The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow was a delta-winged
interceptor aircraft An interceptor aircraft, or simply interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically for the defensive interception role against an attacking enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft. Aircraft that are cap ...
designed and built by
Avro Canada Avro Canada was a Canadian aircraft manufacturing company. It was founded in 1945 as an aircraft plant and within 13 years became the third-largest company in Canada, one of the largest 100 companies in the world, and directly employing over 5 ...
. The CF-105 held the promise of
Mach Mach may refer to Mach number, the speed of sound in local conditions. It may also refer to: Computing * Mach (kernel), an operating systems kernel technology * ATI Mach, a 2D GPU chip by ATI * GNU Mach, the microkernel upon which GNU Hurd is ba ...
2 speeds at altitudes exceeding and was intended to serve as the
Royal Canadian Air Force The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; french: Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air and space force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant, responsive and effective airpower". The RCAF is one of three environm ...
's (RCAF) primary interceptor into the 1960s and beyond. The Arrow was the culmination of a series of design studies begun in 1953 that examined improved versions of the
Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck The Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck (affectionately known as the "Clunk") is a Canadian twinjet interceptor/ fighter designed and produced by aircraft manufacturer Avro Canada. It has the distinction of being the only Canadian-designed fighter to en ...
. After considerable study, the RCAF selected a dramatically more powerful design, and serious development began in March 1955. The aircraft was intended to be built directly from the production line, skipping the traditional hand-built prototype phase. The first Arrow Mk. 1, RL-201, was rolled out to the public on 4 October 1957, the same day as the launch of Sputnik I. Flight testing began with RL-201 on 25 March 1958, and the design quickly demonstrated excellent handling and overall performance, reaching Mach 1.9 in level flight. Powered by the
Pratt & Whitney J75 The Pratt & Whitney J75 (civilian designation: JT4A) is an axial-flow turbojet engine first flown in 1955. A two-spool design in the 17,000 lbf (76 kN) thrust class, the J75 was essentially the bigger brother of the Pratt & Whitney J5 ...
, another four Mk. 1s were completed, RL-202, RL-203, RL-204 and RL-205. The lighter and more powerful
Orenda Iroquois The Orenda PS.13 Iroquois was an advanced turbojet engine designed for military use. It was developed by the Canadian aircraft engine manufacturer Orenda Engines, a part of the Avro Canada group. Intended for the CF-105 Arrow interceptor, deve ...
engine was soon ready for testing, and the first Mk 2 with the Iroquois, RL-206, was ready for taxi testing in preparation for flight and acceptance tests by RCAF pilots by early 1959. On 20 February 1959, Prime Minister of Canada John Diefenbaker abruptly halted the development of both the Arrow and its Iroquois engines before the scheduled project review to evaluate the program could be held. Canada tried to sell the Arrow to the US and Britain, but no agreements were concluded.Peden 1987, p. 72. Two months later the assembly line, tooling, plans, existing airframes, and engines were ordered to be destroyed. The cancellation was the topic of considerable political controversy at the time, and the subsequent destruction of the aircraft in production remains a topic for debate among historians and industry pundits. "This action effectively put Avro out of business and its highly skilled engineering and production personnel scattered".

Design and development


In the post-Second World War period, the Soviet Union began developing a capable fleet of long-range bombers with the ability to deliver nuclear weapons across North America and Europe.Dow 1979, p. 67. The main threat was principally from high-speed, high-altitude bombing runs launched from the Soviet Union travelling over the
Arctic The Arctic ( or ) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Canada (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), Danish Realm (Greenland), Finland, Iceland, N ...
against military bases and built-up industrial centres in Canada and the United States.Dow 1979, p. 60. To counter this threat, Western countries developed interceptors that could engage and destroy these bombers before they reached their targets.Gunston 1981, p. 18.Dow 1979, pp. 84–85. A. V. Roe Canada Limited had been set up as a subsidiary of the Hawker Siddeley Group in 1945, initially handling repair and maintenance work for aircraft at the Malton, Ontario Airport, today known as Toronto Pearson International Airport. The next year the company began the design of Canada's first jet fighter for the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), the
Avro CF-100 The Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck (affectionately known as the "Clunk") is a Canadian twinjet interceptor/ fighter designed and produced by aircraft manufacturer Avro Canada. It has the distinction of being the only Canadian-designed fighter to en ...
Canuck all-weather interceptor.Dow 1979, pp. 61–62. The Canuck underwent a lengthy and troubled prototype stage before entering service seven years later in 1953.Dow 1979, p. 70. Nevertheless, it went on to become one of the most enduring aircraft of its class, serving in a variety of roles until 1981.Lombardi, Mike and Larry Merritt
"Toronto's Long History of Aerospace Achievement."
''Boeing Frontiers'' (online), Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2005. Retrieved: 26 September 2010.
Recognizing that the delays that affected the development and deployment of the CF-100 could also affect its successor, and the fact that the Soviets were working on newer jet-powered bombers that would render the CF-100 ineffective, the RCAF began looking for a supersonic, missile-armed replacement for the Canuck even before it had entered service. In March 1952, the RCAF's ''Final Report of the All-Weather Interceptor Requirements Team'' was submitted to Avro Canada.

Higher speeds

Avro engineering had been considering supersonic issues already at this point. Supersonic flight works in a very different fashion and presents a number of new problems. One of the most critical, and surprising, was the sudden onset of a new form of drag, known as wave drag. The effects of wave drag were so strong that engines of the era could not provide enough power to overcome it, leading to the concept of a " sound barrier". German research during the Second World War had shown the onset of wave drag was greatly reduced by using airfoils that varied in curvature as gradually as possible. This suggested the use of thinner airfoils with much longer chord than designers would have used on subsonic aircraft. These designs were impractical because they left little internal room in the wing for armament or fuel.Whitcomb 2002, pp. 89–90. The Germans also discovered it was possible to "trick" the airflow into the same behaviour if a conventional thicker airfoil was used swept rearward at a sharp angle, creating a
swept wing A swept wing is a wing that angles either backward or occasionally forward from its root rather than in a straight sideways direction. Swept wings have been flown since the pioneer days of aviation. Wing sweep at high speeds was first investigat ...
. This provided many of the advantages of a thinner airfoil while also retaining the internal space needed for strength and fuel storage. Another advantage was that the wings were clear of the supersonic shock wave generated by the nose of the aircraft. Almost every fighter project in the postwar era immediately applied the concept, which started appearing on production fighters in the late 1940s. Avro engineers explored swept-wing and tail modifications to the CF-100 known as the CF-103, which had proceeded to wooden mock-up stage. The CF-103 offered improved transonic performance with supersonic abilities in a dive. The basic CF-100 continued to improve through this period, and the advantages were continually eroded. When a CF-100 broke the sound barrier on 18 December 1952, interest in the CF-103 waned.

