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Auckland ( mi, Tāmaki Makaurau) is a large metropolitan city in the of . The in the country, Auckland has an urban population of about It is located in the —the area governed by —which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the , and which has a total population of . While continue to make up the plurality of Auckland's population, the city became and in the late-20th century, with accounting for 31% of the city's population in 2018. Auckland is also home to the largest population in the world. The name for Auckland is ', meaning "Tāmaki desired by many", in reference to the desirability of its natural resources and geography. Auckland lies between the to the east, the to the south-east, the to the south-west, and the and smaller ranges to the west and north-west. The surrounding hills are covered in and the landscape is dotted with 53 volcanic cones. The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow between the Manukau Harbour on the and the on the . Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water. The on which Auckland sits was first settled and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a was established in New Zealand in 1840, , then Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose Auckland as its new . He named the area for , British . Māori–European conflict over land in the region led to war in the mid-19th century. In 1865, Auckland was replaced by as the capital, but continued to grow, initially because of its port and the logging and gold-mining activities in its hinterland, and later because of pastoral farming (especially dairy farming) in the surrounding area, and manufacturing in the city itself. It has been the nation's largest city throughout most of its history. Today, is New Zealand's leading economic hub. The , founded in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. The city's significant tourist attractions include national historic sites, festivals, performing arts, sports activities, and a variety of cultural institutions, such as the , the , and the ). Its architectural landmarks include the , the , the and the . The city is served by , which handles around 2 million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most cities in the world, Auckland is recognised as one of the world's , ranked third in the 2019 Mercer Quality of Living Survey.


History


Early history

The isthmus was settled by circa 1350, and was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many ' (fortified villages) were created, mainly on the volcanic peaks. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in , upset the balance of power and led to devastating beginning in 1807, causing who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids. As a result, the region had relatively low numbers of Māori when settlement by began. On 20 March 1840 in the area where farmed, signed ''Te Tiriti o Waitangi'' the . Ngāti Whātua sought British protection from as well as a reciprocal relationship with the and the . Soon after signing the Treaty, Te Kawau offered land on the to the new Governor of New Zealand, , for his new , which Hobson named for , then .

'' – ', 25 November 1990
Auckland was founded on 18 September 1840 and was officially declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, and the transfer of the administration from Russell (now ) in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842. However, even in 1840 (later renamed ) was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the , and Wellington became the capital in 1865. After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first arrived in 1848, the had concluded. Outlying defensive towns were then constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of in the west to in the east. Each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers; the men were fully armed in case of emergency, but spent nearly all their time breaking in the land and establishing roads. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the , and the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, and into the , enabled (European New Zealanders) influence to spread from Auckland. The city's population grew fairly rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845, then to 12,423 by 1864. The growth occurred similarly to other -dominated cities, mainly around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the population was Irish, which contrasted heavily with the majority English settlers in Wellington, or . Most of the Irish (though not all) were from . The majority of settlers in the early period were assisted by receiving cheap passage to New Zealand.


Modern history

Trams and railway lines shaped Auckland's rapid expansion in the early first half of the 20th century. However, after the Second World War the city's transport system and urban form became increasingly dominated by the motor vehicle. Arterial roads and motorways became both defining and geographically dividing features of the urban landscape. They also allowed further massive expansion that resulted in the growth of suburban areas such as the (especially after the construction of the in the late 1950s), and in the south. Economic deregulation in the mid-1980s led to dramatic changes to Auckland's economy and many companies relocated their head offices from Wellington to Auckland. The region was now the nerve centre of the national economy. Auckland also benefited from a surge in tourism, which brought 75 percent of New Zealand's international visitors through its airport. Auckland's port handled 31 percent of the country's container trade in 2015. The face of urban Auckland changed when the government's immigration policy began allowing immigrants from Asia in 1986. According to the 1961 census data, Māori and Pacific Islanders comprised 5 percent of Auckland's population; Asians less than 1 percent. By 2006 the Asian population had reached 18.0 percent in Auckland, and 36.2 percent in the central city. New arrivals from Hong Kong, and gave a distinctive character to the areas where they clustered, while a range of other immigrants introduced mosques, temples, butchers and ethnic restaurants to the suburbs.


