HOME

TheInfoList




The Belarusian alphabet is based on the
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
and is derived from the alphabet of
Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic () was the first Slavic literary language A literary language is the form of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (S ...
. It has existed in its modern form since 1918 and has 32 letters. See also
Belarusian Latin alphabet The Belarusian Latin alphabet or Łacinka (from be, лацінка or łacinka, BGN/PCGN: ''Latsinka'', ) for the Latin script in general is the common name for writing Belarusian using Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman scri ...
and
Belarusian Arabic alphabet The Belarusian Arabic alphabet ( be, Беларускі арабскі алфавіт, ''Biełaruski arabski ałfavit'' (Belarusian Latin alphabet, Latin script)) or Arabitsa (), was based on the Arabic script and was developed in the 16th century ( ...
.


Letters


Details

Officially, the represents both and , but the latter occurs only in borrowings and mimesis. The is used by some for the latter sound but, with the exception of
Taraškievica Taraškievica or Belarusian Classical Orthography (, be, тарашкевіца / клясычны правапіс) is a variant of orthography of the Belarusian language, based on the literary norm of the modern Belarusian language, the first ...
, has not been standard. A followed by or may denote either two distinct respective sounds (in some prefix-root combinations: пад-земны, ад-жыць) or the Belarusian
affricates An affricate is a consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pr ...
and (for example, падзея, джала). In some representations of the alphabet, the affricates are included in parentheses after the letter to emphasis their special status: . is not a distinct phoneme but the neutralization of /v/ and /l/ when there is no following vowel, like before a consonant or at the end of a word. Palatalization of consonants is usually indicated through choice of vowel letter, as illustrated here with and , both written with the letter : :: When a consonant is not palatalized and precedes , the apostrophe is used to separate the iotated vowel: . ( is the palatalizing version of , and arguably, they represent a single phoneme.) The apostrophe is not considered a letter and so is not taken into account for alphabetical order. In pre-Second World War printing, the form was used. When computers are used, the form is frequently substituted by .


History

The medieval Cyrillic alphabet had 43 letters. Later, 15 letters were dropped, the last 4 after the introduction of the first official Belarusian grammar in 1918. Since four new letters were added, there are now 32 letters. The new letters were: * The ((CYRILLIC) EH) appeared in Belarusian texts in about the late-15th century. * The ((CYRILLIC) SHORT I) evolved from ((CYRILLIC) I), combined with a diacritical sign by the end of the 16th century (it would be part of the Russian alphabet in 1735). * The ((CYRILLIC) IO) came from the Russian alphabet in the 19th century (it had been part of the Russian alphabet since 1797). * The ((CYRILLIC) SHORT U) was proposed by Russian linguist Pyotr Bezsonov in 1870. The Belarusian alphabet, in its modern form, has formally existed since the adoption of the
Branislaw Tarashkyevich Branisłaŭ Adamavič Taraškievič, Belarusian Latin alphabet: Branisłaŭ Adamavič Taraškievič, russian: Бронисла́в Ада́мович Тарашке́вич, lt, Bronislavas Taraškevičius, pl, Bronisław Adamowicz Taraszkiewicz ...
's Belarusian grammar, for use in Soviet schools, in 1918 Several slightly different versions had been used informally. In the 1920s and notably at the
Belarusian Academical Conference (1926) Belarusian may refer to: * Something of, or related to Belarus * Belarusians, people from Belarus, or of Belarusian descent * A citizen of Belarus, see Demographics of Belarus * Belarusian language * Belarusian culture * Belarusian cuisine * Byelor ...
, miscellaneous changes of the Belarusian alphabet were being proposed. Notable were replacing with ((CYRILLIC) JE), and/or replacing , , , with (or else with ), , , , respectively (as in the
Serbian alphabet The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet ( sr, / , ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, ...
), replacing with , introducing (see also
Ge with upturn Ghe with upturn (Ґ ґ; italics: ''Ґ'' ''ґ'' ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is part of the Ukrainian alphabet, the Pannonian Rusyn language#Writing system, Pannonian Rusyn alphabet and both the Rusyn language#The Carpathi ...
; both proposed changes would match the
Ukrainian alphabet The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demograph ...
) and/or introducing special graphemes/ligatures for affricates: , etc. Even the introduction of the Latin script was contemplated at one moment (as proposed by Zhylunovich at the
Belarusian Academical Conference (1926) Belarusian may refer to: * Something of, or related to Belarus * Belarusians, people from Belarus, or of Belarusian descent * A citizen of Belarus, see Demographics of Belarus * Belarusian language * Belarusian culture * Belarusian cuisine * Byelor ...
). Nothing came of it. Noted Belarusian linguist
Yan Stankyevich Yan may refer to: Chinese states * Yan (state) (11th century – 222 BC), a major state in northern China during the Zhou dynasty * Yan (Han dynasty kingdom), first appearing in 206 BC * Yan (Three Kingdoms kingdom), officially claimed indepen ...
in his later works suggested a completely different form of the alphabet: Note that proper names and place names are rendered in
BGN/PCGN romanization of Belarusian The BGN/PCGN romanization system for Belarusian is a method for romanization of Cyrillic Belarusian language, Belarusian texts, that is, their transliteration into the Latin alphabet. There are a number of systems for romanization of Belarusian, ...
.


