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Augsburg ( , , ; bar, Augschburg, links=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swabian_German, label=Swabian German) is a
city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a permanent and s ...
in
Swabia upThe coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg: ''Or, three lions passant sable'', the arms of the Duchy of Swabia, in origin the coat of arms of the House of Hohenstaufen. Also used for Swabia (and for Württemberg-Baden during 1945–1952) are ...
,
Bavaria Bavaria (; and : ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a (') in the south-east of . With an area of , Bavaria is the , comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany ...

Bavaria
,
Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north, and the to the south; it covers an area of ...

Germany
, around 50 km west of Bavarian capital
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria Bavaria (; german: Bayern, , officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no, ; bar, Freistoot Bayern, link=no), is a ...

Munich
. It is a university town and regional seat of the ''
Regierungsbezirk A ' () means "governmental district" and is a type of administrative division in Germany. Four of sixteen ' (states of Germany) are split into '. Beneath these are rural and urban districts. Saxony has ' (directorate districts) with more resp ...
''
Schwaben File:Coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg (lesser).svg, upThe coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg shows the three lions passant of the arms of the Duchy of Swabia, in origin the coat of arms of the House of Hohenstaufen. Also used for Swabia (and fo ...
with an impressive Altstadt (city centre). Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is the third-largest city in Bavaria (after
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria Bavaria (; german: Bayern, , officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no, ; bar, Freistoot Bayern, link=no), is a ...

Munich
and
Nuremberg Nuremberg ( ; german: link=no, Nürnberg ; in the local dialect: ''Nämberch'' ) is the second-largest city of the of after its capital , and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants make it the in Germany. On the (from its with the in onwards: ...

Nuremberg
) with a population of 300,000 inhabitants, with 885,000 in its metropolitan area. After
Neuss Neuss (; spelled ''Neuß'' until 1968; li, Nüss ; la, Novaesium) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the west bank of the Rhine opposite Düsseldorf. Neuss is the largest city within the Rhein-Kreis Neuss district. It ...
and
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also Names of Trier in different languages, names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle (river), Moselle in Germany. It lies in a valley b ...

Trier
, Augsburg is Germany's third oldest city, founded in 15 BC by the Romans as
Augusta Vindelicorum Augsburg ( , , ; bar, Augschburg, links=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swabian_German, label=Swabian German) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A ...
, named after the
Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it ...
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles througho ...

Augustus
. It was a
Free Imperial City In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (german: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (', la, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that h ...
from 1276 to 1803 and the home of the
patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe), the governing elites of cities in parts of medieval a ...
Fugger Fugger () is a German upper bourgeois Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of me ...
and
Welser Welser was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German langua ...
families that dominated European banking in the 16th century. The city played a leading role in the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...

Reformation
as the site of the 1530
Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, ''Confessio Augustana'', is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Protestant Reform ...
and 1555
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman E ...
. The
Fuggerei The Fuggerei is the world's oldest social housing complex still in use. It is a walled enclave within the city of Augsburg, Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of B ...

Fuggerei
, the oldest social housing complex in the world, was founded in 1513 by
Jakob Fugger Jakob Fugger ''of the Lily'' (german: Jakob Fugger von der Lilie) (6 March 1459 – 30 December 1525), also known as Jakob Fugger ''the Rich'' or sometimes Jakob II, was a major Germans, German merchant, mining entrepreneur, and banker. He was a d ...
. In 2019,
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
recognized the Water Management System of Augsburg as a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
.


Geography

Augsburg lies at the convergence of the
Alpine Alpine may refer to: Places * Alps, a European mountain range * Alpine states, associated with the mountain range, or relating to any lofty mountain areas * Mountainous or alpine; the mountains. Australia * Alpine, New South Wales, a Northern Vill ...

Alpine
rivers Lech and Wertach and on the Singold. The oldest part of the city and the southern quarters are on the northern foothills of a high terrace, which has emerged between the steep rim of the hills of Friedberg in the east and the high hills of the west. In the south extends the Lechfeld, an
outwash plain An outwash plain, also called a sandur (plural: ''sandurs''), sandr or sandar, is a plain In geography, a plain is a flat expanse of land that generally does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along valleys or on the door ...
of the post
ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and ...

ice age
between the rivers Lech and Wertach, where rare primeval landscapes were preserved. The Augsburg city forest and the Lech valley heaths today rank among the most species-rich middle European habitats. Augsburg borders on the
nature park A nature park, or sometimes natural park, is a designation for a protected natural area A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or ...

nature park
Augsburg Western Woods - a large forestland. The city itself is also heavily verdant. As a result, in 1997 Augsburg was the first German city to win the Europe-wide contest
Entente Florale File:Entente Florale map.png, Map of countries which take part in the Entente Florale The Entente Florale Europe (, "Flowery Alliance of Europe") is an international horticultural competition established to recognise municipalities and villages in E ...
for Europe's greenest and most livable city.


