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Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

Admiral
Arthur Phillip (11 October 1738 – 31 August 1814) was an English
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of England, English and Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were foug ...
officer and the first
Governor of New South Wales The governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the governor-general of Australia at the national level, the governors of the ...
who led the British settlement and colonisation of Australia. He established a British penal colony that later became the city of
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered throughou ...

Sydney
, Australia. After much experience at sea, Phillip led the
First Fleet The First Fleet was a fleet of 11 ships A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, r ...
as Governor-designate in the Australian settlement of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
. In January 1788, he selected its location to be
Port Jackson Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour Middle Harbour (or ''Warring-Ga''), a semi–mature tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple ...

Port Jackson
(encompassing Sydney Harbour). Phillip was a far-sighted governor who soon saw that New South Wales would need a civil administration and a system for emancipating the convicts. But his plan to bring skilled tradesmen on the voyage had been rejected, and he faced immense problems of labour, discipline and supply. The arrival of the
Second The second (symbol: s, also abbreviated: sec) is the of in the (SI) (french: Système International d’unités), commonly understood and historically defined as of a – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 s, th ...
and
Third Third or 3rd may refer to: Numbers *3rd, the ordinal form of the cardinal number 3 *fraction (mathematics), , a fraction that is one of three equal parts *Second#Sexagesimal divisions of calendar time and day, ¹⁄₆₀ of a ''second'', or ¹⁄ ...
Fleets placed new pressures on the scarce local resources, but by the time Phillip sailed home in December 1792, the colony was taking shape, with official land-grants and systematic farming and water-supply. Phillip retired in 1805, but continued to correspond with his friends in New South Wales and to promote the colony's interests.


Early life

Captain Arthur Phillip was born on 11 October 1738, the youngest of two children to Jacob Phillip and Elizabeth Breach. His father Jacob was a languages teacher from
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian A Hessian is an inhabitant of the German state of Hesse. Hessian may also refer to: Named from the toponym *Hessian (soldier), eighteenth-century German regiments in service with the Brit ...

Frankfurt
who may also have served in the Royal Navy as an able seaman and purser's steward. His mother Elizabeth was the widow of an
ordinary seaman __NOTOC__ An ordinary seaman (OS) is a member of the deck department The ship's bosun, an watchstander AB are seen here working aloft aboard a U.S. freighter to maintain cargo">watchstanding.html" ;"title="able seaman (AB) day worker, and a wat ...
, John Herbert, who had served in Jamaica aboard HMS ''Tartar'' and died of disease on 13 August 1732. At the time of Arthur Phillip's birth, his family maintained a modest existence as tenants near
Cheapside Cheapside is a street in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary ...

Cheapside
in the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
. There are no surviving records of Phillip's early childhood. His father Jacob died in 1739, after which the Phillip family may have fallen on hard times. On 22 June 1751 Arthur was accepted into the Greenwich Hospital School, a
charity school 300px, ''The Blue Coat School'' (in this case Christ's Hospital, London) as drawn by Augustus Pugin and Thomas Rowlandson">Augustus_Pugin.html" ;"title="Christ's Hospital, London) as drawn by Augustus Pugin">Christ's Hospital, London) as drawn by ...
for the sons of indigent seafarers.Pembroke 2013, p. 9 In keeping with the school's curriculum, his education was focused on literacy, arithmetic and navigational skills, including cartography. He was a competent student and something of a perfectionist. His headmaster, Reverend Francis Swinden observed that in personality Phillip was "unassuming, reasonable, business-like to the smallest degree in everything he undertakes". Phillip remained at the Greenwich School for two and a half years, considerably longer than the average student stay of twelve months. At the end of 1753 he was granted a seven-year indenture as an apprentice aboard ''Fortune'', a 210-ton whaling vessel commanded by merchant mariner Wiliam Readhead. He left the Greenwich School on 1 December and spent the winter aboard the ''Fortune'' awaiting the commencement of the 1754 whaling season.


First voyages

Phillip spent the summer of 1754 hunting whales near
Svalbard Svalbard ( , ), previously known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic ...