See also

*
Belarusian orthography reform of 1933 The orthography of the Belarusian language was reformed in 1933 under Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet rule. Differences between the old and the new orthography # The soft sign is no longer written when denoting assimilation of 'so ...
*
Bulgarian alphabet The Bulgarian alphabet is used to write the Bulgarian language #REDIRECT Bulgarian language #REDIRECT Bulgarian language Bulgarian (, ; bg, label=none, български, bălgarski, ) is a South Slavic languages, South Slavic language spok ...
*
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
*
Cyrillic alphabets Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic ...
*
Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels ...

Greek alphabet
*
Macedonian alphabet The orthography of Macedonian language, Macedonian includes an alphabet consisting of 31 letters. ( mk, Македонска азбука, '), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and ...
*
Montenegrin alphabet The Montenegrin alphabet is the collective name given to "''Abeceda''" (#Latin alphabet, Montenegrin Latin alphabet) and "''Азбука''" (#Cyrillic alphabet, Montenegrin Cyrillic alphabet), the writing systems used to Writing, write the Monteneg ...
*
Romanization of Belarusian Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' ...
*
Romanization of Bulgarian Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specif ...
*
Romanization of Greek Romanization of Greek is the transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or ...
*
Romanization of Macedonian The romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elemen ...
*
Romanization of Russian Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#L ...
*
Romanization of Ukrainian The romanization of Ukrainian (or sometimes Latinization) is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin alphabet, Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Rom ...
*
Russian alphabet The Russian alphabet ( rus, ру́сский алфави́т, russkiy alfavit, ˈruskʲɪj ɐlfɐˈvʲit or, more traditionally, rus, ру́сская а́збука, russkaya azbuka, ˈruskəjə ˈazbʊkə) was derived from Cyrillic script fo ...

Russian alphabet
*
Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). Thi ...
*
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet ( sr, / , ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a used for various languages across and is used as the national script in various , , , , and -speaking countries in , , the , , ...
*
Ukrainian alphabet The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demograph ...


References

* Да рэформы беларускай азбукі. // Працы акадэмічнае канферэнцыі па рэформе беларускага правапісу і азбукі. – Мн. : . м. 1927. * Ян Станкевіч. Які мае быць парадак літараў беларускае абэцады
962 Year 962 ( CMLXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addi ...
// Ян Станкевіч. Збор твораў у двух тамах. Т. 2. – Мн.: Энцыклапедыкс, 2002. * Б. Тарашкевіч. Беларуская граматыка для школ. – Вільня : Беларуская друкарня ім. Фр. Скарыны, 1929 ; Мн. : <Народная асвета>, 1991 аксімільн. – Выданьне пятае пераробленае і пашыранае. * Што трэба ведаць кожнаму беларусу. Выданне „Вольнае Беларусі“. – Менск : друк-ня А. Я. Грынблята, 1918 ; Менск : Беларускае коопэрацыйна-выдавецкае таварыства ″Адраджэньне″, 1991 аксімільн. – Зборнік артыкулау розных аутарау: М. Міцкевіча, Я. Лёсіка, В. Ластоўскаго, М. Багдановіча, Пётр з Арленят і інш.


External links


Taraškievizer: Converts Belarusian text from official spelling (Narkamaŭka) to classical spelling (Taraškievica)

Romanizer: Cyrillic to Latin script converter: Belarusian

Introduction to Belarusian Alphabet

Introduction to Belarusian Latin Script

Belarusian language using Arabic script

Letter Frequency in Belarusian and Russian


{{Language orthographies
Alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semanti ...
Cyrillic alphabets