Suburbs and neighbouring municipalities

Augsburg is surrounded by the counties Landkreis Augsburg in the west and
Aichach-Friedberg Aichach-Friedberg is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a Landlocked co ...
in the east. The suburbs of Augsburg are Friedberg, Königsbrunn,
Stadtbergen
Stadtbergen
,
Neusäß
Neusäß
, Gersthofen,
Diedorf Diedorf is a Municipalities of Germany, municipality in the Augsburg (district), district of Augsburg, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated on the Schmutter River, 9 km west of Augsburg city centre. Geography The municipality of Diedorf consi ...
. Neighbouring municipalities: Rehling, Affing,
Kissing A kiss is the touch or pressing of one's lips against another person or an object. Cultural connotations of kissing vary widely. Depending on the culture and context, a kiss can express sentiments of love, Passion (emotion), passion, romance (lo ...
,
Mering Mering is a municipality in the district Aichach-Friedberg, in Bavaria, Germany. It is located on the river Paar. First mentioned in records in 1021, Mering has a long history. The growing town with its more than 12700 inhabitants (2007) profits f ...
, Merching,
Bobingen Bobingen ( Swabian: ''Boobenge'') is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts o ...
, Gessertshausen.


History


Early history

The city of Augsburg was founded in 15 BC on the orders of
Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...

Emperor
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles througho ...

Augustus
. Emperor Augustus conducted extensive military campaigns and established administrative settlements. The settlement that became Augsburg was known as ''Augusta Vindelicorum'', meaning "the Augustan city of the
Vindelici The Vindelici were a Celtic people in antiquity. Their territory was known to the Romans as Vindelicia, and its boundaries were the Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river after the Vo ...
". The settlement was established at the convergence of the
Alpine Alpine may refer to: Places * Alps, a European mountain range * Alpine states, associated with the mountain range, or relating to any lofty mountain areas * Mountainous or alpine; the mountains. Australia * Alpine, New South Wales, a Northern Vill ...

Alpine
rivers Lech and Wertach. In 120 AD Augsburg became the administrative capital of the Roman province
Raetia 250px, Province of Raetia highlighted. Raetia ( ; ; also spelled Rhaetia) was a Roman province, province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (''Raeti'' or ''Rhaeti'') people. It bordered on the west with the country of the Helvetii, ...

Raetia
. Augsburg was sacked by the
Hun The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Hun
s in the 5th century AD, by
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
in the 8th century, and by
Welf I, Duke of Bavaria Welf I (c. 1035/10406 November 1101) was Duke of Bavaria The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria. Bavaria was ruled by several dukes and Monarch, kings, partitioned and reunited, under several dynasty, dynasties. Sin ...
in the 11th century.


Augsburg Confession

Augsburg was granted the status of a
Free Imperial City In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (german: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (', la, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that h ...
on March 9, 1276 and from then until 1803, it was independent of its former overlord, the
Prince-Bishop of Augsburg The Prince-Bishopric of Augsburg (german: Fürstbistum Augsburg; Hochstift Augsburg) was one of the prince-bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire, and belonged to the Swabian Circle. It should not be confused with the larger diocese of Augsburg, over ...

Prince-Bishop of Augsburg
. Frictions between the city-state and the prince-bishops were to remain frequent however, particularly after Augsburg became
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
and curtailed the rights and freedoms of
Catholics The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...
. With its strategic location at an intersection of trade routes to
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
, the Free Imperial City of Augsburg became a major trading center. Augsburg produced large quantities of woven goods, cloth and textiles. Augsburg became the base of two banking families that rose to great prominence, the
Fugger Fugger () is a German upper bourgeois Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of me ...
s and the
Welser Welser was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German langua ...
s. The Fugger family donated the
Fuggerei The Fuggerei is the world's oldest social housing complex still in use. It is a walled enclave within the city of Augsburg, Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of B ...

Fuggerei
part of the city devoted to housing for needy citizens in 1516, which remains in use today. In 1530, the
Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, ''Confessio Augustana'', is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Protestant Reform ...
was presented to the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
at the
Diet of Augsburg The Diet of Augsburg were the meetings of the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in the German city of Augsburg. Both an Free imperial city, Imperial City and the residence of the Prince-Bishopric of Augs ...
. Following the
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman E ...
in 1555, after which the rights of religious minorities in imperial cities were to be legally protected, a mixed Catholic–Protestant city council presided over a majority Protestant population; ''see Paritätische Reichsstadt''.


Witch hunts

At the end of the 16th century the
witch hunts In many cultures, witchcraft traditionally means the use of Magic (supernatural), magic or supernatural powers, usually to harm others. A practitioner is a witch. In Middle Ages, medieval and early modern Europe, where the term ''witchcraft'' ...
reached Augsburg. Following the 1585-1588 plague epidemic, southeast
Germany Germany (german: Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in . It is the in Europe after , and the most populous . Germany is situated between the and seas to the north, and the to the south; it covers an area of ...

Germany
was shattered by the 1589-1591 witch hunts. Following the 1592-1593 plague epidemic, cities in southeast Germany entered a period of
inflation In economics, inflation refers to a general progressive increase in prices of goods and services in an economy. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services; consequently, inflation corresponds to a r ...

inflation
, marked by brutal witch hunts in urban areas.