Svalbard
in the
Barents Sea The Barents Sea ( , also ; no, Barentshavet, ; russian: Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean, including marginal seas, areas of water, various gulfs, bights, bays, and stra ...
.Tink 2009, pp. 30–31 As an apprentice, his responsibilities included stripping blubber from whale carcasses and helping to pack it into barrels. Food was scarce and ''Fortune''s thirty crew members supplemented their diet with bird's eggs, scurvy grass and where possible, reindeer. The ship returned to England on 20 July 1754. The whaling crew were paid off and replaced with twelve sailors for a winter voyage to the Mediterranean. As an apprentice, Phillip remained aboard as ''Fortune'' undertook an outward trading voyage to Barcelona and Livorno carrying salt and raisins, returning via Rotterdam with a cargo of grains and citrus. The ship returned to England in April 1755 and sailed immediately for Svalbard for that year's whale hunt. Phillip was still a member of the crew, but abandoned his apprenticeship when the ship returned to England on 27 July. On 16 October he enlisted in the Royal Navy and was assigned the rank of ordinary seaman aboard the 68-gun .Parker 2009, p. 5. As a member of ''Buckingham''s crew, Phillip saw action in the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest c ...
, including the Battle of Minorca in 1756. By 1762 he had transferred to , and was promoted to Lieutenant in recognition of active service in the Battle of Havana. The War ended in 1763 and Phillip returned to England on half pay. In July 1763 he married Margaret Denison, a widow 16 years his senior, and moved to in
Lyndhurst, Hampshire Lyndhurst is a large village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and coun ...
, establishing a farm there. The marriage was unhappy, and the couple separated in 1769 when Phillip returned to the Navy. The following year he was posted as second lieutenant aboard , a newly built 74-gun
ship of the line A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed during the Age of Sail from the 17th century to the mid-19th century. The ship of the line was designed for the naval tactics in the Age of Sail, naval tactic known as the line of battle ...
. In 1774 Phillip joined the
Portuguese Navy The Portuguese Navy ( pt, Marinha Portuguesa, also known as ''Marinha de Guerra Portuguesa'' or as ''Armada Portuguesa'') is the Navy, naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation and integrated with the other branches of the ...
as a captain, serving in the War against Spain. While with the Portuguese Navy, Phillip commanded a frigate, the ''Nossa Senhora do Pilar.'' On this ship he took a detachment of troops from
Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (; ), or simply Rio, is the in and the in the . Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the , Brazil's , after and . Part of the city has been designated as a , named "Rio de Janeiro: Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", o ...

Rio de Janeiro
to on the
Río de la Plata The Río de la Plata (, "river of silver"), called River Plate in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in H ...

Río de la Plata
(opposite
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata, on South America, South America's southeastern coas ...

Buenos Aires
) to relieve the garrison there. This voyage also conveyed a consignment of convicts assigned to carry out work at Colonia. During a storm encountered in the course of the voyage, the convicts assisted in working the ship and, on arrival at Colonia, Phillip recommended that they be rewarded for saving the ship by remission of their sentences. A garbled version of this eventually found its way into the English press when Phillip was appointed in 1786 to lead the expedition to Sydney. Phillip played a leading part in the capture of the Spanish ship San Agustín, on 19 April 1777, off Santa Catarina. The ''San Agustin'' was commissioned into the Portuguese Navy as the ''Santo Agostinho'', and command of her was given to Phillip. The action was reported in the English press:
Madrid, 28 Aug.. Letters from Lisbon bring the following Account from Rio Janeiro: That the St. Augustine, of 70 Guns, having been separated from the Squadron of M. Casa Tilly, was attacked by two Portugueze Ships, against which they defended themselves for a Day and a Night, but being next Day surrounded by the Portugueze Fleet, was obliged to surrender.
In 1778 Britain was again at war, and Phillip was recalled to active service, and in 1779 obtained his first command, HMS ''Basilisk''. He was promoted to
post-captain Post-captain is an obsolete alternative form of the rank of captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police ...
on 30 November 1781 and given command of . In July 1782, in a change of government, Thomas Townshend became Secretary of State for Home and American Affairs, and assumed responsibility for organising an expedition against Spanish America. Like his predecessor, Lord Germain, he turned for advice to Arthur Phillip. A letter from Phillip to Sandwich of 17 January 1781 records Phillip's loan to Sandwich of his charts of the Plata and Brazilian coasts for use in organising the expedition. Phillip's plan was for a squadron of three ships of the line and a frigate to mount a raid on Buenos Aires and Monte Video, then to proceed to the coasts of Chile, Peru and Mexico to maraud, and ultimately to cross the Pacific to join the British Navy's East India squadron for an attack on Manila. The expedition, consisting of the ''Grafton,'' 70 guns, ''Elizabeth,'' 74 guns, ''Europe,'' 64 guns, and the frigate ''Iphigenia'', sailed on 16 January 1783, under the command of Commodore Robert Kingsmill. Phillip was given command of the 64-gun , or ''Europe''. Shortly after sailing, an armistice was concluded between Great Britain and Spain. Phillip learnt of this in April when he put in for storm repairs at Rio de Janeiro. Phillip wrote to Townshend from Rio de Janeiro on 25 April 1783, expressing his disappointment that the ending of the American War had robbed him of the opportunity for naval glory in South America. After his return to England from India in April 1784, Phillip remained in close contact with Townshend, now Lord Sydney, and the Home Office Under Secretary, Evan Nepean. From October 1784 to September 1786 he was employed by Nepean, who was in charge of the Secret Service relating to the Bourbon Powers, France and Spain, to spy on the French naval arsenals at Toulon and other ports. There was fear that Britain would soon be at war with these powers as a consequence of the
Batavian Revolution The Batavian Revolution ( nl, De Bataafse Revolutie) was a time of political, social and cultural turmoil at the end of the 18th century that marked the end of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces ...
in the Netherlands. Portraits of the time depict Phillip as shorter than average, with an olive complexion, dark eyes and a "smooth pear of a skull".Hughes 1986, p. 66 His features were dominated by a large and fleshy nose, and by a pronounced lower lip.


