco Costco Wholesale Corporation (Trade name, doing business as Costco Wholesale and also known simply as Costco) is an American multinational corporation which operates a chain of membership-only Big-box store, big-box retail stores (warehouse cl ...
membership-only warehouse club stores have been around for 3 decades. General merchandise shops along the lines of U.S. superstores are not a large part of the retail sector, but this has been changing in recent years, with the creation of extra-large supermarkets such as
Tesco Tesco plc () is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...

Tesco
and
Asda
Asda
selling a broader range of non-food goods, typically in out-of-town shopping centres or retail parks. As in the US, such large shops are sometimes called ''
anchor tenant In retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and C ...
s''. The growth of online retail and budget retail has led to these chains moving away from the large out-of-town supermarkets which have waned in popularity. The term "big-box store" is not used in the UK. "Superstore" is sometimes used, but with a slightly different meaning: on road signs it means "large supermarket"; in self-service shop names it denotes an outlet larger than that particular chain's usual size.


United States

In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, some big-box stores may specialize in categories of merchandise ("
category killer A category killer is a retailer Retail is the sale of and to s, in contrast to , which is sale to business or institutional customers. A retailer purchases goods in large quantities from , directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells in s ...
"), such as
Best Buy Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state ...

Best Buy
in electronics and appliances and
Kohl's Kohl's is an American department store retail chain store, chain, operated by Kohl's Corporation. it is the largest department store chain in the United States, with 1,158 locations, operating stores in every U.S. state except Hawaii. The comp ...

Kohl's
, Burlington, and
Nordstrom Rack Nordstrom Rack is an American off-price department store chain founded in 1973, and a subsidiary of the luxury department store chain Nordstrom. Nordstrom Rack offers branded clothing and accessories for women, men, and kids at a large discount t ...
in apparel and home furnishings. Big-box general merchandise retailers such as
Target TARGET2 (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) is the real-time gross settlementReal-time gross settlement (RTGS) systems are specialist funds transfer systems where the transfer of money Image:National ...
and
Walmart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarket Asian hypermarket in the Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia">SM_Hypermarket.htm ...

Walmart
are similar to the global concept of a
hypermarket Asian hypermarket in the Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia">SM_Hypermarket.html" ;"title="Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket">Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia in Pasay, Metro Manila A hy ...
, although they do not always have a grocery section, and the term "hypermarket" is not in common use in the United States. "Discount store", "megastore", and "superstore" are sometimes used in addition to the industry term "general merchandise retailer". The category has its origins with Walmart, Kmart and
Meijer Meijer Inc. (stylized as meijer) () is an American supercenter A big-box store (also hyperstore, supercenter, superstore, or megastore) is a physically large retail establishment, usually part of a chain store, chain of stores. The term som ...

Meijer
in the 1960s, which were called "
discount stores A discount store or discounter offers a retail format in which products are sold at prices that are in principle lower than an actual or supposed "full retail price". Discounters rely on bulk purchasing and efficient Logistics, distribution to kee ...
" — still an industry term for this type of store — and which between the 1960s and 1980s started to open larger-format stores called "megastores".
Warehouse club A warehouse club (or wholesale club) is a retailing, retail store, usually selling a wide variety of merchandising, merchandise, in which customers may buy large, wholesale quantities of the store's products, which makes these clubs attractive ...
stores are another category of big-box general merchandise stores, such as
Sam's Club Sam's West, Inc. (doing business as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular pur ...

Sam's Club
,
Costco Costco Wholesale Corporation (Trade name, doing business as Costco Wholesale and also known simply as Costco) is an American multinational corporation which operates a chain of membership-only Big-box store, big-box retail stores (warehouse cl ...
, and
BJ's Wholesale Club BJ's Wholesale Club Holdings, Inc., commonly referred as BJ's, is an American membership-only warehouse club chain based in Westborough, Massachusetts, operating on the East Coast of the United States in addition to Ohio Ohio is a U.S. ...
. They require membership to purchase and often require purchasing larger quantities of goods at once.


Typical architectural characteristics

* Large, free-standing, cuboid, generally single-floor structure built on a concrete slab. The flat roof and ceiling trusses are generally made of steel, and the walls are concrete block clad in
metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

metal
or
masonry Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar Mortar may refer to: * Mortar (weapon), an indirect-fire infantry weapon * Mortar (masonry), a material used to fill the gaps betwe ...

masonry
siding. * The structure typically sits in the middle of a large, paved parking lot. It is meant to be accessed by vehicle, rather than by pedestrians. * Floor space several times greater than traditional retailers in the sector, providing for a large amount of merchandise; in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, generally more than 50,000 square feet (4650 m2), sometimes approaching 200,000 square feet (18,600 m2), though varying by sector and market. In countries where rentable space is at a premium, such as the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, the relevant numbers are smaller and stores are more likely to have two or more floors.


Criticism


Labor

Big-box development has at times been opposed by labor unions because the employees of such stores are usually not unionized. Unions such as the United Food and Commercial Workers Local 770 and the Joint Labor Management Committee of the Retail Food Industry have expressed concern about the grocery market because stores such as
Kmart Kmart Corporation ( , doing business as Kmart and stylized as kmart) is an American big box department store A department store is a retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that stud ...

Kmart
,
Target TARGET2 (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) is the real-time gross settlementReal-time gross settlement (RTGS) systems are specialist funds transfer systems where the transfer of money Image:National ...
, and
Walmart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarket Asian hypermarket in the Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia">SM_Hypermarket.htm ...

Walmart
now sell groceries. Unions and cities are attempting to use land-use ordinances to restrict these businesses.


Urban planning

Because it is generally inaccessible to pedestrians and often can only be reached by motor vehicles, the big-box store has been criticized as
unsustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century in the '' Anno Domini'' era or Common Era, in accordance with the ...
and a failure of
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
.


See also

* List of superstores *
List of hypermarkets This is a list of hypermarket chains sorted alphabetically by continent and country. A hypermarket is a superstore carrying a wide range of products under one roof, and theoretically allows customers to satisfy all their shopping needs in one trip ...
*
Supplier convergence Supplier convergence is a business model in which a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixture of bot ...
* Types of retail outlets


References

{{Reflist, 30em


External links

* Howard, Theresa,
Big-box stores squeeze into Big Apple
" ''
USA Today ''USA Today'' (stylized in all uppercase) is an American daily middle-market newspaper A middle-market newspaper is a newspaper that caters to readers who like entertainment as well as the coverage of important news events. Middle-market sta ...
'', October 18, 2004
Big Box Sprawl PDF
from the
National Trust for Historic Preservation The National Trust for Historic Preservation is a privately funded, nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized ...
*bigboxreuse.co
JULIA CHRISTENSEN : BIG BOX REUSE
Site about how big boxes are reused after retailers abandon them for larger buildings.
"Big box retailers versus boutique shops"
by
TV3 (New Zealand) Three (stylized as +HR=E) is a New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of i ...
Retail formats