Thirty Years' War

Religious peace in the city was largely maintained despite increasing tensions until the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
, which started 1618 and lasted until 1648. In 1629 the Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand II
Ferdinand II
issued the
Edict of Restitution The Edict of Restitution, which passed eleven years into the Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War (, ) was a conflict fought primarily in modern Germany and Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europ ...
, which restored the legal situation of 1552. The inequality of the
Edict of Restitution The Edict of Restitution, which passed eleven years into the Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War (, ) was a conflict fought primarily in modern Germany and Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europ ...
was revoked when in April 1632, when
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden Gustavus Adolphus (9 December
ld Style and New Style dates, N.S 19 December LD may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film and television *Lorraine "L.D." Delacorte, a character on the TV series ''Degrassi ''Degrassi'' is a Canadian teen drama In film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving pi ...
15946 November ld Style and New Style dates, N.S 16 November1632), also known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was King of Sweden from 1611 to 1 ...
occupied Augsburg. In 1634 the Swedish army was defeated at the nearby Battle of Nördlingen. By October 1634, Catholic troops had surrounded Augsburg. The Swedish army refused to surrender and a
siege A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from la, sedere, lit=to sit. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characteri ...

siege
ensued through the winter of 1634/35 and thousands died from hunger and disease. During the Swedish occupation and the siege by Catholic troops the population of the city was reduced from about 70,000 to about 16,000. Diseases such as
typhus Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents ...
and the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
ravaged the city.


Guilds

In the first half of the 17th century Augsburg was pivotal in the European network of
goldsmith A goldsmith is a Metalworking, metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Nowadays they mainly specialize in jewelry-making but historically, goldsmiths have also made cutlery, silverware, platter (dishware), pl ...

goldsmith
s. Augsburg attracted goldsmith journeymen from all over Europe and in the 18th century a large number of
silversmith A silversmith is a metalworking, metalworker who crafts objects from silver. The terms ''silversmith'' and ''goldsmith'' are not exactly synonyms as the techniques, training, history, and guilds are or were largely the same but the end product m ...

silversmith
s and goldsmiths became
master craftsman A master craftsman or master tradesman A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refers to a skilled worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal vocational education ...
in Augsburg.


Nine Years' War

In 1686 the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I formed the ''League of Augsburg'', also known as the "Grand Alliance" after England joined in 1689. The
coalition The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a co ...
consisted at various times of
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
,
Bavaria Bavaria (; and : ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a (') in the south-east of . With an area of , Bavaria is the , comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany ...

Bavaria
,
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Brandenburg
,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, the
Electorate of the Palatinate The County Palatine of the Rhine (german: kurfürstliche Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein or ), later the Electorate of the Palatinate () or simply Electoral Palatinate (), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum ...
,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
,
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps it, Alpi occidentaligerman: Westalpen , photo=Mont Blanc from Punta Helbronner, 2010 July.JPG , photo_caption=Mont Blanc Mont Blanc (french: Mont ...

Savoy
,
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...

Saxony
,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
, and the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
. The coalition was formed to defend the Electorate of the Palatinate and fought against France in the
Nine Years' War The Nine Years' War (1688–1697), often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg, was a conflict between France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ...
.


Fugger and Welser monopolies

Augsburg's economic boom years occurred during the 15th and 16th centuries thanks to the
bank A bank is a financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), stat ...

bank
and
metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

metal
businesses of the merchant families
Fugger Fugger () is a German upper bourgeois Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of me ...
and
Welser Welser was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German langua ...
. These families held a near total monopoly on their respective industries. In the 16th century Augsburg became one of Germany's largest cities. Augsburg was a major
manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary sector ...
center for
textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, ...

textile
s,
armor Armour (British English) or armor (American English; see American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, spelling differences) is a covering to protect an object, individual, or vehicle from damage, especially direct contact weapon ...

armor
,
scientific instrument A scientific instrument is a device or tool used for scientific purposes, including the study of both natural phenomena and theoretical research. History Historically, the definition of a scientific instrument has varied, based on usage, laws, and ...
s, as well as gold- and silver-smithing. The prolific
printer Printers may be: Technology * Printer (publishing) In publishing, printers are both companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal ...
s of Augsburg also made the city the largest producer of German-language
books A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiab ...

books
in the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
. Like other free imperial cities, Augsburg was an independent entity, and had authority over its
tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accord ...
policies. Augsburg's wealth attracted artists seeking
patron Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows on another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists su ...

patron
s. The city rapidly became a creative centre for
sculptor Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts The visual arts are Art#Forms, genres, media, and styles, art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics (art), ceramics, photography, video, filmmaking, design, crafts ...

sculptor
s and
musician A musician is a person who Composer, composes, Conducting, conducts, or Performing arts, performs music. According to the United States Employment Service, "musician" is a general Terminology, term used to designate one who follows music as a pr ...

musician
s. Augsburg became the base of the Holbein family, starting with
Hans Holbein the Elder Hans Holbein the Elder ( , ; german: Hans Holbein der Ältere; – 1524) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For c ...
. The composer
Leopold Mozart Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a German composer, conductor, music teacher Music education is a field of practice, in which educators are trained for careers as primary education, elementary or secondary e ...