Geography


Scope

The boundaries of Auckland are imprecisely defined. The Auckland , as it is defined by under the ''Statistical Standard for Geographic Areas 2018'' (SSGA18), spans 607.07 km2 (234.39 sq mi) and extends to in the north, in the north-west, and Runciman in the south. The is considered an urban area in its own right under SSGA18, having been included as part of the Auckland urban area under the previous standard (the ''New Zealand Statistical Area Classification 1992'' or NZSAC92). Auckland forms . The Auckland urban area lies within the , an administrative region that takes its name from the city. The region encompasses the city centre, as well as suburbs, surrounding towns, nearshore islands, and rural areas north and south of the urban area. The (CBD)—the city centre—is the most area of the region. The CBD covers 433 hectares in a triangular area, and is bounded by the on the Waitematā Harbour and the inner-city suburbs of , and . Auckland's is made up of over two hundred suburban areas. The outermost suburbs are in the north, in the south, in the west and in the east. Beyond these suburbs lie the towns of , and to the north, and , and to the south.


Harbours, gulf and rivers

Auckland lies on and around an , less than two kilometres wide at its narrowest point, between and the . There are two harbours surrounding this isthmus: to the north, which opens east to the and thence to the , and to the south, which opens west to the . The total coastline of Auckland is long. Bridges span parts of both harbours, notably the crossing the Waitematā Harbour west of the central business district. The and the span the upper reaches of the Manukau and Waitematā Harbours, respectively. In earlier times, paths crossed the narrowest sections of the isthmus. Several islands of the Hauraki Gulf are administered as part of the Auckland Region, though they are not part of the Auckland urban area. Parts of effectively function as Auckland suburbs, while various smaller islands near Auckland are mostly zoned 'recreational open space' or are nature sanctuaries. Auckland also has a total length of approximately of rivers and streams, about 8 percent of these in urban areas.


Climate

Under the , Auckland has an (Köppen climate classification ''Cfb''), while according to the (NIWA), its climate is classified as with warm humid summers and mild damp winters. It is the warmest main centre of New Zealand and is also one of the sunniest, with an average of 2,003.1 sunshine hours per annum. The average daily maximum temperature is in February and in July. The absolute maximum recorded temperature is on 12 February 2009, while the absolute minimum is , although there is also an unofficial low of recorded at in June 1936. is extremely rare: the most significant fall since the start of the 20th century was on 27 July 1939, when snow stuck to the clothes of people outdoors just before dawn and of snow reportedly lay on . Snowflakes were also seen on 28 July 1930 and 15 August 2011. The early morning calm on the isthmus during settled weather, before the sea breeze rises, was described as early as 1853: "In all seasons, the beauty of the day is in the early morning. At that time, generally, a solemn stillness holds, and a perfect calm prevails...".''Auckland, the Capital of New Zealand'' – , Smith Elder, 1853 Auckland occasionally suffers from air pollution due to emissions. There are also occasional breaches of guideline levels of . While maritime winds normally disperse the pollution relatively quickly it can sometimes become visible as smog, especially on calm winter days.


Volcanoes

Auckland straddles a volcanic field, which has produced about 90 volcanic eruptions from 50 volcanoes in the last 90,000 years. It is the only city in the world built on a basaltic volcanic field that is still active. It is estimated that the field will stay active for about one million years. Surface features include cones, lakes, lagoons, islands and depressions, and several have produced extensive . Some of the cones and flows have been partly or completely away. The individual volcanoes are all considered extinct, although the volcanic field itself is merely . The trend is for the latest eruptions to occur in the northwest of the field. Auckland has at least 14 large s which run from the volcanoes down towards the sea. Some are several kilometres long. A new suburb, , has been built in an excavated lava flow, northwest of , that was previously used as a quarry by Winstones. Auckland's volcanoes are fuelled entirely by , unlike the explosive -driven in the central North Island, such as at and which are of tectonic origin.Ian E.M. Smith and Sharon R. Allen.
Auckland volcanic field geology
''. Volcanic Hazards Working Group, Civil Defence Scientific Advisory Committee. Retrieved 30 March 2013. Also published in print as ''Volcanic hazards at the Auckland volcanic field''. 1993.
The most recent and by far the largest volcano, , was formed within the last 1000 years, and its eruptions destroyed the Māori settlements on neighbouring some 700 years ago. Rangitoto's size, its symmetry, its position guarding the entrance to and its visibility from many parts of the Auckland region make it Auckland's most iconic natural feature. Because of its rich acidic soil and the type of flora growing out of the rocky soil, only a few birds and insects inhabit the island.


Demographics

The Auckland urban area, as defined by Statistics New Zealand, covers . The urban area has an estimated population of as of , percent of . The city has a population larger than the entire (). The Auckland urban area had a usual resident population of 1,346,091 at the , an increase of 122,343 people (10.0%) since the , and an increase of 212,484 people (18.7%) since the . There were 665,202 males and 680,886 females, giving a sex ratio of 0.977 males per female. Of the total population, 269,367 people (20.0%) were aged up to 15 years, 320,181 (23.8%) were 15 to 29, 605,823 (45.0%) were 30 to 64, and 150,720 (11.2%) were 65 or older.