Colonial service

At this time, Lord Sandwich, together with the President of the Royal Society, Sir
Joseph Banks Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, (19 June 1820) was an English , botanist, and patron of the . Banks made his name on the 1766 natural-history expedition to . He took part in Captain 's (1768–1771), visiting Brazil, Tahiti, and after 6 mont ...
, was advocating establishment of a British colony in New South Wales. A colony there would be of great assistance to the British Navy in facilitating attacks on the Spanish possessions in Chile and Peru, as Banks's collaborators, James Matra, Captain Sir George Young and Sir John Call pointed out in written proposals on the subject. The British Government took the decision to settle what is now Australia and found the
Botany Bay Botany Bay ( Aboriginal: ''Kamay''), an open ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
colony in August 1786. Lord Sydney, as Secretary of State for the Home Office, was the minister in charge, and in September 1786 he appointed Phillip commodore of the fleet which was to transport the convicts and soldiers who were to be the new settlers to Botany Bay. Upon arrival there, Phillip was to assume the powers of Captain General and Governor in Chief of the new colony. A subsidiary colony was to be founded on
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island (, ; Norfuk Norfuk ( pih, Norfuk) (increasingly spelt Norfolk) or Norf'k is the language spoken on Norfolk Island (in the Pacific Ocean) by the local residents. It is a blend of 18th-century English and Tahitian language, Ta ...
, as recommended by Sir John Call, to take advantage for naval purposes of that island's native flax ( harakeke) and timber. In October 1786, Phillip was appointed captain of and named Governor-designate of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
, the proposed British colony on the east coast of Australia, by Lord Sydney, the
Home Secretary The home secretary, officially the secretary of state for the Home Department, is a secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, i ...
. Phillip had a very difficult time assembling the fleet which was to make the eight-month sea voyage to Australia. Everything a new colony might need had to be taken, since Phillip had no real idea of what he might find when he got there. There were few funds available for equipping the expedition. His suggestion that people with experience in farming, building and crafts be included was rejected. Most of the 772 convicts (of whom 732 survived the voyage) were petty thieves from the London slums. Phillip was accompanied by a contingent of
marines Marines, or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate in Littoral Zone, littoral zones in support of naval operations. Historically, tasks undertaken by marines have included helping maintain discipline and order aboard th ...
and a handful of other officers who were to administer the colony. The 11 ships of the
First Fleet The First Fleet was a fleet of 11 ships A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, r ...
set sail from
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a and island with status in the of , southern . It is the most densely populated city in the , with a population last recorded at 238,800. The city forms part of the , which also incorporates , , , , , and . Located mainly ...

Portsmouth
on 13 May 1787. The fleet called at
Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (; ), or simply Rio, is the in and the in the . Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the , Brazil's , after and . Part of the city has been designated as a , named "Rio de Janeiro: Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", o ...

Rio de Janeiro
for supplies from 6 August to 4 September. The leading ship, reached
Botany Bay Botany Bay ( Aboriginal: ''Kamay''), an open ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
setting up camp on the Kurnell Peninsula, on 18 January 1788. Phillip soon decided that this site, chosen on the recommendation of
Sir Joseph Banks Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, (19 June 1820) was an English naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning more towards observat ...
, who had accompanied
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
in 1770, was not suitable, since it had poor soil, no secure anchorage and no reliable water source. After some exploration Phillip decided to go on to Port Jackson, and on 26 January the marines and convicts landed at
Sydney Cove Sydney Cove, officially dual-named with its original Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, i ...

Sydney Cove
, which Phillip named after Lord Sydney.


