A battle or ''battaile'' was a division of a
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
army. The word may be rendered as "
battalion A battalion is a military unit Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intend ...

", but Abels and Bachrach et al. say this is not accurate because the bataille was a completely
ad hoc Ad hoc is a Latin phrase __NOTOC__ This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their translation into English. To view all phrases on a single, lengthy document, see: * List of Latin phrases (full) The list also is divided alpha ...

ad hoc
formation. In late
medieval warfare Medieval warfare is the European warfare of the Middle Ages. Technological, cultural, and social developments had forced a severe transformation in the character of warfare from Classical antiquity, antiquity, changing military tactics and the rol ...
, field armies were often drawn up into three main battles, also called guards: the
vanguard The vanguard (also called the advance guard) is the leading part of an advancing military formation Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a State (polity), state so as to offer such military c ...
(''avant-garde''), the middle guard, and the
rearguard A rearguard is a part of a military force that protects it from attack from the rear, either during an advance or withdrawal. The term can also be used to describe forces protecting lines, such as communication lines, behind an army. Even more ...
(''arrière-garde''), often abbreviated to simply the van, middle, and rear. These terms imply, correctly, that the van preceded the middle, which in turn preceded the rear, into battle if the battles were arranged sequentially as a column. If arranged abreast, the van was on the right and the rear the left.


*(1992) 122 The Army Quarterly and Defence Journal 324 at footnote 2 (West of England Press
Google Books
*Stephen Friar. "Captain" in ''The Sutton Companion to Castles''. Sutton. 2003. . Page 46
Google Books
*Jim Bradbury. "Battle" in ''Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare''. Routledge. 2004
Page 273
*Brian Todd Carey. Warfare in the Medieval World. Pen & Sword Military. 2005. Pen & Sword Digital. 2011. . Chapter 5 a
page 80
and "bataille" in glossary a
page 133
*Kelly DeVries (ed). Medieval Warfare 1300–1450. Routledge. 2017. (International Library of Essays on Military History).
Page 130
*Gary E Sanders.
Through Trial and Error: Learning and Adaptation in the English Tactical System from Bannockburn to Poitiers
. Defense Technical Information Center. 2014. *J F Verbruggen. The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages: From the Eighth Century to 1340. The Boydell Press. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, in English. Woodbridge. 1997. . (Warfare in History, volume 3). Page
and 76. *Richard Philip Abels and Bernard S Bachrach (eds). The Normans and Their Adversaries at War: Essays in Memory of C Warren Hollister. Boydell & Brewer. Revised edition. 2001. . (Warfare in History, ISSN 1358-779X, volume 12)
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Military units and formations of the Middle Ages {{Mil-hist-stub