Culture and identity

have a presence in Auckland, making it by far the country's most city. Historically, Auckland's population has been of majority origin, though the proportion of those of Asian or other non-European origins has increased in recent decades due to the . Europeans continue to make up the plurality of the city's population, but no longer constitute a majority after decreasing in proportion from 54.6% to 48.1% between the 2013 and 2018 censuses. now form the second-largest ethnic group, making up nearly one-third of the population. Auckland is home to the largest ethnic n population of any city in the world, with a sizable population of and indigenous . At the 2018 census, 647,811 people (48.1%) living in the Auckland urban area were European/Pākehā, 424,917 (31.6%) were Asian, 235,086 (17.5%) were Pacific peoples, 154,620 (11.5%) were Māori, 33,672 (2.5%) were Middle Eastern, Latin American and/or African (MELAA), and 13,914 (1.0%) were other ethnicities (totals add to more than 100% since people could identify with multiple ethnicities). Immigration to New Zealand is heavily concentrated towards Auckland (partly for job market reasons). This strong focus on Auckland has led the immigration services to award extra points towards immigration visa requirements for people intending to move to other parts of New Zealand. Immigration from overseas into Auckland is partially offset by net emigration of people from Auckland to other regions of New Zealand, mainly and . In the year to June 2020, 36,700 people (net) immigrated to Auckland from overseas, while 12,600 people (net) emigrated from Auckland to other regions of New Zealand, giving a total net migration of 24,100 people. At the 2018 Census, 41.6 percent of the Auckland region's population were born overseas; in the local board areas of Upper Harbour, Waitemata, Puketapapa and Howick, overseas-born residents outnumbered those born in New Zealand. Auckland is home to over half (50.7 percent) of New Zealand's overseas-born population, including 70 percent of the country's Pacific Island and Northeast Asian-born populations, and 61 percent of its Middle Eastern and North African-born population, and 60 percent of its Southern and Central Asian-born population.


Religion

Around 48.5 percent of Aucklanders at the 2013 census affiliated with Christianity and 11.7 percent affiliated with non-Christian religions, while 37.8 percent of the population were and 3.8 percent objected to answering. is the largest Christian denomination with 13.3 percent affiliating, followed by (9.1 percent) and (7.4 percent). Recent immigration from Asia has added to the religious diversity of the city, increasing the number of people affiliating with , , and , although there are no figures on religious attendance. There is also a small, community.


Future growth

Auckland is experiencing substantial population growth via natural population increases (one-third of growth) and immigration (two-thirds), and is set to grow to an estimated 1.9 million inhabitants by 2031Executive Summary
(from the Auckland Regional Growth Strategy document, , November 1999. Retrieved 14 October 2007.)
Mapping Trends in the Auckland Region
, 2010. Retrieved 2010)
in a medium-variant scenario. This substantial increase in population will have a major impact on transport, housing and other infrastructure that are, particularly in the case of housing, already considered under pressure. The high-variant scenario shows the region's population growing to over two million by 2031. In July 2016, Auckland Council released, as the outcome of a three-year study and public hearings, its Unitary Plan for Auckland. The plan aims to free up to 30 percent more land for housing and allows for greater intensification of the existing urban area, creating 422,000 new dwellings in the next 30 years.


Culture and lifestyle

Auckland's lifestyle is influenced by the fact that while it is 70 percent rural in land area, 90 percent of Aucklanders live in urban areas – though large parts of these areas have a more suburban character than many cities in Europe and Asia. Positive aspects of Auckland life are its mild climate, plentiful employment and educational opportunities, as well as numerous leisure facilities. Meanwhile, traffic problems, the lack of good public transport, and increasing housing costs have been cited by many Aucklanders as among the strongest negative factors of living there,Central Transit Corridor Project
( website, includes mention of effects of transport on public satisfaction)
together with crime. Nonetheless, Auckland ranked third in a survey of the quality of life of 215 major cities of the world (2015 data).
(. Retrieved 2 May 2009).


Leisure

One of Auckland's nicknames, the "City of Sails", is derived from the popularity of sailing in the region. 135,000 s and are registered in Auckland, and around 60,500 of the country's 149,900 registered yachtsmen are from Auckland, with about one in three Auckland households owning a boat. The , on the western edge of the CBD, hosted two challenges ( and ). The Waitematā Harbour is home to several notable yacht clubs and marinas, including the and , the largest of the . The Waitematā Harbour has several swimming beaches, including and on the south side of the harbour, and Stanley Bay on the north side. On the eastern coastline of the North Shore, where the Rangitoto Channel divides the inner Hauraki Gulf islands from the mainland, there are popular swimming beaches at Cheltenham and Narrow Neck in , , , and the various beaches further north in the area known as East Coast Bays. The west coast has popular surf beaches such as , and . The , , and , to the north of the main urban area, are also nearby. Many Auckland beaches are patrolled by clubs, such as the home of . All surf lifesaving clubs are part of the . , , , , and are major retail areas. Major markets include those held in and on weekend mornings. A number of shopping centres are located in the middle- and outer-suburbs, with , , and being the largest.