Delta wings

Another solution to the high-speed problem is the
delta wing A delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle. It is named for its similarity in shape to the Greek uppercase letter delta (Δ). Although long studied, it did not find significant applications until the Jet Age, when it proved suitabl ...
. The delta wing had many of the same advantages of the swept wing in terms of transonic and supersonic performance, but offered much more internal room and overall surface area. This provided more room for fuel, an important consideration given the inefficient early jet engines of the era, and the large wing area provided ample lift at high altitudes. The delta wing also enabled slower landings than swept wings in certain conditions.Stimson, Thomas E. Jr
"Era of the Flying Triangles."
''Popular Mechanics,'' 106 (3). September 1956, pp. 89–94.
The disadvantages of the design were increased drag at lower speeds and altitudes, and especially higher drag while maneuvering. For the interceptor role these were minor concerns, as the aircraft would be spending most of its time flying in straight lines at high altitudes and speeds, mitigating these disadvantages. Further proposals based on the delta wing resulted in two versions of the design known as C104: the single engine C104/4 and twin-engined C104/2.Dow 1979, p. 84. The designs were otherwise similar, using a low-mounted delta-wing and sharply raked vertical stabilizer. The primary advantages of the C104/2 were its twin-engine reliability and a larger overall size, which offered a much larger internal weapons bay.Campagna 1998, pp. 68–69. The proposals were submitted to the RCAF in June 1952.

AIR 7-3 and C105

Intensive discussions between Avro and the RCAF examined a wide range of alternative sizes and configurations for a supersonic interceptor, culminating in RCAF Specification AIR 7-3 in April 1953. AIR 7-3 called specifically for a two crew, twin engine, aircraft with a range of ) for a normal low-speed mission, and for a high-speed interception mission. It also specified operation from a runway; a Mach 1.5 cruising speed at an altitude of ; and manoeuvrability for 2  ''g'' turns with no loss of speed or altitude at Mach 1.5 and . The specification required five minutes from starting the aircraft's engines to reaching altitude and Mach 1.5. It was also to have turn-around time on the ground of less than .Dow 1979, p. 89. An RCAF team led by Ray Foottit visited US aircraft producers and surveyed British and French manufacturers before concluding that no existing or planned aircraft could fulfill these requirements.Dow 1979, p. 25. In 1955 Avro estimated the performance of the Arrow Mk 2 (with Iroquois) as follows, from the January 1955 British evaluation titled Evaluation of the CF.105 as an All Weather Fighter for the RAF: "Max speed Mach 1.9 at 50,000 ft, Combat speed of Mach 1.5 at 50.000 feet and 1.84 G without bleeding energy, time to 50,000 ft of 4.1 minutes, 500-foot per minute climb ceiling of 62,000 feet, 400 nmi radius on a high-speeds mission, 630 nmi radius on a low-speed mission, Ferry range is not given, but estimated at 1,500 nmi." Avro submitted their modified C105 design in May 1953, essentially a two-man version of the C104/2. A change to a "shoulder-mounted" wing allowed rapid access to the aircraft's internals, weapons bay, and engines. The new design also allowed the wing to be built as a single structure sitting on the upper fuselage, simplifying construction and improving strength. The wing design and positioning required a long main landing gear that still had to fit within the thin delta wing, presenting an engineering challenge. Five different wing sizes were outlined in the report, ranging between ; the sized version was eventually selected.Peden 2003, p. 26. The primary engine selection was the
Rolls-Royce RB.106 The Rolls-Royce RB.106 was an advanced military turbojet engine design of the 1950s by Rolls-Royce Limited. The work was sponsored by the Ministry of Supply. The RB.106 project was cancelled in March 1957, at a reported total cost of £100,000 ...
, an advanced two-spool design offering around . Backup designs were the Bristol Olympus OL-3, the US-built
Curtiss-Wright J67 The Curtiss-Wright Corporation is a manufacturer and services provider headquartered in Davidson, North Carolina, with factories and operations in and outside the United States. Created in 1929 from the consolidation of Curtiss, Wright, and v ...
version of the OL-3, or the Orenda TR.9 engines.Dow 1979, p. 85. Armament was stored in a large internal bay located in a "belly" position, taking up over one third of the aircraft fuselage. A wide variety of weapons could be deployed from this bay, such as the
Hughes Falcon The Hughes AIM-4 Falcon was the first operational guided air-to-air missile of the United States Air Force. Development began in 1946; the weapon was first tested in 1949. The missile entered service with the USAF in 1956. Produced in both hea ...
guided missile, the
CARDE DRDC Valcartier is a major Canadian military research station at Canadian Forces Base Valcartier, Quebec, one of nine centres making up Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC). Originally formed at the end of World War II in 1945 as the C ...
Velvet Glove air-to-air missile, or four general-purpose 1,000 lb bombs.Dow 1979, p. 86. The Velvet Glove radar-guided missile had been under development with the RCAF for some time, but was believed unsuitable for supersonic speeds and lacked development potential. Consequently, further work on that project was cancelled in 1956.Campagna 1998, pp. 66–67. In July 1953, the proposal was accepted and Avro was given the go-ahead to start a full design study under the project name: "CF-105". In December, CA$27 million was provided to start flight modelling. At first, the project was limited in scope, but the introduction of the Soviet
Myasishchev M-4 The Myasishchev M-4 ''Molot'' (russian: Молот (Hammer), USAF/DoD reporting name "Type 37", ASCC reporting name Bison) was a four-engined strategic bomber designed by Vladimir Mikhailovich Myasishchev and manufactured by the Soviet Union ...
''Bison'' jet
bomber A bomber is a military combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), launching torpedoes, or deploying air-launched cruise missiles. The first use of bombs dropped from an aircr ...
and the Soviet Union's testing of a hydrogen bomb the next month dramatically changed Cold War priorities.Peden 2003, p. 45. In March 1955, the contract was upgraded to CA$260 million for five Arrow Mk.1 flight-test aircraft, to be followed by 35 Arrow Mk. 2s with production engines and fire-control systems.