Leopold Mozart
was born and educated in Augsburg.
Rococo Rococo (, also ), less commonly Roccoco or Late Baroque, is an exceptionally ornamental and theatrical style of architecture, art and decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding, white and pastel colors, sculpted molding, ...
became so prevalent that it became known as "Augsburg style" throughout Germany.


End of Free Imperial City status

The
Reichsdeputationshauptschluss The ' (formally the ', or "Principal Conclusion of the Extraordinary Imperial Delegation"), sometimes referred to in English as the Final Recess or the Imperial Recess of 1803, was a resolution passed by the ' (Imperial Diet) of the Holy Roman Empi ...
or Final Recess of 1803 saw the annexation of nearly all of the 51 Free Imperial Cities, excepting Augsburg and five others. However, when the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
was dissolved in 1806, Napoleon encouraged his German allies to mediatize their smaller neighbors, and Augsburg lost its independence. It was annexed to the
Kingdom of Bavaria The Kingdom of Bavaria (german: Königreich Bayern; ) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. With the unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the kingdom becam ...
. In 1817, the city became an administrative capital of the ''Oberdonaukreis'', then administrative capital in 1837 for the district Swabia and Neuburg.


Industrial revolution

During the end of the 19th century, Augsburg's textile industry again rose to prominence followed by the connected machine manufacturing industry.


Military

Augsburg was historically a militarily important city due to its strategic location. During the German re-armament before
the Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing m ...
, the Wehrmacht enlarged Augsburg's one original Kaserne (barracks) to three: Somme Kaserne (housing Wehrmacht Artillerie-Regiment 27); Arras Kaserne (housing Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 27) and Panzerjäger Kaserne (housing Panzerabwehr-Abteilung 27 (later Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27)). Wehrmacht Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27 was later moved to
Füssen Füssen is a Town#Germany, town in Bavaria, Germany, in the district of Ostallgäu, situated one kilometre from the Austrian border. The town is known for violin manufacturing and as the closest transportation hub for the Neuschwanstein and Schlo ...

Füssen
. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, one subcamp of the
Dachau concentration camp , , commandant = #Commandants, List of commandants , known for = , location = Upper Bavaria, Southern Germany , built by = Nazi Germany, Germany , operated by = ''Schutzstaffel'' (SS) , original use = Political ...

Dachau concentration camp
was located outside Augsburg, supplying approximately 1,300 forced labourers to local military-related industry, most especially the
Messerschmitt Messerschmitt AG () was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * ...

Messerschmitt
AG military aircraft firm headquartered in Augsburg. In 1941,
Rudolf Hess Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (Heß in German; 26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987) was a German politician and a leading member of the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany. Appointed Deputy Führer to Adolf Hitler in 1933, Hess served in that position ...
, without
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
's permission, secretly took off from a local Augsburg airport and flew to
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
to meet the
Duke of Hamilton Duke of Hamilton is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, created in April 1643. It is the senior dukedom in that Peerage (except for the Duke of Rothesay, Dukedom of Rothesay held by the Sovereign's eldest son), and as such its holder is the Pr ...
, and crashed in
Eaglesham Eaglesham ( ) is a village in East Renfrewshire, Scotland, situated about south of Glasgow, southeast of Newton Mearns and south of Clarkston, East Renfrewshire, Clarkston, and southwest of East Kilbride. The 2011 census revealed that the vill ...
in an attempt to mediate the end of the European front of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
and join sides for the upcoming Russian Campaign. The Reichswehr Infanterie Regiment 19 was stationed in Augsburg and became the base unit for the Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 40, a subsection of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27 (which later became the Wehrmacht Panzerdivision 17). Elements of Wehrmacht II Battalion of Gebirgs-Jäger-Regiment 99 (especially Wehrmacht Panzerjäger Kompanie 14) was composed of parts of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27. The Infanterie Regiment 40 remained in Augsburg until the end of the war, finally surrendering to the United States when on 28 April 1945, the
U.S. Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists ma ...
occupied the city. The city and its Messerschmitt works were bombed on three occasions during the war. Collateral damaged included the destruction of just under 25% of all homes in the city and the deaths of several hundred people. Following the war, the three Kaserne would change hands confusingly between the United States, American and Germans, finally ending up in US hands for the duration of the Cold War. The former Wehrmacht Kaserne became the three main US barracks in Augsburg: Reese, Sheridan and FLAK. US Base FLAK had been an anti-aircraft barracks since 1936 and US Base Sheridan "united" the former infantry barracks with a smaller Kaserne for former Luftwaffe communications units. The American military presence in the city started with the U.S. 5th Infantry Division stationed at FLAK Kaserne from 1945 to 1955, then by U.S. 11th Airborne Division, 11th Airborne Division, followed by the 24th Infantry Division (United States), 24th Infantry Division, U.S. Army VII Corps (United States), VII Corps artillery, 701st Military Intelligence Brigade, USASA Field Station Augsburg and finally the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade (United States), 66th Military Intelligence Brigade, which returned the former Kaserne to German hands in 1998. Originally the Heeresverpflegungshauptamt Südbayern and an Officers' caisson existed on or near the location of Reese-Kaserne, but was demolished by the occupying Americans.