Arts

A number of arts events are held in Auckland, including the , the Auckland Triennial, the , and the . The is the city and region's resident full-time symphony orchestra, performing its own series of concerts and accompanying opera and ballet. Events celebrating the city's cultural diversity include the , Polyfest, and the , all of which are the largest of their kind in New Zealand. Additionally, Auckland regularly hosts the and . Auckland is part of the in the category of music. Important institutions include the , , , , and the . The Auckland Art Gallery is the largest stand-alone gallery in New Zealand with a collection of over 15,000 artworks, including prominent New Zealand and Pacific Island artists, as well as international painting, and print collections ranging in date from 1376 to the present day. In 2009 the Gallery was promised a gift of fifteen works of art by New York art collectors and philanthropists – including well-known paintings by , , , and . This is the largest gift ever made to an art museum in Australasia.


Parks and nature

is one of the largest parks in the city, close to the and having a good view of the and . Smaller parks close to the city centre are , , and . While most volcanic cones in the have been affected by quarrying, many of the remaining cones are now within parks, and retain a more natural character than the surrounding city. Prehistoric earthworks and historic fortifications are in several of these parks, including , and . Other parks around the city are in , which has a large park bordering the museum and the . The are further south, in . Ferries provide transport to parks and nature reserves at , , Rangitoto Island and . The Regional Park to the west of Auckland has relatively unspoiled territory, as do the to the south.


Sport


Major sporting venues

, , , (soccer) and are widely played and followed. Auckland has a considerable number of rugby union and cricket grounds, and venues for association football, netball, rugby league, basketball, hockey, ice hockey, motorsports, tennis, badminton, swimming, rowing, golf and many other sports. There are also three within the city - ( and Avondale for thoroughbred racing, and for ). A fourth racecourse is located at , straddling the boundary between Auckland and the neighbouring . is held at Manukau Stadium. * is the city's primary stadium and a frequent home for international and matches, in addition to matches where the play their home games. It is also the home ground of in the , and in domestic cricket. * is used mainly for matches and is home to the of the , and is also used for concerts, previously hosting the Auckland leg of the music festival every January as well as the . * is mainly used for and matches, but is also used for concerts. It is the home ground for in the . In 2019 it became the home field of New Zealand's only professional baseball team, . * is Auckland's primary tennis venue, hosting international tournaments for men and women () in January each year. ASB Bank took over the sponsorship of the men's tournament from 2016, the event formerly being known as the . * , previously known as Vector Arena is an indoor auditorium primarily used for concerts and is the home of the basketball team. It also hosts international . * is an indoor venue which primarily hosts netball matches, and is the home of the of the . It is also where the were held. Since 2015, an annual event on the has been held there. * is an indoor arena which is used for a variety of sporting events, as well as concerts and expos. It was formerly home to the and hosted much of the . * is an indoor arena which hosts a variety of events, and is the home of the netball team of the . * is a motorsports and thoroughbred horse-racing venue that hosts a leg of the series annually, along with other motorsports events. The most important horse-racing meeting is held annually at the end of November, featuring the Group 2 Counties Cup and three other stakes races. * has since 1929 hosted during the summer. It also hosts concerts, with many of New Zealand's largest-ever concerts having taken place at the stadium. It is also the home of .


Major teams

Sporting teams based in Auckland who compete in national or trans-national competitions are as follows: * Formerly Auckland Blues, the compete in . Auckland is also home to three rugby union teams: , and . * Previously Auckland Warriors, the are a team in Australia's competition. They play their home games at . The and compete in the . * Auckland's men's first class cricket team, the , play their home matches at , generally on the outer oval. The women's team, the , play at Melville Park in . * , , and football teams play in the . * and are netball teams who compete in the . The Mystics play their home games at and the Stars at the . * are a basketball team who compete in the and play their home games primarily at . The and play in the . * and compete in the . * compete in the .