In order to meet the timetable set by the RCAF, Avro decided that the Arrow program would adopt the Cook-Craigie plan. Normally a small number of prototypes of an aircraft were hand built and flown to find problems, and when solutions were found these changes would be worked into the design and then the production line would be set up. In a Cook-Craigie system, the production line was set up first and a small number of aircraft were built as production models.Pigott 1997, p. 55. Any changes would be incorporated into the jigs while testing continued, with full production starting when the test program was complete. As Jim Floyd noted at the time, this was a risky approach: "it was decided to take the technical risks involved to save time on the programme ... I will not pretend that this philosophy of production type build from the outset did not cause us a lot of problems in Engineering. However, it did achieve its objective." In order to mitigate risks, a massive testing program was started. By mid-1954, the first production drawings were issued and wind tunnel work began, along with extensive computer simulation studies carried out both in Canada and the United States using sophisticated computer programs.Peden 2003, p. 38. In a related program, nine instrumented free-flight models were mounted on solid fuel Nike rocket boosters and launched from Point Petre over Lake Ontario while two additional models were launched from the NASA facility at Wallops Island, Virginia, over the Atlantic Ocean. These models were for aerodynamic drag and stability testing, flown to a maximum speed of Mach 1.7+ before intentionally crashing into the water. Experiments showed the need for only a small number of design changes, mainly involving the wing profile and positioning. To improve high-alpha performance, the leading edge of the wing was drooped, especially on outer sections, a
dog-tooth In architecture, a dog-tooth or dogtooth pattern is an ornament found in the mouldings of medieval work of the commencement of the 12th century, which is thought to have been introduced by the Crusaders. The earliest example is found in the hal ...
was introduced at about half-span to control spanwise flow, and the entire wing given a slight negative camber which helped control trim drag and pitch-up.Campagna 1998, p. 37. The
area rule The Whitcomb area rule, named after NACA engineer Richard Whitcomb and also called the transonic area rule, is a design procedure used to reduce an aircraft's drag at transonic speeds which occur between about Mach 0.75 and 1.2. For supersonic ...
principle, made public in 1952, was also applied to the design. This resulted in several changes including the addition of a tailcone, sharpening the radar nose profile, thinning the intake lips, and reducing the cross-sectional area of the fuselage below the canopy. The construction of the airframe was fairly conventional, with a semi- monocoque frame and multi-spar wing. The aircraft used a measure of magnesium and titanium in the fuselage, the latter limited largely to the area around the engines and to fasteners. Titanium was still expensive and not widely used because it was difficult to machine. The Arrow's thin wing required aviation's first hydraulic system to supply enough force to the control surfaces, while using small actuators and piping. A rudimentary fly-by-wire system was employed, in which the pilot's input was detected by a series of pressure-sensitive transducers in the stick, and their signal was sent to an electronic control servo that operated the valves in the hydraulic system to move the various flight controls. This resulted in a lack of control feel; because the control stick input was not mechanically connected to the hydraulic system, the variations in back-pressure from the flight control surfaces that would normally be felt by the pilot could no longer be transmitted back into the stick. To re-create a sense of feel, the same electronic control box rapidly responded to the hydraulic back-pressure fluctuations and triggered actuators in the stick, making it move slightly; this system, called "artificial feel", was also a first.Campagna 1998, pp. 73–74. In 1954, the RB.106 program was cancelled, necessitating the use of the backup
Wright J67 The Rolls-Royce Olympus (originally the Bristol B.E.10 Olympus) was the world's second two- spool axial-flow turbojet aircraft engine design, first run in May 1950 and preceded only by the Pratt & Whitney J57, first-run in January 1950. It is ...
engine instead. In 1955, this engine was also cancelled, leaving the design with no engine. At this point, the
Pratt & Whitney J75 The Pratt & Whitney J75 (civilian designation: JT4A) is an axial-flow turbojet engine first flown in 1955. A two-spool design in the 17,000 lbf (76 kN) thrust class, the J75 was essentially the bigger brother of the Pratt & Whitney J5 ...
was selected for the initial test-flight models, while the new TR 13 engine was developed at Orenda for the production Mk 2s.Pigott 1997, p. 56. After evaluating the engineering mock-ups and the full-scale wooden mock-up in February 1956, the RCAF demanded additional changes, selecting the advanced RCA-Victor ''Astra'' fire-control system firing the equally advanced United States Navy Sparrow II in place of the MX-1179 and Falcon combination. Avro vocally objected on the grounds that neither of these were even in testing at that point, whereas both the MX-1179 and Falcon were almost ready for production and would have been nearly as effective for "a very large saving in cost".Peden 2003, pp. 46–47. The Astra proved to be problematic as the system ran into a lengthy period of delays, and when the USN cancelled the Sparrow II in 1956,
Canadair Canadair Ltd. was a civil and military aircraft manufacturer in Canada. In 1986, its assets were acquired by Bombardier Aerospace, the aviation division of Canadian transport conglomerate Bombardier Inc. Canadair's origins lie in the establishm ...
was quickly brought in to continue the Sparrow program in Canada, although they expressed grave concerns about the project as well and the move added yet more expense.Campagna 1998, p. 68.

Rollout and flight testing

Go-ahead on the production was given in 1955. The rollout of the first CF-105, marked as RL-201, took place on 4 October 1957. The company had planned to capitalize on the event, inviting more than guests to the occasion. Unfortunately for Avro, the media and public attention for the Arrow rollout was dwarfed by the launch of Sputnik the same day. The J75 engine was slightly heavier than the PS-13, and therefore required ballast to be placed in the nose to return the
centre of gravity In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space (sometimes referred to as the balance point) is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero. This is the point to which a force may ...
to the correct position. In addition, the Astra fire-control system was not ready, and it too, was replaced by ballast. The otherwise unused weapons bay was loaded with test equipment. RL-201 first flew on 25 March 1958 with Chief Development Test Pilot S/L Janusz Żurakowski at the controls.Pigott 1997, p. 57. Four more J75-powered Mk 1s were delivered in the next 18 months. The test flights, limited to "proof-of-concept" and assessing flight characteristics, revealed no serious design faults.Campagna 1998, p. 84. The CF-105 demonstrated excellent handling throughout the flight envelope, in large part due to the natural qualities of the delta-wing, but responsibility can also be attributed to the Arrow's
Stability Augmentation System An autopilot is a system used to control the path of an aircraft, marine craft or spacecraft without requiring constant manual control by a human operator. Autopilots do not replace human operators. Instead, the autopilot assists the operator' ...
. The aircraft went supersonic on its third flight and, on the seventh, broke at while climbing. A top speed of Mach 1.98 was achieved, and this was not at the limits of its performance. An Avro report made public in 2015 clarifies that during the highest speed flight, the Arrow reached Mach 1.90 in steady level flight, and an indicated Mach number of 1.95 was recorded in a dive.Waechter 2015, pp. 113–18. Estimates up to Mach 1.98 likely originated from an attempt to compensate for lag error, which was expected in diving flight.Waechter 2015, p. 73. Although no major problems were encountered during the initial testing phase, some minor issues with the landing gear and flight control system had to be rectified. The former problem was partly due to the tandem main landing gear being very narrow, in order to fit into the wings; the leg shortened in length and rotated as it was stowed.Campagna 1998, p. 70. During one landing incident, the chain mechanism (used to shorten the gear) in the Mark 1 gear jammed, resulting in incomplete rotation. In a second incident with Arrow 202 on 11 November 1958, the flight control system commanded elevons full down at landing; the resulting reduction in weight on the gears reduced the effective tire friction, ultimately resulting in brake lockup and subsequent gear collapse.Campagna 1998, p. 86. A photograph taken of the incident proved that inadvertent flight control activation had caused the accident. The only occasion when a test flight was diverted occurred on 2 February 1959, when a TCA Viscount crash-landed in Toronto, necessitating a landing at
CFB Trenton Canadian Forces Base Trenton (also CFB Trenton), formerly RCAF Station Trenton, is a Canadian Forces base located within the city of Quinte West, Ontario. It is operated as an air force base by the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and is the hub ...
. The stability augmentation system also required much fine-tuning.Campagna 1998, p. 87. Although the CF-105 was not the first aircraft to use such a system, it was one of the first of its kind, and was problematic. By February 1959, the five aircraft had completed the majority of the company test program and were progressing to the RCAF acceptance trials.Page et al. 2004, p. 117.

