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In mathematics, a Baire space is a
topological space In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gener ...
such that every intersection of a
countable In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
collection of
open Open or OPEN may refer to: Music * Open (band) Open is a band. Background Drummer Pete Neville has been involved in the Sydney/Australian music scene for a number of years. He has recently completed a Masters in screen music at the Australia ...
dense set In topology In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), a ...
s in the space is also dense.
Complete metric space In mathematical analysis Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with Limit (mathematics), limits and related theories, such as Derivative, differentiation, Integral, integration, Measure (mathematics), measure, sequences, Series (mathema ...
s and
locally compact In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and the ...
Hausdorff spaces are examples of Baire spaces according to the
Baire category theorem The Baire category theorem (BCT) is an important result in general topology , a useful example in point-set topology. It is connected but not path-connected. In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic Set t ...
. The spaces are named in honor of René-Louis Baire who introduced the concept.


Motivation

In an arbitrary topological space, the class of
closed set In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of ...
s with
empty
empty
interior Interior may refer to: Arts and media * Interior (Degas), ''Interior'' (Degas) (also known as ''The Rape''), painting by Edgar Degas * Interior (play), ''Interior'' (play), 1895 play by Belgian playwright Maurice Maeterlinck * The Interior (novel) ...
consists precisely of the boundaries of
dense The density (more precisely, the volumetric mass density; also known as specific mass), of a substance is its mass Mass is both a property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or ...
open set In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
s. These sets are, in a certain sense, "negligible". Some examples are finite sets in \R, smooth
curve In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line (geometry), line, but that does not have to be Linearity, straight. Intuitively, a curve may be thought of as the trace left by a moving point (geo ...

curve
s in the plane, and proper affine subspaces in a
Euclidean space Euclidean space is the fundamental space of classical geometry. Originally, it was the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, but in modern mathematics there are Euclidean spaces of any nonnegative integer dimension (mathematics), dimens ...
. If a topological space is a Baire space then it is "large", meaning that it is not a
countable In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
union of negligible subsets. For example, the three-dimensional Euclidean space is not a countable union of its affine planes.


Definition

The precise definition of a Baire space has undergone slight changes throughout history, mostly due to prevailing needs and viewpoints. This article first gives some preliminary definitions that Baire used in his original work, and afterwards introduces some modern equivalent definitions.


Definitions

In his original definition, Baire defined a notion of category (unrelated to
category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and ...
) as follows. A subset N of a topological space X is called nowhere dense or rare if its closure in X has empty
interior Interior may refer to: Arts and media * Interior (Degas), ''Interior'' (Degas) (also known as ''The Rape''), painting by Edgar Degas * Interior (play), ''Interior'' (play), 1895 play by Belgian playwright Maurice Maeterlinck * The Interior (novel) ...
in X; that is, if \operatorname_X \left(\operatorname_X N\right) = \varnothing. Importantly, a
closed subset In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of ...
of X is nowhere dense if and only if its interior in X is empty. The closures and interiors in this definition are always taken relative to X rather than N because to do otherwise would result in a useless definition (specifically, this is because \operatorname_N N = N and \operatorname_N N = N are always true for every N, only N = \varnothing satisfies \operatorname_N \left(\operatorname_N N\right) = \varnothing). A subset of a topological space X is said to be meagre in X, a meagre sub of X, or of the first category in X if it is equal to a countable union of nowhere dense subsets of X. A subset is of the second category or nonmeagre in X if it is not of first category in X. A topological space is called meagre (resp. nonmeagre) if it is a meagre (resp. nonmeagre) subset of itself. :Warning: If a subset S \subseteq X is called a meagre sub of X then this means that when S is endowed with the
subspace topology In topology In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and ...

subspace topology
(induced by X) then S is a meagre topological space (i.e. S is a meagre subset of S). In contrast, if S is called a meagre sub of X then this means that it is equal to a countable union of nowhere dense subsets of X. The same applies to nonmeager subsets and subspaces. A subset C of X is comeagre in X if its
complement A complement is often something that completes something else, or at least adds to it in some useful way. Thus it may be: * Complement (linguistics), a word or phrase having a particular syntactic role ** Subject complement, a word or phrase addi ...
X \setminus C is meagre in X.