Politics


Municipality

From 1266 until 1548, the terms ''Stadtpfleger'' (head of town council) and ''Mayor'' were used interchangeably, or occasionally, simultaneously. In 1548 the title was finally fixed to ''Stadtpfleger'', who officiated for several years and was then awarded the title for life (though no longer governing), thus resulting confusingly, in records of two or more simultaneous ''Stadtpfleger''. After the transfer to
Bavaria Bavaria (; and : ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a (') in the south-east of . With an area of , Bavaria is the , comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany ...

Bavaria
in 1806, Augsburg was ruled by a Magistrate with two mayors, supported by an additional council of "Community Commissioners": the ''Gemeindebevollmächtige''. As of 1907, the Mayor was entitled Lord Mayor, Oberbürgermeister, as Augsburg had reached a population of 100,000, as per the Bavarian Gemeindeordnung.


Town Council

12002 Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS, until 1984 Deutsche Kommunistische Partei, DKP    2Christlich Soziale Mitte (CSM): 3, Freie Wähler Bayern, Freie Wähler: 2, Polit-WG e.V: 1


Members of the Bundestag

Augsburg is located in the ''Wahlkreis 253 Augsburg-Stadt'' constituency, which includes Königsbrunn and parts of the District of Augsburg ( Landkreis Augsburg). Volker Ullrich of the Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern, CSU was directly elected to the Bundestag in the Bundestagswahl 2013, 18th German Bundestag. Indirectly elected to the Bundestag to adhere to the Party-list proportional representation, Landesliste were Ulrike Bahr for the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD and Claudia Roth for Bündnis 90/Die Grünen.


Climate

Augsburg has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: ''Cfb'') or, following the 0 °C isotherm, a humid continental climate (''Dfb'').


Main sights

* Augsburg Town Hall, Town Hall, built in 1620 in the Renaissance style with the Goldener Saal * Perlachturm, a bell tower built in 989 *
Fuggerei The Fuggerei is the world's oldest social housing complex still in use. It is a walled enclave within the city of Augsburg, Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of B ...

Fuggerei
, the oldest social housing estate in the world, inhabited since 1523 * Fuggerhäuser (Fugger houses), restored renaissance palatial homes of the Fugger banking family * Bishop's Residence, built about 1750 in order to replace the older bishop's palace; today the administrative seat of Swabia * Cathedral of Augsburg, Cathedral, founded in the 9th century * St. Anne's Church, Augsburg, St. Anne's Church, medieval church building that was originally part of a monastery built in 1321 *St. Mary's Syriac Orthodox Church on the Zusamstraße in Lechhausen, built 1998 by Suryoye (Assyrian people, Assyrians) * Augsburg Synagogue, one of the few German synagogues to survive the war, now restored and open with a Jewish museum inside * Augsburg textile and industry museum-or just ''tim'', organises it displays under headings Mensch-Maschine-Muster-Mode. * Schaezlerpalais, a Rococo mansion (1765) now housing a major art museum * St. Ulrich's and St. Afra's Abbey, Augsburg, St. Ulrich and St. Afra—one church is Roman Catholic, the other Evangelical Church in Germany, Lutheran, the duality being a result of the
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman E ...
concluded in 1555 between Catholics and Protestants * Mozart Haus Augsburg (where composer's father
Leopold Mozart Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a German composer, conductor, music teacher Music education is a field of practice, in which educators are trained for careers as primary education, elementary or secondary e ...

Leopold Mozart
was born and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mozart visited it several times) * Augsburger Puppenkiste, a puppet theatre * Luther Stiege, museum located in a church, that shows Martin Luthers life and different rooms. (free admission) * Eiskanal, the world's first artificial whitewater course (venue for the whitewater events of the 1972 Munich Olympics) * Dorint Hotel Tower * Childhood home of Bertolt Brecht * The Augsburg Botanical Gardens (Botanischer Garten Augsburg) * Maximillian Museum * Bahnpark Augsburg home of 29 historic locomotives, blacksmith, historic roundhouse * 3 magnificent renaissance fountains, the Agustus Fountain, Mercury Fountain and Hercules Fountain from 15th century, build for the 1500 anniversary of city foundation * Walter Art Museum at the ''Glas Palast'' ("Glas-Palace") * Roman Museum located in the former Monastery of St. Margaret (closed at the moment due to risk of collapsing). Renovation is taking place and the museum is expected to reopen in 2017. * Medieval canals, used to run numerous industries, medieval arms production, silver art, sanitation and water pumping * Kulturhaus Abraxas Fuenfgratturm1.JPG, ''Fünfgratturm'' tower Germany Augsburg Dom-St-Maria Door Handle.jpg, Ring of Mercy on the Dom (Cathedral) St. Maria Augsburg Synagoge.jpg, Augsburg Synagogue Augsburg - st ulrich u afra.jpg, St. Ulrich and St. Afra Cathedral Rechtfertigungslehre St.-Anna Augsburg.jpg, Plaque commemorating the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification at St. Anne's Church, Augsburg, St. Anne's Church


Urban legends


Goddess Cisa and the Stadtpir

The pagan goddess Zisa (goddess), Cisa has been linked to the civic emblem of Augsburg, known as Stadtpir. Cisa and the Stadtpir came to represent the prosperity of the city. The Stadtpir was stamped on cloth that was approved by the town cloth inspector. Metalworks produced in the city were also stamped with the Stadtpir. The Stadtpir adorns the 17th century town hall.