Political issues

From 1953, some senior Canadian military officials at the chiefs of staffs began to question the program. The chiefs of staff of the army and navy were both strongly opposed to the Arrow, since "substantial funds were being diverted to the air force", while Air Marshal
Hugh Campbell Hugh Campbell (born May 21, 1941) is a former American football and Canadian football player, coach, and executive. He served as a head coach in three different professional gridiron football leagues: the Canadian Football League (CFL), the Unit ...
, RCAF Chief of Staff, backed it right up until its cancellation. In June 1957, when the governing Liberals lost the federal election and a Progressive Conservative government under John Diefenbaker took power, the aircraft's prospects began to noticeably change. Diefenbaker had campaigned on a platform of reining in what the Conservatives claimed was "rampant Liberal spending". Nonetheless, by 1958, the parent company had become Canada's third largest business enterprise and had primary interests in rolling stock, steel and coal, electronics, and aviation with 39 different companies under the A. V. Roe Canada banner. In August 1957, the Diefenbaker government signed the NORAD (North American Air Defense) Agreement with the United States, making Canada a partner with American command and control. The USAF was in the process of completely automating their air defence system with the SAGE project, and offered Canada the opportunity to share this sensitive information for the air defence of North America. One aspect of the SAGE system was the
Bomarc The Boeing CIM-10 BOMARC (Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center) (IM-99 Weapon System prior to September 1962) was a supersonic ramjet powered long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) used during the Cold War for the air defense of North ...
nuclear-tipped anti-aircraft missile. This led to studies on basing Bomarcs in Canada in order to push the defensive line further north, even though the deployment was found to be extremely costly. Deploying the missiles alone was expected to cost C$164 million, while SAGE would absorb another C$107 million, not counting the cost of improvements to radar; in all, it was projected to raise Canada's defence spending "as much as 25 to 30%", according to
George Pearkes Major-General George Randolph Pearkes, (February 28, 1888 – May 30, 1984) was a Canadian politician and soldier. He was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy awarded to British and Imperi ...
, the minister of national defence. Defence against ballistic missiles was also becoming a priority. The existence of ''Sputnik'' had also raised the possibility of attacks from space, and, as the year progressed, word of a "
missile gap In the United States, during the Cold War, the missile gap was the perceived superiority of the number and power of the USSR's missiles in comparison with those of the U.S. (a lack of military parity). The gap in the ballistic missile arsenals did ...
" began spreading. An American brief of the meeting with Pearkes records his concern that Canada could not afford defensive systems against both ballistic missiles and manned bombers. It is also said Canada could afford the Arrow or Bomarc/SAGE, but not both. By 11 August 1958, Pearkes requested cancellation of the Arrow, but the Cabinet Defence Committee (CDC) refused. Pearkes tabled it again in September and recommended installation of the Bomarc missile system. The latter was accepted, but again the CDC refused to cancel the entire Arrow program. The CDC wanted to wait until a major review on 31 March 1959. They cancelled the Sparrow/Astra system in September 1958.Campagna 1998, p. 108. Efforts to continue the program through cost-sharing with other countries were then explored. In 1959, Pearkes would say the ballistic missile was the greater threat, and Canada purchased Bomarc "in lieu of more airplanes".

Operational history

Foreign interest

Canada unsuccessfully tried to sell the Arrow to the US and Britain. The aircraft industry in both countries was considered a national interest and the purchase of foreign designs was rare. Nevertheless, from 1955 onwards, the UK had shown considerable interest in the Arrow. Desiring a high-performance interceptor like the Arrow, the RAF began the F.155 program in 1955, projecting a service entry date of 1962. As the program continued, it was clear the aircraft would not be ready by that date, and attention turned to interim designs that could be in service by the late 1950s to cover this period. At first, consideration was given to a "thin-wing" version of the Gloster Javelin that would provide moderate supersonic performance, along with the extremely high performance but short range
Saunders-Roe SR.177 The Saunders-Roe SR.177 was a 1950s project to develop a combined jet- and rocket-powered interceptor aircraft for the Royal Air Force (RAF) and Royal Navy. It was an enlarged derivative of the Saunders-Roe SR.53, which was itself an expe ...
. In April 1956, the UK's
Air Council Air Council (or Air Force Council) was the governing body of the Royal Air Force until the merger of the Air Ministry with the other armed forces ministries to form the Ministry of Defence in 1964. It was succeeded by the Air Force Board. ...
recommended a purchase of 144 Arrows to fill the role of the thin-wing Javelin. These would be powered by UK engines; the Bristol Olympus 7R – thrust dry, with
reheat An afterburner (or reheat in British English) is an additional combustion component used on some jet engines, mostly those on military supersonic aircraft. Its purpose is to increase thrust, usually for supersonic flight, takeoff, and combat ...
, the Rolls-Royce Conway Stage 4 – thrust dry, with reheat, or
de Havilland Gyron The de Havilland PS.23 or PS.52 Gyron, originally the Halford H-4, was Frank Halford's last turbojet design while working for de Havilland. Intended to outpower any design then under construction, the Gyron was the most powerful engine of its ...
– thrust dry, with reheat. Procurement of the Arrow from Canada, and setting up a production line in the UK, was studied, the unit price per aircraft built in the UK being estimated at £220,000 each for a production run of 100 aircraft, as opposed to the estimate of £150,000 per aircraft for the thin wing Javelin. The CF-105 would serve as a stopgap until the UK's F.155 project came to fruition, but with the F.155 due in 1963 and the Arrow not likely to reach the RAF before 1962, there was little point in proceeding. The infamous
1957 Defence White Paper The 1957 White Paper on Defence (Cmnd. 124) was a British white paper issued in March 1957 setting forth the perceived future of the British military. It had profound effects on all aspects of the defence industry but probably the most affected wa ...
, described as "the biggest change in military policy ever made in normal times", led to the cancellation of almost all British manned fighter aircraft then in development, and completely curtailed any likelihood of a purchase. In January 1959, the UK's final answer was no; Britain countered with an offer to sell Canada the English Electric Lightning. The French government expressed an interest in the Iroquois engine for an enlarged version of the
Dassault Mirage IV The Dassault Mirage IV was a French supersonic strategic bomber and deep- reconnaissance aircraft. Developed by Dassault Aviation, the aircraft entered service with the French Air Force in October 1964. For many years it was a vital part of t ...
bomber, the Mirage IVB. This was one of several engines being considered, including the Olympus, with an order for 300 Iroquois being considered. Acting on media speculation that the Iroquois engine program was also in jeopardy of being cancelled, the French government chose to end negotiations in October 1958Campagna 1998, pp. 110–111. and opted for an upgraded version of the indigenous Snecma Atar, instead.Stewart 1998, pp. 290–291. There was never an explanation for this decision offered by the French government, even after Avro tried to offer the Iroquois as a private venture. In the US, the 1954 interceptor was well underway, and would ultimately introduce the Convair F-106 Delta Dart, an aircraft with many similarities to the Arrow. More advanced designs were also being considered, notably the Mach 3
Republic XF-103 The Republic XF-103 was an American project to develop a powerful missile-armed interceptor aircraft capable of destroying Soviet bombers while flying at speeds as high as Mach 3. Despite a prolonged development, it never progressed past the mo ...
, and by the time the Arrow was flying, the much more advanced North American XF-108. Both of these programs were cancelled during the mock-up stage, as it was believed the need for a manned interceptor of very high-performance simply did not exist as the Soviets were clearly moving their strategic force to ICBMs. This argument added weight to the justification of cancelling the Arrow.Campagna 1998, pp. 109–110. In 1958, Avro Aircraft Limited president and general manager
Fred Smye Frederick Thomas Smye (August 6, 1916 – 1985) was a Canadian businessman. He was the president of Avro Aircraft Limited (Canada). He was born in Hamilton, Ontario, the son of Frederick Thomas Smye and Maude Givern, and was educated at Trini ...
elicited a promise from the USAF to "supply, free, the fire control system and missiles and if they would allow the free use of their flight test centre at ... Edwards AFB."