Major events

Annual sporting events held in Auckland include: * The and the (both known for sponsorship reasons as the ASB Classic), are men's and women's tennis tournaments, respectively, which are held annually at the in January. The men's tournament has been held since 1956, and the women's tournament since 1986. * The (known for sponsorship reasons as the ITM Auckland Super 400) is a race held at . The race has been held intermittently since 1996 * The (and half-marathon) is an annual . It is the largest marathon in New Zealand and draws in the vicinity of 15,000 entrants. It has been held annually since 1992. * The is a sailing regatta which has been held annually since 1840, the year of Auckland's founding. It is held over weekend and attracts several hundred entrants each year. It is the largest such regatta, and the oldest sporting event, in New Zealand. * is an annual carnival, which has been held in early March since its inception in 2006. It is the richest such carnival in New Zealand, and incorporates several of New Zealand's major thoroughbred horse races, including the , held since 1874, and , held since 1875. * The is an annual summer swimming event. The swim crosses the , from the North Shore to the covering 2.8 km (often with some considerable counter-currents). The event has been held since 2004 and attracts over a thousand mostly amateur entrants each year, making it New Zealand's largest ocean swim. * Round the Bays is an annual . The course travels eastwards along the Auckland waterfront, with the run starting in the and ending in , the total length being . It is the largest fun-run in New Zealand and attracts tens of thousands of entrants each year, with the number of entrants reported to have peaked at 80,000 in 1982. It has been held annually since . Major events previously held in Auckland include the and the , and a number of matches (including the semi-finals and the final) of the and . Auckland hosted the and in and , and is scheduled to host the . The were held at the . The held a Grand Final event in the from 2012 until 2015. The was a preseason competition played at from 2014 to 2017. The 2017 were held at a number of venues around Auckland. The Auckland Darts Masters was held annually at from 2015 to 2018.


Architecture

Auckland comprises a diversity of architectural styles owing to its early beginnings as a settlement, to the era right through to the contemporary era of the late 20th century. The city has legislation in effect to protect the remaining heritage, with the key piece of legislation being the Resource Management Act of 1991. Prepared under this legislation is the Auckland Unitary Plan which indicates how land can be used or developed. Prominent historic buildings in Auckland include the , the , Guardian Trust Building, Old Customs House, Landmark House, the and the –many of these are located on the main thoroughfare of Queen Street.


Economy

Auckland is the major economic and financial centre of New Zealand. It has an advanced with strengths in finance, commerce, and tourism. Most major international corporations have an Auckland office; the most expensive office space is around lower and the in the , where many financial and business services are located, which make up a large percentage of the CBD economy.Auckland's CBD at a glance
(CBD website of the )
The largest commercial and industrial areas of the Auckland Region are Auckland CBD and the western parts of , mostly bordering the and the estuary. Auckland is classified by the as a Beta + because of its importance in commerce, , and education. According to the 2013 census, the primary employment industries of Auckland residents are professional, scientific and technical services (11.4 percent), manufacturing (9.9 percent), retail trade (9.7 percent), health care and social assistance (9.1 percent), and education and training (8.3 percent). Manufacturing is the largest employer in the Henderson-Massey, Howick, Māngere-Ōtāhuhu, Ōtara-Papatoetoe, Manurewa and Papakura local board areas, retail trade is the largest employer in the Whau local board area, while professional, scientific and technical services are the largest employer in the remaining urban local board areas. The sub-national GDP of the Auckland region was estimated at NZ$93.5 billion in 2016, 37.2 percent of New Zealand's national GDP. The per-capita GDP of Auckland was estimated at NZ$58,717, the third-highest in the country after the Taranaki and Wellington regions, and above the national average of NZ$54,178. In 2014, the median personal income (for all persons older than 15 years of age, per year) in Auckland was estimated at NZ$41,860, behind only Wellington.
(from ENZ emigration consulting)


Housing

Housing varies considerably between some suburbs having in the lower income neighbourhoods, to palatial waterfront estates, especially in areas close to the Waitematā Harbour. Traditionally, the most common residence of Aucklanders was a standalone dwelling on a '' (1,000 m2). However, subdividing such properties with 'infill housing' has long been the norm. Auckland's housing stock has become more diverse in recent decades, with many more apartments being built since the 1970s – particularly since the 1990s in the CBD. Nevertheless, the majority of Aucklanders live in single dwelling housing and are expected to continue to do so – even with most of future urban growth being through intensification. Auckland's housing is amongst the least affordable in the world, based on comparing average house prices with average household income levels and house prices have grown well above the rate of inflation in recent decades. In December 2020, the Real Estate Institute of New Zealand (REINZ) reported the median house price in the Auckland region was $1,040,000, ranging from $790,000 in the former Franklin District area to $1,280,000 in the former Auckland City area, This is compared to a median price of $630,000 outside of Auckland. There is significant public debate around why Auckland's housing is so expensive, often referring to a lack of land supply, the easy availability of credit for residential investment and Auckland's high level of liveability. In some areas, the Victorian s have been torn down to make way for redevelopment. The demolition of the older houses is being combated through increased heritage protection for older parts of the city. Auckland has been described as having 'the most extensive range of timbered housing with its classical details and mouldings in the world', many of them Victorian-Edwardian style houses.