Baire space definition

A topological space X is called a Baire space if it satisfies any of the following equivalent conditions:
  1. Every non-empty open subset of X is a nonmeager subset of X;
  2. Every comeagre subset of X is dense in X;
  3. The union of any
    countable In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
    collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * Cash collection, the function of an accounts receivable department * Collection agency, agency to collect cash * Collections management (museum) ** Collection (artwork), objects in a particular field fo ...
    of closed nowhere dense subsets (i.e. each closed subset has
    interior Interior may refer to: Arts and media * Interior (Degas), ''Interior'' (Degas) (also known as ''The Rape''), painting by Edgar Degas * Interior (play), ''Interior'' (play), 1895 play by Belgian playwright Maurice Maeterlinck * The Interior (novel) ...
    ) has empty interior;
  4. Every intersection of countably many Dense set, dense
    open set In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
    s in X is dense in X; * In comparison, in every topological space, the intersection of any collection of dense open subsets is again a dense open subset.
  5. The
    interior Interior may refer to: Arts and media * Interior (Degas), ''Interior'' (Degas) (also known as ''The Rape''), painting by Edgar Degas * Interior (play), ''Interior'' (play), 1895 play by Belgian playwright Maurice Maeterlinck * The Interior (novel) ...
    (taken in X) of every union of countably many closed set, closed nowhere dense sets is empty;
  6. Whenever the union of countably many closed subsets of X has an interior point, then at least one of the closed subsets must have an interior point;
  7. The complement in X of every meagre subset of X is dense in X;
  8. Every point in X has a neighborhood that is a Baire space (according to any defining condition other than this one). * So X is a Baire space if and only if it is "locally a Baire space."


Sufficient conditions


Baire category theorem

The
Baire category theorem The Baire category theorem (BCT) is an important result in general topology , a useful example in point-set topology. It is connected but not path-connected. In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic Set t ...
gives sufficient conditions for a topological space to be a Baire space. It is an important tool in topology and functional analysis. *(BCT1) Every Complete space, complete pseudometric space is a Baire space. More generally, every topological space that is homeomorphic to an Open set, open subset of a complete pseudometric space is a Baire space. In particular, every completely metrizable space is a Baire space. *(BCT2) Every
locally compact In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and the ...
Hausdorff space (or more generally every locally compact sober space) is a Baire space. BCT1 shows that each of the following is a Baire space: BCT2 shows that every manifold is a Baire space, even if it is not paracompact, and hence not metrizable. For example, the Long line (topology), long line is of second category.


Other sufficient conditions


Examples


Non-example

One of the first non-examples comes from the induced topology of the rationals \Q inside of the real line \R with the standard euclidean topology. Given an indexing of the rationals by the natural numbers \N so a bijection f : \N \to \Q, and let \mathcal = \left(A_n\right)_^ where A_n := \Q \setminus \, which is an open, dense subset in \Q. Then, because the intersection of every open set in \mathcal is empty, the space \Q cannot be a Baire space.


Properties


See also

* Baire space (set theory) * Banach–Mazur game * Barrelled space * Descriptive set theory * Meagre set * Nowhere dense set *


References


Bibliography

* Baire, René-Louis (1899), Sur les fonctions de variables réelles, ''Annali di Mat. Ser. 3'' 3, 1–123. * * James Munkres, Munkres, James, ''Topology'', 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 2000. * * * * * * *


External links


Encyclopaedia of Mathematics article on Baire space

Encyclopaedia of Mathematics article on Baire theorem
General topology Functional analysis Properties of topological spaces Set theory