The Arrow's cancellation was announced on 20 February 1959. The day became known as "Black Friday" in the Canadian aviation industry. Diefenbaker claimed the decision was based on "a thorough examination" of threats and defensive measures, and the cost of defensive systems. More specifically, the cost would have needed to be amortized over hundreds of manufactured models. At the time the trend was "away from conventional bombers" that the Avro Arrow could intercept and "towards atmospheric weapons like intercontinental ballistic missiles", according to Global News. As a result, the foreign demand for the Avro Arrow had declined substantially. Canada's alternative to the Arrow was to purchase some American
McDonnell F-101 Voodoo The McDonnell F-101 Voodoo is a supersonic jet fighter which served the United States Air Force (USAF) and the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). Initially designed by McDonnell Aircraft Corporation as a long-range bomber escort (known as a ...
interceptors and Bomarc B missiles. The decision immediately put 14,528 Avro employees, as well as nearly 15,000 other employees in the Avro
supply chain In commerce, a supply chain is a network of facilities that procure raw materials, transform them into intermediate goods and then final products to customers through a distribution system. It refers to the network of organizations, people, activ ...
of outside suppliers out of work. Declassified records show Avro management was caught unprepared by the suddenness of the announcement by the government; while executives were aware that the program was in jeopardy, they expected it to continue until the March review. It was widely believed during this lead-up to the review, the first Arrow Mk 2, RL-206, would be prepared for an attempt at both world speed and altitude records. An attempt was made to provide the completed Arrows to the
National Research Council of Canada The National Research Council Canada (NRC; french: Conseil national de recherches Canada) is the primary national agency of the Government of Canada dedicated to science and technology research & development. It is the largest federal research ...
as high-speed test aircraft. The NRC refused, noting that without sufficient spare parts and maintenance, as well as qualified pilots, the NRC could make no use of them. A similar project initiated by the
Royal Aircraft Establishment The Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) was a British research establishment, known by several different names during its history, that eventually came under the aegis of the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD), before finally losing its identity in me ...
(Boscombe Down) had resulted in Avro vice-president (engineering) Jim Floyd's preparing a transatlantic ferry operation. This proposal, like others from the United States, was never realized.


Within two months of the project cancellation, all aircraft, engines, production tooling and technical data were ordered scrapped.Campagna 1998, p. 121. Officially, the reason given for the destruction order from cabinet and the chiefs of staff was to destroy classified and "secret" materials used in the Arrow and Iroquois programs. The action has been attributed to
Royal Canadian Mounted Police The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; french: Gendarmerie royale du Canada; french: GRC, label=none), commonly known in English as the Mounties (and colloquially in French as ) is the federal and national police service of Canada. As poli ...
fears that a Soviet "mole" had infiltrated Avro, later confirmed to some degree in the Mitrokhin Archives. Rumours had circulated that Air Marshal W. A. Curtis, a
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
ace who headed Avro, had ignored Diefenbaker and spirited one of the Arrows away to be saved for posterity. These rumours were given life in a 1968 interview, when Curtis was asked directly if the rumour was true. He replied, "I don't want to answer that." He proceeded to question the wisdom of printing the story of a missing Arrow, and wondered whether it would be safe to reveal the existence of a surviving airframe only nine years later. "If it is in existence it may have to wait another 10 years. Politically it may cause a lot of trouble." The legend endures that one of the prototypes remains intact somewhere. Following the cancellation of the Avro Arrow project, CF-105 chief aerodynamicist Jim Chamberlin led a team of 25 engineers to
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA ) is an independent agency of the US federal government responsible for the civil space program, aeronautics research, and space research. NASA was established in 1958, succeedin ...
's Space Task Group to become lead engineers, program managers, and heads of engineering in NASA's manned space programs—projects Mercury, Gemini and
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, Apóllōnos, label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, Apéllōn, ; grc, Ἀπείλων, Apeílōn, label=Arcadocypriot Greek, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, Áploun, la, Apollō, la, Apollinis, label= ...
. The Space Task Group team eventually grew to 32 Avro engineers and technicians, and became emblematic of what many Canadians viewed as a " brain drain" to the United States.French and Burgess 2007, p. 196. Among the former Arrow team engineers to go south were Tecwyn Roberts (NASA's first
flight dynamics officer Flight controllers are personnel who aid space flight by working in such Mission Control Centers as NASA's Mission Control Center or ESA's European Space Operations Centre. Flight controllers work at computer consoles and use telemetry to mo ...
on Project Mercury and later director of networks at the
Goddard Space Flight Center The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States. Established on May 1, 1959 as NASA's first space flight center, GSFC empl ...
) John Hodge (flight director and manager on the cancelled Space Station Freedom project), Dennis Fielder (director of the Space Station Task Force, later the Space Station), Owen Maynard (chief of the LM engineering office in the Apollo Program Office),
Bruce Aikenhead Bruce Alexander Aikenhead, OC (September 22, 1923 – August 5, 2019) was a Canadian aerospace engineer and physicist. Aikenhead was widely regarded as a major pioneer in the Canadian aerospace industry, who was the deputy program director for the ...
, and Rod Rose (technical assistant for the Space Shuttle program)."Tecwyn Roberts."
''llanddaniel.co.uk.'' Retrieved: 5 May 2011.
Many other engineers, including Jim Floyd, found work in either the UK or the United States. Work undertaken by both Avro Canada and Floyd benefited supersonic research at Hawker Siddeley, Avro Aircraft's UK parent, and contributed to programs such as the HSA.1000 supersonic transport design studies, influential in the design of the
Concorde The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde () is a retired Franco-British supersonic airliner jointly developed and manufactured by Sud Aviation (later Aérospatiale) and the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC). Studies started in 1954, and France an ...
. In 1961, the RCAF obtained 66 McDonnell CF-101 Voodoo aircraft, one of the American designs the RCAF originally rejected, to serve in the role originally intended for the Avro Arrow. The controversy surrounding this acquisition, and Canada's acquiring nuclear weapons for the Voodoos and Bomarcs eventually contributed to the collapse of the Diefenbaker government in 1963. Although nearly everything connected to the CF-105 and Orenda Iroquois programs was destroyed, the cockpit and nose gear of RL-206, the first Mk 2 Arrow, and two outer panels of RL-203's wings were saved and are on display at the
Canada Aviation and Space Museum The Canada Aviation and Space Museum (french: link=no, Musée de l'Aviation et de l'Espace du Canada) (formerly the Canada Aviation Museum and National Aeronautical Collection) is Canada's national aviation history museum. The museum is locate ...
in Ottawa, alongside an Iroquois engine. With specifications comparable to then-current offerings from American and Soviet design bureaus, at the time of its cancellation, the Arrow was considered by one aviation industry observer to be one of the most advanced aircraft in the world. The Arrow's cancellation eventually led to the end of Avro Aircraft Limited (Canada) and its president and general manager,
Crawford Gordon Jr. Crawford Gordon Jr. (26 December 1914 – 26 January 1967) was a leader of wartime defence production in Canada under Minister of Munitions and Supply C.D. Howe during the Second World War. He was perhaps one of the greatest industrialists ...
was fired shortly afterward. In 1962, the Hawker Siddeley Group formally dissolved A. V. Roe Canada and transferred all its assets to Hawker Siddeley's newly formed subsidiary, Hawker Siddeley Canada. According to Bill Gunston: The nose cone section of Avro Arrow RL-206, currently on display at the Canada Aviation and Space Museum in Ottawa, was smuggled out of the Avro Aircraft plant in Malton by members of the RCAF Flying Personnel Medical Establishment, a detachment of
RCAF Station Downsview Canadian Forces Base Toronto (also CFB Toronto) is a former Canadian Forces base in Toronto, Ontario. The airfield is currently operated as Toronto / Downsview Airport. RCAF Station Downsview The Downsview Lands were part of an extensive land p ...
on Avenue Road in Toronto, where it resided for many years and was employed in high-altitude work. The commanding officer of the Flying Personnel Medical Establishment, Wing Commander Roy Stubbs, provides this prologue to the former aircraft: In 2012, a new version of the Avro Arrow was privately proposed as an alternative to a Canadian purchase of F-35 aircraft. The proposal, promoted by former Canadian Forces infantry officer Lewis MacKenzie, was rejected by Ottawa as being too risky, too costly and too time-consuming given the need to re-engineer the 1950s-era aircraft with modern communication, targeting and stealth features. Member of Parliament and former Canadian Forces fighter pilot
Laurie Hawn Laurie Daniel Hawn PC CD (born May 11, 1947, in Winnipeg, Manitoba) is a retired Lieutenant Colonel of the Royal Canadian Air Force, businessman, and former federal politician from Edmonton, Alberta. He was the Member of Parliament for Edmo ...
described the CF-105 as having been advanced 50 years prior, but "hopelessly behind its time" in 2012.