Housing crisis

In the lead-up to 2010, a housing crisis began in Auckland with the market not being able to sustain the demand for affordable homes. The Housing Accords and Special Housing Areas Act 2013 mandated that a minimum of 10 percent of new builds in certain housing areas be subsidised to make them affordable for buyers who had incomes on par with the national average. In a new subdivision at Hobsonville Point, 20 percent of new homes were reduced to below $550,000. Some of the demand for new housing at this time was attributed to the 43,000 people who moved into Auckland between June 2014 and June 2015. Research has found that Auckland is set to become even more densely populated in future which could ease the burden by creating higher density housing in the city centre.


Government


Local

The Auckland Council is the with jurisdiction over the city of Auckland, along with surrounding rural areas, parkland, and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. From 1989 to 2010, Auckland was governed by several city and district councils, with regional oversight by . In the late 2000s, New Zealand's central government and parts of Auckland's society felt that this large number of councils, and the lack of strong regional government (with the Auckland Regional Council having only limited powers), were hindering Auckland's progress. A was set up in 2007, and in 2009 it recommended a unified local governance structure for Auckland by amalgamating the councils. The government subsequently announced that a "super city" would be set up with a single mayor by the time of New Zealand's local body elections in 2010. In October 2010, mayor was elected mayor of the amalgamated . He was re-elected for a second term in October 2013. Brown did not stand for re-election in the , and was succeeded by successful candidate in October 2016. Twenty councillors make up the remainder of the Auckland Council governing body, elected from thirteen electoral wards.


National

Between 1842 and 1865, Auckland was the capital city of New Zealand. Parliament met in what is now on the 's City campus. The capital was moved to the more centrally located in 1865. Auckland, because of its large population, is covered by 22 general electorates and three , each returning one member to the . The governing holds eleven general electorates and all three Māori electorates; the opposing holds nine general electorates; and and the hold one apiece ( and ).


Other

The administrative offices of the is situated in Auckland.


Education


Primary and secondary

The Auckland urban area has 340 primary schools, 80 secondary schools, and 29 composite (primary/secondary combined) schools as of February 2012, catering for nearly quarter of a million students. The majority are state schools, but 63 schools are state-integrated and 39 are private. The city is home to some of the largest schools in terms of students in New Zealand, including , the second largest school in New Zealand with a student population of 3035, and in the East Coast Bays area, the largest school in New Zealand with students as of


Tertiary

Auckland has a number of important educational institutions, including some of the largest universities in the country. Auckland is a major centre of overseas language education, with large numbers of foreign students (particularly East Asians) coming to the city for several months or years to learn English or study at universities – although numbers New Zealand-wide have dropped substantially since peaking in 2003. , there are around 50 (NZQA) certified schools and institutes teaching English in the Auckland area. Among the more important tertiary educational institutes are the , , , and .


Transport

The connects the different parts of Auckland, with being the major north–south thoroughfare through the city (including both the and ) and the main connection to the adjoining regions of and . The runs alongside part of the Northern Motorway on the North Shore. Other state highways within Auckland include (the Northwest Motorway), (the Upper Harbour Motorway) and (the Southwest Motorway). is a non-motorway rural arterial connecting to the Southern Motorway at . The , opened in 1959, is the main connection between the and the rest of the Auckland region. The bridge provides eight lanes of vehicle traffic and has a moveable median barrier for lane flexibility, but does not provide access for rail, pedestrians or cyclists. The , also called 'Spaghetti Junction' for its complexity, is the intersection between the two major motorways of Auckland (State Highway 1 and State Highway 16). Two of the longest arterial roads within the Auckland Region are and – the main connections in those directions before the construction of the State Highway network. Numerous arterial roads also provide regional and sub-regional connectivity, with many of these roads (especially on the isthmus) previously used to operate Auckland's . Auckland has four railway lines (, , and ). These lines serve the western, southern and eastern parts of Auckland from the in downtown Auckland, the terminal station for all lines, where connections are also available to ferry and bus services. Work began in late 2015 to provide more route flexibility and connect Britomart more directly to western suburbs on the Western Line via an underground rail tunnel known as the project. A is also planned.