The Stoinerne Ma

The "Stoinerne Ma" ("Stony Man") is a life-size stone figure on the eastern Augsburg city wall in the area of the so-called "Sweden staircase", which is located in the immediate vicinity of the Galluskirche and St. Stephan convent (on the outside of the city wall). It is probably a one-armed baker with a loaf of bread and a shield. In the area of the feet there is a helically twisted pedestal. According to the legend, it is the baker "Konrad Hackher" who, during a long siege of the city, baked bread from sawdust and threw it into the ditch clearly visible for the besiegers over the city wall. The impression that Augsburg would still have so much bread that one could throw it over the wall is said to have demoralized the besiegers so much that they fired at him with a crossbow out of anger. A hit struck off his arm, and soon afterwards the siege was broken off. Historically, the event belongs to the Thirty Years' War, more precisely to the siege of Augsburg during the years 1634/35, when Catholic Bavarian troops under Field Marshal von Wahl wanted to recapture the city occupied by the Protestant Swedes. The baker's deed is not reliably proven. The statue is often visited by walkers strolling along the city wall. As it is said to be a fortunate thing to touch the stone figure's iron nose. This custom is particularly popular with lovers.


= Bei den sieben Kindeln

= In the wall of the property ''Bei den Sieben Kindeln 3'' ("At the seven infants 3") there is a recessed stone relief from the Roman period. Legend says that the commemorative plaque was commissioned by a Roman Empire, Roman officer to commemorate the drowning of one of his children (therefore it is said to be "seven" children, although the plaque represents only six: the seventh child is drowned and lies in the coffin). According to current knowledge, the plate once formed the long side of a Sarcophagus.


Lazarethe plague houses

The city of Augsburg had two civic plague houses. The two civic plague houses, called ''Lazarethe'', were established when the black death first appeared in Augsburg in 1349. Thereafter they were opened whenever a plague epidemic occurred in the city. As soon as a medical practitioner, such as a barber surgeon, diagnosed the plague the patients were transferred to the plague houses by order of the city council. The transfer to the plague houses was publicly announced, so as to prevent panic and the breakdown of economic life. In the second half of the 18th century, the plague houses were used to treat other diseases, such as smallpox and scurvy.


Incorporations


Population


Historical development

1 = Census result


Twin towns – sister cities

Augsburg is Sister city, twinned with: * Amagasaki, Japan (1959) * Bourges, France (1963) * Dayton, Ohio, Dayton, United States (1964) * Inverness, Scotland, UK (1956) * Jinan, China (2004) * Liberec, Czech Republic (2001) * Nagahama, Shiga, Nagahama, Japan (1959)


Transport


Roads

The main road link is autobahn Bundesautobahn 8, A 8 between
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria Bavaria (; german: Bayern, , officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no, ; bar, Freistoot Bayern, link=no), is a ...

Munich
and Stuttgart.


Public transport

Public transport is very well catered for. It is controlled by the Augsburger Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund (Augsburg transport and tariff association, AVV) extended over central Swabia. There are seven rail Regionalbahn lines, five tram lines, 27 city bus lines and six night bus lines, as well as several taxi companies. The Trams in Augsburg, Augsburg tramway network is now 35.5 km-long after the opening of new lines to the University of Augsburg, university in 1996, the northern city boundary in 2001 and to the Klinikum Augsburg (Augsburg hospital) in 2002. Tram line 6, which runs 5.2 km from Friedberg West to Hauptbahnhof (Central Station), opened in December 2010.


Intercity bus

There is one station for intercity bus services in Augsburg: Augsburg Nord, located in the north of the city.


Railway

Augsburg has seven stations, the Augsburg Central Station, Central Station (''Hauptbahnhof''), Augsburg-Hochzoll station, Hochzoll, Augsburg-Oberhausen station, Oberhausen, Augsburg Haunstetterstraße station, Haunstetterstraße, Augsburg Morellstraße station, Morellstraße, Augsburg Messe station, Messe and Augsburg-Inningen, Inningen. The Central Station, built from 1843 to 1846, is Germany's oldest main station in a large city still providing services in the original building. It is currently being modernized and an underground tram station is built underneath it. Augsburg Hauptbahnhof, Hauptbahnhof is on the Munich–Augsburg railway, Munich–Augsburg and Ulm–Augsburg railway, Ulm–Augsburg lines and is connected by InterCityExpress, ICE and InterCity, IC services to
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria Bavaria (; german: Bayern, , officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no, ; bar, Freistoot Bayern, link=no), is a ...

Munich
, Berlin, Dortmund, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Stuttgart. As of December 2007, the French TGV connected Augsburg with a direct High Speed Connection to Paris. In addition EuroCity, EC and night train services connect to Amsterdam, Paris and Vienna and connections will be substantially improved by the creation of the planned Magistrale for Europe. The AVV operates seven Regionalbahn lines from the main station to: * Mammendorf * Schmiechen (direction to Ammersee) * Aichach/Kühbach, Radersdorf * Meitingen/Donauwörth * Dinkelscherben * Schwabmünchen * Klosterlechfeld Starting in 2008, the regional services are planned to be altered to S-Bahn frequencies and developed long term as integrated into the Augsburg S-Bahn.