Mark 1

The Arrow Mark 1 was the initial version powered by two Pratt & Whitney J75 turbojet engines that produced of thrust each. The Mk 1 was used for development and flight testing. Five were completed.

Mark 2

The Mk 2 version was to be fitted with the Orenda PS-13 Iroquois engines and would be evaluated by RCAF acceptance pilots as well as Avro test pilots. The new PS-13S engines were designed to produce each. The Astra/Sparrow fire control system had been terminated by the government in September 1958 with all aircraft to employ the Hughes/Falcon combination. At the time of cancellation of the entire program, the first Arrow Mk 2, RL-206, was ready for taxi trials;Campagna 1998, p. 85. Avro expected it to break the world speed record, but it never flew. Top speed would have been limited by atmospheric frictional heating, according to project engineer James Floyd, " e aluminum alloy structure which we favoured was good for speeds greater than a Mach number of 2."Floyd 1958

Other designs

Avro Canada had a wide range of advanced Arrow variants under development at the time of project cancellation. Frequent mention is made of an Arrow that could have been capable of Mach 3, similar to the
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 (russian: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-25; NATO reporting name: Foxbat) is a supersonic interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft that is among the fastest military aircraft to enter service. Designed by th ...
. This was not the production version, but one of the design studies, and would have been a greatly modified version of the Arrow Mk 2, featuring revised engine inlets and extensive use of
carbon steel Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content from about 0.05 up to 2.1 percent by weight. The definition of carbon steel from the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) states: * no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, coba ...
and titanium to withstand airframe heating. The Mark 2A and Mark 3 were also to have updated engines, capable of producing each, increasing the maximum takeoff weight by and flight ceiling to 70,000 ft.


A replica Arrow built by Allan Jackson was used in '' The Arrow'', a
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (french: Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian public broadcaster for both radio and television. It is a federal Crown corporation that receives funding from the governmen ...
(CBC) production. He began building a full-scale replica of the Arrow in 1989, and was approached by the producers of the Arrow miniseries in 1996, then about 70% complete, who made an offer to complete the construction if the replica could be used for the production. It was used on the
miniseries A miniseries or mini-series is a television series that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes. "Limited series" is another more recent US term which is sometimes used interchangeably. , the popularity of miniseries format ...
and several public appearances at air shows. The replica was later donated to the Reynolds-Alberta Museum in his home town of Wetaskiwin,
Alberta Alberta ( ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is part of Western Canada and is one of the three prairie provinces. Alberta is bordered by British Columbia to the west, Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest T ...
. While in a temporary outdoor collection, it was damaged in a wind storm in 2009. It has since been repaired, but is no longer on public display. The Avro Museum, based out of Calgary/Springbank Airport (CYBW) west of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, is building a 2/3rd scale, manned, high performance flying replica of the Avro Arrow (officially known as ARROW II) to Canadian Aviation Experimental Aircraft Regulations in order to become an airshow demonstration aircraft. Construction began in October 2007, and by 2012 the fuselage was completed and passed its first MDRA inspection, and now has a serial number. Powered by a pair of Pratt & Whitney JT-15D-4s, the ARROW II is to have a top speed of approximately 500 knots and a range of 1,800 miles. Current projections show a final cost of the project at approximately one million dollars and it was hoped that ground tests would start in about 2016 with the first flight to follow. The 2018 Annual report from the museum updates the previous predictions, and states
We look forward to more exciting progress in the coming year as we work towards the goal of having the Arrow II on its landing gear and able to be presented as a work in progress static display at the 2019 Springbank Airshow.
Canadian Air and Space Museum The Canadian Air and Space Conservancy (formerly the Toronto Aerospace Museum and the Canadian Air and Space Museum) was an aviation museum that was located in Toronto, Ontario, featuring artifacts, exhibits and stories illustrating a century of ...
(CASM), previously located at the Toronto/
Downsview Airport Downsview Airport was located in the North York district of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. An air field, then air force base, it had been a testing facility for Bombardier Aerospace from 1994 to 2018. Bombardier has sold the facility and manufactur ...
(CYZD), featured a full-size replica Arrow built by volunteers with materials supplied by local aerospace firms. With a metal structure, the replica features many authentic-looking components including landing gear constructed by Messier-Dowty, the original Arrow primary landing gear sub-contractor. Painted by
Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Inc. () is a Canadian business jet manufacturer. It was also formerly a manufacturer of commercial jets, public transport vehicles, trains, and recreational vehicles, with the last being spun-off as Bombardier Recreational Prod ...
at their Downview plant in the colours of Arrow 25203, the Arrow replica was rolled out for a media event on 28 September 2006 and was on public display on 8–9 October 2006 to commemorate the 49th anniversary of the original aircraft's rollout in 1957. CASM was closed in 2011 when the hangar was rebuilt for use by a college. This replica was in storage at Toronto Pearson Intl Airport (CYYZ) after being displayed at the Toronto International Centre (across the road from where the actual aircraft were built) for a technology trade show that ran from 30 September to 4 October 2013. In late 2019, Milan Kroupa brought the replica to Edenvale Airport (CNV8), south of Georgian Bay in Southern Ontario. It is currently on display in a hangar, with weekly showings to the public.