Travel modes

;Road and rail Private vehicles are the main form of transportation within Auckland, with around seven percent of journeys in the Auckland region undertaken by bus in 2006, and two percent undertaken by train and ferry. For trips to the city centre at peak times the use of public transport is much higher, with more than half of trips undertaken by bus, train or ferry. Auckland still ranks quite low in its use of public transport, having only 46 public transport trips per capita per year, while Wellington has almost twice this number at 91, and Sydney has 114 trips. This strong roading focus results in substantial during peak times. This car reliance means 56% of the city's energy usage goes towards transportation and CO2 emissions will increase by 20% in the next 10 years. Bus services in Auckland are mostly radial, with few cross-town routes. Late-night services (i.e. past midnight) are limited, even on weekends. A major overhaul of Auckland's bus services was implemented during 2016–18, significantly expanding the reach of "frequent" bus services: those that operate at least every 15 minutes during the day and early evening, every day of the week. Auckland is connected with other cities through bus services operated by . Rail services operate along four lines between the CBD and the west, south and south-east of Auckland, with longer-distance trains operating to Wellington only a few times each week. Following the opening of in 2003, major investment in Auckland's rail network occurred, involving station upgrades, rolling stock refurbishment and infrastructure improvements. The rail upgrade has included , with electric trains constructed by commencing service in April 2014. A number of proposed projects to further extend Auckland's rail network were included in the 2012 Auckland Plan, including the , the , the and rail to the . ;Other modes are the second largest of the country, behind the , and a large part of both inbound and outbound New Zealand commerce travels through them, mostly via the facilities northeast of Auckland CBD. Freight usually arrives at or is distributed from the port via road, though the port facilities also have rail access. Auckland is a major cruise ship stopover point, with the ships usually tying up at . Auckland CBD is connected to coastal suburbs, to the North Shore and to outlying islands by ferry. ;Air Auckland has various small regional airports and , the busiest of the country. Auckland Airport, New Zealand's largest, is in the southern suburb of Māngere on the shores of the Manukau Harbour. There are frequent services to Australia, and to other New Zealand destinations. There are also direct connections to many locations in the South Pacific, as well as the United States, China, Asia, , , and . In terms of international flights, Auckland is the second-best connected city in Oceania. ;Policies Research at has indicated that from the 1950s to the 1980s, Auckland engaged in some of the most pro-automobile transport policies anywhere in the world.
Backtracking Auckland: Bureaucratic rationality and public preferences in transport planning
' – Mees, Paul; Dodson, Jago; Urban Research Program Issues Paper 5, , April 2006
With public transport declining heavily during the second half of the 20th century (a trend mirrored in most Western countries such as the US), and increased spending on roads and cars, New Zealand (and specifically Auckland) now has the second-highest vehicle ownership rate in the world, with around 578 vehicles per 1000 people.Sustainable Transport
North Shore City Council website
Auckland has also been called a very pedestrian- and cyclist-unfriendly city, though some efforts are being made to change this,
Big steps to change City of Cars
'' – ', Friday 24 October 2008
with Auckland being a major participant in the government's "Urban Cycleways" initiative, and with the "SkyPath" project for a walk and cycleway on the Auckland Harbour Bridge having received Council support, and planning consent.


Infrastructure and services


Electricity

For most of the 20th century, electricity distribution and retailing in Auckland was the responsibility of three electric power boards (EPBs): Waitemata, Auckland, and Franklin. The passing of the Energy Companies Act 1992 saw all three EPBs corporatised to become Power New Zealand, , and Counties Power respectively. The 1998 electricity sector reforms required electricity companies to split their lines and supply business and sell one of them off. As a result, Power New Zealand and Counties Power companies sold off its retail businesses and retained their distribution businesses; Power New Zealand was subsequently renamed United Networks. Mercury Energy split into two companies, Mercury Energy (retailing) and (distribution), with Mercury Energy sold to Mighty River Power (which was renamed Mercury Energy in 2016). Vector acquired United Networks' Waitemata distribution business in 2002. Today, Vector owns and operates the majority of the distribution network in urban Auckland, with Counties owning and operating the network south of central Papakura. The city is supplied from 's national grid from thirteen substations across the city. There are no major electricity generation stations located within the city or north of Auckland, so almost all of the electricity for Auckland and Northland must be transmitted from power stations in the south, mainly from and the hydroelectric stations. The city had two natural gas-fired power stations (the 380 MW and the 175 MW ), but both shut down in 2015. There have been several notable power outages in Auckland. The five-week-long blacked out much of the CBD after a cascade failure occurred on four underground cables in Mercury Energy's sub-transmission network. The interrupted supply to the CBD and many inner suburbs after an earth wire shackle at Transpower's Otahuhu substation broke and short-circuited the lines supplying the inner city. In 2009, much of the northern and western suburbs, as well as all of , experienced a blackout when a forklift accidentally came into contact with the Ōtāhuhu to Henderson 220 kV line, the only major line supplying the region. Transpower spent $1.25 billion in the early 2010s reinforcing the supply into and across Auckland, including a from the Waikato River to Brownhill substation (operating initially at 220 kV), and 220 kV underground cables between Brownhill and Pakuranga, and between . These reduced the Auckland Region's reliance on Otahuhu substation and northern and western Auckland's reliance on the Ōtāhuhu to Henderson line.