Air transport

Until 2005 Augsburg was served by nearby Augsburg Airport (AGB). In that year all air passenger transport was relocated to Munich Airport. Since then, the airport is used almost entirely by business airplanes.


Economy

Augsburg is a vibrant industrial city. Many global market leaders namely MAN SE, MAN, EADS or KUKA produce high technology products like printing systems, large diesel engines, industrial robots or components for the Airbus A380 and the Ariane (rocket family), Ariane carrier rocket. After
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria Bavaria (; german: Bayern, , officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no, ; bar, Freistoot Bayern, link=no), is a ...

Munich
, Augsburg is considered the high-tech centre for Information and communications technology, Information and Communication in Bavaria and takes advantage of its lower operating costs, yet close proximity to Munich and potential customers. In 2018 the Bavarian State Government recognized this fact and promoted Augsburg to ''Metropole''.


Major companies

* Boewe Systec * Faurecia * Fujitsu Technology Solutions * KUKA Robotics / Systems * MAN SE, MAN (Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg) * MAN Roland, manroland * MT-Aerospace (former ''MAN Technologie'') * NCR Corporation, NCR * Osram * Premium AEROTEC * RENK AG (offshoot of MAN SE) * Siemens * UPM-Kymmene (former Haindl) * WashTec (former Kleindienst) * Synlab Group * Cancom * Check24 * Amazon.com, Amazon * Patrizia Immobilien


Water Management System

The water systems of Augsburg were built between the 14th century and today. A network of canals, water towers, pumping equipment and hydroelectric power stations have provided drinking water and power for the city for centuries. On 6 July 2019, the Water Management System of Augsburg was designated a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
.


Education

Augsburg is home to the following universities and colleges: * University of Augsburg, founded in 1970 * Augsburg University of Applied Sciences, Hochschule Augsburg (University of Applied Sciences, formerly Fachhochschule Augsburg)


Media

The local newspaper is the ''Augsburger Allgemeine'' first published in 1807.


Notable people

*died 304 Saint Afra *died 807 Simpert *c.890–973 Ulrich of Augsburg, Saint Ulrich *1070–1127 Gualfardo of Verona, Saint Wolfhard *1398–1469 Jakob Fugger the Elder *1442–1528 Erhard Ratdolt Printer, famous for having produced the first known printers type specimen book. *1459–1525
Jakob Fugger Jakob Fugger ''of the Lily'' (german: Jakob Fugger von der Lilie) (6 March 1459 – 30 December 1525), also known as Jakob Fugger ''the Rich'' or sometimes Jakob II, was a major Germans, German merchant, mining entrepreneur, and banker. He was a d ...
Noted banker and financial broker. An area within the city, called the
Fuggerei The Fuggerei is the world's oldest social housing complex still in use. It is a walled enclave within the city of Augsburg, Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of B ...

Fuggerei
was set aside for the poor and needy. Founded in 1519. *1460–1524
Hans Holbein the Elder Hans Holbein the Elder ( , ; german: Hans Holbein der Ältere; – 1524) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For c ...
, a pioneer in the transformation of German art from the gothic art, Gothic to the Renaissance style. *1497–1543 Hans Holbein the Younger, portrait and religious painter. *1497–c.1574 Matthäus Schwarz, accountant and author *1517–1579 Paulus Hector Mair, martial artist. *1573–1646 Elias Holl, architect *1578–1647 Philipp Hainhofer, merchant, banker, diplomat and art collector. *1580–1627 Julius Schiller, lawyer and astronomer. *1589-1643 Johann Georg Wirsung, anatomist *1701–1776 Andreas Christoph Graf, German teacher, author and poet. *1704–1767 Johann Jakob Haid, engraver. *1719–1787
Leopold Mozart Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a German composer, conductor, music teacher Music education is a field of practice, in which educators are trained for careers as primary education, elementary or secondary e ...