Scale models

Between 1954 and 1957, nine Avro Arrow models, scaled at one-eighth size or about long, are believed to have been launched, using rockets, over
Lake Ontario Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the U.S. state of New York. The Canada–United States border sp ...
from Point Petre in Prince Edward County, Ontario as part of the process for testing the hull design. (Two others were launched in Virginia.) They travelled at supersonic speeds as onboard sensors sent data back to shore. After many attempts to find the models, a new search was started in late July 2017. The Raise the Arrow project, operated by OEX Recovery Group Incorporated, was a joint venture by several companies, the Canadian Coast Guard and the Royal Canadian Military Institute. A Thunderfish autonomous submarine, equipped with an AquaPix interferometric synthetic aperture sonar, was being used to survey the relevant area of the lake bottom. Any scale models found will be restored and displayed at the
Canada Aviation and Space Museum The Canada Aviation and Space Museum (french: link=no, Musée de l'Aviation et de l'Espace du Canada) (formerly the Canada Aviation Museum and National Aeronautical Collection) is Canada's national aviation history museum. The museum is locate ...
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian French: ) is the capital city of Canada. It is located at the confluence of the Ottawa River and the Rideau River in the southern portion of the province of Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec, and forms the c ...
and the National Air Force Museum of Canada in Trenton, Ontario. In September 2017, the Raise the Arrow Project confirmed the discovery of one of the 1/8 scale Delta Test Vehicle (DTV) models at the bottom of Lake Ontario. It was recovered in August 2018. The model was restored and has been on display at the Canadian Aviation and Space Museum since 2019. The search for one of the more advanced Arrow test models, in cooperation with the Royal Canadian Air Force, continued. In September 2020, OEX announced that a piece of another test model had been discovered; the Project was working on a method to recover that piece and to find other pieces of the same wreck.

"Destroyed" plans re-discovered

On January 6, 2020, CBC News announced that the Arrow's plans, long thought to have been destroyed, were kept. Ken Barnes, a senior draftsman on the project in 1959, was ordered to destroy all documents related to the Avro Arrow project. Instead, he quietly took the blueprints home where they remained stored for decades.Shield, David
"Avro Arrow blueprints on display after sitting in Sask. man's home for decades."
''CBC News,'' 06 January 2020. Retrieved: 08 January 2020.
The blueprints were on display in the "Touch the Sky: The Story of Avro Canada" exhibit at the
Diefenbaker Canada Centre The Right Honourable John G. Diefenbaker Centre for the Study of Canada, popularly known as the Diefenbaker Canada Centre, is a prime ministerial museum and archives located in Saskatoon, honouring Canada's 13th prime minister, the Rt. Hon. ...
at the
University of Saskatchewan A university () is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. In the United State ...
until April 2020. In 2021, the National Research Council of Canada digitized and released 595 Avro Arrow reports stored in their rare book room and the NRC Archives, both located in
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian French: ) is the capital city of Canada. It is located at the confluence of the Ottawa River and the Rideau River in the southern portion of the province of Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec, and forms the c ...


The "Avro Arrow Private" street name commemorates the aircraft at Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport.

Prospective operator

; *
Royal Canadian Air Force The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; french: Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air and space force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant, responsive and effective airpower". The RCAF is one of three environm ...
– Cancelled before entering service.

Specifications (Arrow Mk 1)

Notable appearances in media

In 1997, the CBC broadcast their two-part miniseries, '' The Arrow''. The production used a combination of archival film, remote-control flying models and computer animation for the static, ground and flying sequences. Although highly acclaimed, receiving praise from film historian and former Avro employee
Elwy Yost Elwy McMurran Yost, (July 10, 1925 – July 21, 2011) was a Canadian television host, best known for hosting CBC Television's weekday '' Passport to Adventure'' series from 1965 to 1967, TVOntario's weekday ''Magic Shadows'', from 1974 until t ...
and winner of numerous awards including the Gemini that year,"The Arrow: Awards."
''IMDb''. Retrieved: 25 September 2010.
the miniseries was also criticized for its "docu-drama" style and departing from a strict factual account.Bliss. Michael
"Arrow That Doesn't Fly: The CBC's miniseries about the interceptor that wasn't, is good to look at but ungrounded in facts."
Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
'', 27 January 1997. Retrieved: 28 March 2010.
The continued rebroadcasts and accompanying DVD releases have re-animated the controversy over the Arrow's cancellation and introduce the story to a new generation.Gainor 2007, p. 208.