Natural gas

Auckland was one of the original nine towns and cities in New Zealand to be supplied with natural gas when the entered production in 1970 and a 340 km long high pressure pipeline from the field in Taranaki to the city was completed. Auckland was connected to the in 1982 following the completion of a high pressure pipeline from the Maui gas pipeline near , via the city, to Whangarei in Northland. The high pressure transmission pipelines supplying the city are now owned and operated by , with owning and operating the medium and low pressure distribution pipelines in the city.


Tourism

Tourism in Auckland yields strong revenue for the New Zealand economy. Tourist attractions and landmarks in Auckland include: ;Attractions and buildings * – the main square within the CBD, adjacent to Queen Street. It is the site of rallies and arts festivals. * – an internationally significant built in 1929. It was renovated in 2000 to its original condition. * – connecting central Auckland and the , an iconic symbol of Auckland. * – with its concert hall considered to have some of the finest acoustics in the world , this 1911 building serves both council and entertainment functions. * – a large multi-exhibition museum in the , known for its impressive style, built in 1929. * – Auckland Civic Centre building completed in 1989. * – the main CBD public transport centre in a historic building. * – the city's primary stadium and a host of international rugby union and cricket matches. It hosted the 1987 and 2011 Rugby World Cup finals. * – known as "K' Road", a street in upper central Auckland with bars, clubs, smaller shops, and a former . * – an aquarium and Antarctic environment in the eastern suburb of , built in a set of former sewage storage tanks, showcasing penguins, turtles, sharks, tropical fish, sting rays and other marine creatures. * – the Museum of Transport and Technology, at . * – a stadium used mainly for and soccer matches, and also concerts. * – features exhibitions and collections relating to New Zealand maritime history at Hobson Wharf, adjacent to Viaduct Harbour. * – a suburb and main street immediately west of central Auckland, known for arts, cafes, culture and historic villas. * – the main commercial thoroughfare of the CBD, running from Karangahape Road down to the harbour. * – amusement park with over 20 rides and attractions, based in Manukau. * – the Catholic Cathedral of Auckland. A 19th-century Gothic building which was renovated from 2003 to 2007 for refurbishment and structural support. * – the tallest free-standing structure in the Southern Hemisphere, it is tall and has excellent panoramic views. * – events centre in downtown Auckland completed in 2007. Holding 12,000 people, it is used for sports and concert events. * – formerly an industrial harbour, the basin was re-developed as a marina and residential area in the 1990s. It served as a base for the America's Cup regattas in 2000 and 2003. * – a natural amphitheatre used mainly for speedway races, rock and pop concerts. ;Natural landmarks * – built atop the tuff ring of the Pukekawa volcano in 1843, the domain is the oldest and one of the largest parks in the city. Located at the intersection of the suburbs of , , and , it is close to the CBD and offers a clear view of the harbour and of Rangitoto Island. is located at the highest point in the park. * – a with a grassy . The highest natural point on the Auckland isthmus, it offers 360-degree views of the city and is thus a popular tourist outlook. * – a volcanic cone that dominates the skyline of the southern inner suburbs. It no longer has a tree on the summit (after a politically motivated attack on the erstwhile tree) but is crowned by an . * – an island which guards the entrance to and forms a prominent feature on the eastern horizon. The island was formed by a volcanic eruption approximately 600 years ago, making it both the youngest and the largest volcano in the . The island reaches a height of 260 m, and offers panoramic views across Auckland. * and – nearby volcanic cones in , both of which offer views of the and CBD. Both hills were fortified with artillery and bunkers in the late 19th century and were maintained as coastal defences until the 1950s. * - an island in the located northeast of the Auckland CBD. The island is an open nature reserve which is managed under the supervision of the . It is specifically is noted for its bird life, including , North Island and . * – the second largest island in the , located east of the Auckland CBD. It is known for its beaches, forests, vineyards and olive groves. * The are a range of hills approximately west of the CBD. The hills run from north to south along the west coast of the for approximately , and rise to a peak of . A significant portion of the hills lie within a regional park, which includes numerous bush walking tracks. Coastal cliffs rise to , intermittently broken up by beaches; popular surf beaches in the area include , , and .


Sister cities

Auckland Council maintains with the following cities


See also

* , a slang term for Aucklander


Notes


References


External links


Auckland
– Visitor-oriented official website
Auckland travel guide
– NewZealand.com (New Zealand's official visitor guide and information)
Auckland
in Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand

(from the map website) {{Authority control University towns in New Zealand