Leopold Mozart
, violinist-composer and father of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. *1740–1786 Christoph Christian Sturm, preacher and author. *1822–1908 Eduard Bayer, composer and classical guitarist. *1858–1913 Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the diesel engine. *1871–1949 Albert Rehm, philologist who first understood the significance of the Antikythera mechanism *1873–1964 Hans von Euler-Chelpin, co-recipient of 1929 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. *1878-1956 Karl Haberstock, Art dealer to the Nazis. *1879-1961 Artur Lauinger, German journalist *1885-1946 Julius Streicher, prominent Nazi prior to World War II, founder and publisher of anti-Semitic ''Der Stürmer'' newspaper, executed for war crimes *1887–1943 Julius Schaxel, biologist *1895–1946 Hans Loritz, Nazi SS concentration camp commandant *1898–1956 Bertolt Brecht, writer and theater director *1901-1947 August Schmidhuber, Nazi SS officer executed for war crimes *1908–1944 Wilhelm Gerstenmeier, SS concentration camp officer executed for war crimes *1915–1961 Josef Priller, Luftwaffe ace *1920–2011 Mietek Pemper, Polish-born Jew compiled and typed Oskar Schindler's list, which saved 1,200 Jewish prisoners from the Holocaust. *1926–2015 Günther Schneider-Siemssen, scenic designer *1927–1956 Werner Haas, Grand Prix motorcycle road racer *1933–2011 Ulrich Biesinger, former German footballer, part of the team that won the 1954 FIFA World Cup *1939–2012 Helmut Haller, football (soccer), footballer who represented Germany national football team, West Germany at three Football World Cup, World Cups *1944 Hans Henning Atrott, German author and theorist *1948 Wolf Blitzer, American journalist and CNN reporter *1957 Bernhard Langer, professional golfer. *1958 Günther K.H. Zupanc, neurobiologist, researcher, university teacher, book author, journal editor, and educational reformer *1959 Bernd Schuster, soccer, football coach and former player *1961 Armin Veh, soccer, football coach. *1967 Sheryl Lee, actress, poet, and activist. *1968 Alexander Wesselsky, lead singer of the German band Eisbrecher *1977 Marisa Olson, artist *1980 Benny Greb, solo drum artist *1983 Andreas Bourani, singer-songwriter *1983 Philipp Kohlschreiber, tennis player *1985 Bianca Voitek, female bodybuilder *1986 Maximilian Hornung, cellist *1989 Stefan Bradl, motorcycle racer *1989 Johnny Cecotto Jr., racing career


Sports

FC Augsburg is a football team based in Augsburg and plays in the WWK ARENA to the south of the city centre. FC Augsburg secured promotion to Bundesliga in 2011 and have remained there ever since, qualifying for the Europa League for the first time in 2015 and securing mid-table finishes across the last few seasons. The club, nicknamed the Fuggerstädter or simply as FCA, reached the last 32 in the 2015-16 Europa League with a 1-0 aggregate defeat to Liverpool. The WWK ARENA, nicknamed the “Anfield of the B17 Highway” following the Liverpool UEL match, opened in July 2009 and also hosted games of the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. The 30,660 capacity arena is easily accessible from the city centre or the adjacent B17 dual carriageway. The city is home to a Deutsche Eishockey Liga, DEL (first-division) ice hockey team, the Augsburger Panther. The original club, AEV, was formed in 1878, the oldest German ice sport club and regularly draws around 4000 spectators, quite reasonable for German ice hockey. Home games are played at the Curt Frenzel Stadion: a recently rebuilt (2012–2013) indoor rink and modern stadium and the club reached the 2018/19 DEL semi finals, eventually losing in the winner-takes-all game 7 to EHC Red Bull München (4-3 series defeat). Consequently, the Panthers qualified for the Champions Hockey League. Augsburg is also home to one of the most traditional German Baseball clubs, the Augsburg Gators and 2 American Football Clubs, the Raptors and Augsburg Storm, and in nearby Königsbrunn there's the Königsbrunn Ants. For the 1972 Summer Olympics, 1972 Olympic Games in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria Bavaria (; german: Bayern, , officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no, ; bar, Freistoot Bayern, link=no), is a ...

Munich
, a Lech River dam protective diversionary canal for river ice was converted into the world's first artificial whitewater slalom course: the Eiskanal and remains a world-class venue for whitewater competition and served as prototype for two dozen similar foreign courses.


Local city nicknames

While commonly called ''Fuggerstadt'' (Fuggers' city) due to the Fuggers residing there, within Swabia it is also often referred to as ''Datschiburg'': which originated sometime in the 19th century refers to Augsburg's favorite sweet: the ''Datschi'' made from fruit, preferably prunes, and thin cake dough. The ''Datschiburger Kickers'' charity football team (founded in 1965) reflects this in its choice of team name.Augsburger Stadtlexikon – ''Datschiburger Kickers''
accessed: 18 November 2008 Among younger people, the city is commonly called "Aux" for short.


See also

* Augsburg University, a private Lutheran College in Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA) that takes its name from the
Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, ''Confessio Augustana'', is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Protestant Reform ...
* League of Augsburg * List of civic divisions of Augsburg * List of mayors of Augsburg * Synods of Augsburg


Notes


References

* ''Die Chroniken der schwäbischen Städte, Augsburg'', (Leipzig, 1865–1896). * Werner, ''Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg'', (Augsburg, 1900). * Lewis, "The Roman Antiquities of Augsburg and Ratisbon", in volume xlviii, ''Archæological Journal'', (London, 1891). * Michael Schulze, ''Augsburg in one day. A city tour'' Lehmstedt Verlag, Leipzig 2015, .


Bibliography


External links


Stadt Augsburg
Official site (English version)
Augsburg Tourism
Official tourism portal for Augsburg region *

*
District of Augsburg

Hydraulic Engineering and Hydropower, Drinking Water and Decorative Fountains in Augsburg
{{Authority control Augsburg, Roman towns and cities in Germany 15 BC establishments Venues of the 1972 Summer Olympics Displaced persons camps in the aftermath of World War II 1270s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire 1276 establishments in Europe 1803 disestablishments in the Holy Roman Empire Free imperial cities States and territories established in 1276 States and territories disestablished in 1803 World Heritage Sites in Germany