See also





* Abzug, Malcolm J. and E. Eugene Larrabee. ''Airplane Stability and Control: A History of the Technologies that made Aviation Possible.'' Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. . * Anderson, John D. Jr. ''Fundamentals of Aerodynamics.'' New York: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering, Fifth Edition 2008, First Edition 1984. . * Andrew, Christopher and Vasili Mitrokhin. ''The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West.'' Eastbourne, East Sussex, UK: Gardners Books, 2000. . * Bothwell, Robert and William Kilbourn. ''C.D. Howe: A Biography.'' Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1979. . * Campagna, Palmiro. ''Storms of Controversy: The Secret Avro Arrow Files Revealed.'' Toronto: Stoddart, third paperback edition, 1998. . * Campagna, Palmiro. ''Requiem for a Giant: A.V. Roe Canada and the Avro Arrow.'' Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2003. . * Dow, James. ''The Arrow.'' Toronto: James Lorimer and Company Publishers, 1979. . * Floyd, James. "The Canadian Approach to All-Weather Interceptor Development. The Fourteenth British Commonwealth Lecture." ''The Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society,'' Volume 62, no. 576, December 1958. * French, Francis and Colin Burgess
''Into that Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961–1965'' (Outward Odyssey: A People's History of Space).
Lincoln Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 2007. . * Gainor, Chris. ''Arrows to the Moon: Avro's Engineers and the Space Race.'' Burlington, Ontario: Apogee, 2001. . * Gainor, Chris. ''Who Killed the Avro Arrow?'' Edmonton: Folklore Publishing, 2007. . * Gunston, Bill. ''Fighters of the Fifties''. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 1981. . * Isinger, Russell. "Flying Blind: The Politics of the Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow Programme." ''The Evolution of Air Power in Canada 1919 to the Present Day and Beyond.'' Winnipeg: Department of National Defence, Papers presented at the 2nd Air Force Historical Conference, volume II, 1997. * Isinger, Russell. "The Avro Arrow." ''Canada: Confederation to Present.'' CD-ROM. Edmonton: Chinook Multimedia Inc., 2001. . * Isinger, Russell. "The Avro Arrow." ''The Oxford Companion to Canadian History.'' Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2004. . * Isinger, Russell. ''The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow Programme: Decisions and Determinants.'' MA Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, 1997. * Isinger, Russell and D.C. Story. "The Plane Truth: The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow Programme." In ''The Diefenbaker Legacy: Politics, Law, and Society Since 1957.'' Regina: Canadian Plains Research Centre, 1980. . * Lukasiewicz, Julius. "Canada's Encounter with High-Speed Aeronautics." ''Technology and Culture. The International Quarterly Journal of the Society for the History of Technology,'' Volume 27, No. 2, April 1986. * Milberry, Larry, ed. ''Sixty Years: The RCAF and CF Air Command 1924–1984''. Toronto: Canav Books, 1984. . * Page, Ron, Richard Organ, Don Watson and Les Wilkinson (the "Arrowheads"). ''Avro Arrow: The Story of the Avro Arrow from its Evolution to its Extinction.'' Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills Press, 1979, reprinted Stoddart, 2004. . * Payne, Stephen. ''Canadian Wings: A Remarkable Century of Flight.'' Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2006. . * Peden, Murray. ''Fall of an Arrow.'' Toronto: Stoddart Publishing, 2003, First edition 1978. . * Pigott, Peter. ''Flying Canucks II: Pioneers of Canadian Aviation.'' Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd, 1997. * Shaw, E.K. ''There Never was an Arrow.'' Toronto: Steel Rail Educational Publishing, 1979. . * Smye, Fred and Randy. ''Canadian Aviation and the Avro Arrow.'' Oakville, Ontario: Amazon/Kindle ebook, August 2014. . * Stewart, Greig. ''Arrow Through the Heart: The Life and Times of Crawford Gordon and the Avro Arrow.'' Toronto: McGraw-Hill-Ryerson, 1998. . * Stewart, Greig. ''Shutting Down the National Dream: A.V. Roe and the Tragedy of the Avro Arrow.'' Toronto: McGraw-Hill-Ryerson, 1991. . * Stursberg, Peter. ''Diefenbaker: Leadership Gained: 1956–62''. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1975. . * ''Supersonic Sentinel.'' Rare Avro Arrow film footage. Available fro
Arrow Digital Archives
(ARC); also includes extra footage of the Arrow in flight and some footage of the
Avro Jetliner The Avro Canada C102 Jetliner was a Canadian prototype medium-range turbojet-powered jet airliner built by Avro Canada in 1949. It was beaten to the air by only 13 days by the de Havilland Comet, thereby becoming the second jet airliner in the ...
(1950). * Valiquette, Marc-Andre. ''Destruction of a Dream: The Tragedy of Avro Canada and the CF-105 Arrow, Volume 1.'' Montreal: Marc-Andre Valiquette (self-published), 2009. . * * Waechter, David. ''Flight Test: The Avro Arrow and a Career in Aeronautical Engineering.'' Kitchener: David Waechter (self-published), 2015. . * Whitcomb, Randall. ''Avro Aircraft and Cold War Aviation.'' St. Catharine's, Ontario: Vanwell, 2002. . * Whitcomb, Randall. ''Cold War Tech War. The Politics of America's Air Defense.'' Burlington, Ontario: Apogee Books, 2008. . * Zuk, Bill. ''The Avro Arrow Story: The Impossible Dream.'' Calgary: Altitude Publishing, 2006. . * Zuk, Bill. ''The Avro Arrow Story: The Revolutionary Airplane and its Courageous Test Pilots.'' Calgary: Altitude Publishing, 2005. . * Zuk, Bill. ''Janusz Zurakowski: Legends in the Sky.'' St. Catharine's, Ontario: Vanwell, 2004. . * Zuuring, Peter. ''Arrow Countdown.'' Kingston, Ontario: Arrow Alliance Press, 2001. . * Zuuring, Peter. ''Arrow First Flight.'' Kingston, Ontario: Arrow Alliance Press, 2002. . * Zuuring, Peter. ''Arrow Rollout.'' Kingston, Ontario: Arrow Alliance Press, 2002. . * Zuuring, Peter. ''The Arrow Scrapbook.'' Kingston, Ontario: Arrow Alliance Press, 1999. . * Zuuring, Peter. ''Iroquois Rollout.'' Kingston, Ontario: Arrow Alliance Press, 2002. .

Additional resources

''Library and Archives Canada''
is the official repository of most government documents relating to the Avro CF-105 Arrow project, though there are many documents at the Department of National Defence'
''Directorate of History and Heritage''
as well. Almost all Avro Arrow documents have now been declassified. * ''There Never Was an Arrow'' was broadcast on the CBC in March 1980 (available as an extra on the Arrow Docu-Drama DVD). Clips from the program can be seen a

External links

''Aerospace Heritage Foundation of Canada''

''Arrow Digital Archives''

''Avro Arrow Historica Minute''

''Avro Arrow Home Page''

''Canada Aviation and Space Museum,'' remains of the RL-206 Avro Arrow and other components on display

''Canadian Air and Space Museum,'' home of an Avro Arrow replica

* ttp://www.canavbooks.com/Editorial/TheGreatArrowDebate.php/ "The Great Arrow Debate" editorial on canavbooks.com
"ARROW – A World-leading Intercepter (sic) by Avro Aircraft"
a 1957 ''Flight'' article by Bill Gunston
Royal Canadian Air Force – Avro CF-105 Arrow Mk.1

The Avro Arrow & her pilot J. Zurakowski

A new hunt for Avro Arrow models in the depths of Lake Ontario: This time the search will be different
By Alexandra Sienkiewicz, CBC News, Posted: 14 July 2017 {{DEFAULTSORT:Avro Canada Cf-105 Arrow Aviation history of Canada CF-105 1950s Canadian fighter aircraft Tailless delta-wing aircraft Military history of Canada Abandoned military aircraft projects of Canada Cancelled aircraft projects Twinjets Aircraft first flown in 1958 High-wing aircraft