Governor of New South Wales

Shortly after landing and establishing the settlement at Port Jackson, on 15 February 1788, Phillip sent Lieutenant
Philip Gidley King Captain (Royal Navy), Captain Philip Gidley King (23 April 1758 – 3 September 1808) was the third Governor of New South Wales. When the First Fleet arrived in January 1788, King was detailed to colonise Norfolk Island for defence and foraging ...
with eight free men and a number of convicts to establish the second British colony in the Pacific at
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island (, ; Norfuk Norfuk ( pih, Norfuk) (increasingly spelt Norfolk) or Norf'k is the language spoken on Norfolk Island (in the Pacific Ocean) by the local residents. It is a blend of 18th-century English and Tahitian language, Ta ...
. This was partly in response to a perceived threat of losing Norfolk Island to the French and partly to establish an alternative food source for the mainland colony. The early days of the settlement in
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders three other states, Queensland to the north, Victoria (Australia), Victoria to the sou ...
were chaotic and difficult. With limited supplies, the cultivation of food was imperative, but the soils around Sydney were poor, the climate was unfamiliar, and moreover very few of the convicts had any knowledge of agriculture. The colony was on the verge of outright starvation for an extended period. The marines, poorly disciplined themselves in many cases, were not interested in convict discipline. Almost at once, therefore, Phillip had to appoint overseers from among the ranks of the convicts to get the others working. This was the beginning of the process of convict emancipation which was to culminate in the reforms of
Lachlan Macquarie Lachlan Macquarie, (; gd, Lachann MacGuaire; 31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824) was a officer and colonial administrator from . Macquarie served as the fifth and last autocratic from 1810 to 1821, and had a leading role in the social, economi ...
after 1811. Phillip showed in other ways that he recognised that New South Wales could not be run simply as a prison camp. Lord Sydney, often criticised as an ineffectual incompetent, had made one fundamental decision about the settlement that was to influence it beneficially from the start. Instead of just establishing it as a military prison, he provided for a civil administration, with courts of law. Two convicts,
Henry Henry may refer to: People *Henry (given name) Henry is a masculine given name derived from Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century ...
and Susannah Kable, sought to sue Duncan Sinclair, the captain of ''Alexander'', for stealing their possessions during the voyage. Convicts in Britain had no right to sue, and Sinclair had boasted that he could not be sued by them. Despite this, the court found for the plaintiffs and ordered the captain to make restitution for the loss of their possessions. Further, soon after Lord Sydney appointed him governor of New South Wales, Arthur Phillip drew up a detailed memorandum of his plans for the proposed new colony. In one paragraph he wrote: "The laws of this country nglandwill of course, be introduced in South Wales, and there is one that I would wish to take place from the moment his Majesty's forces take possession of the country: That there can be no slavery in a free land, and consequently no slaves." Nevertheless, Phillip believed in severe discipline; floggings and hangings were commonplace, although Phillip commuted many death sentences. Phillip also had to adopt a policy towards the
Eora The Eora (''Yura'') are an Aboriginal Australian people of New South Wales. Eora is the name given by the earliest European settlers to a group of Aboriginal people belonging to the clans along the coastal area of what is now known as the Sy ...
Aboriginal people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct et ...
, who lived around the waters of
Sydney Harbour Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour Middle Harbour (or ''Warring-Ga''), a semi–mature tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple ...

Sydney Harbour
. Phillip ordered that they must be well treated, and that anyone killing Aboriginal people would be hanged. Phillip befriended an Eora man called
Bennelong Woollarawarre Bennelong (c. 1764 – 3 January 1813) ''(also: "Baneelon")'' was a senior man of the Eora, an Indigenous Australians, Aboriginal Koori people of the Port Jackson area, at the time of the History of Australia#1788: New South Wales, ...

Bennelong
, and later took him to England. On the beach at Manly, a misunderstanding arose and Phillip was speared in the shoulder: but he ordered his men not to retaliate. Phillip went some way towards winning the trust of the Eora, although they remained wary of the settlers. Soon, a virulent disease, smallpox that was believed to be on account of the white settlers, and other European-introduced epidemics, ravaged the Eora population (see ). The Governor's main problem was with his own military officers, who wanted large grants of land, which Phillip had not been authorised to grant.
Scurvy Scurvy is a disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Int ...
broke out, and in October 1788 Phillip had to send ''Sirius'' to
Cape Town Cape Town (: Kaapstad ; : ''iKapa;'') is the second-most populous city in , after , and also the legislative of . Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the of the province and forms part of the . The is situated in Cape Town. The othe ...

Cape Town
for supplies, and strict rationing was introduced, with thefts of food punished by hanging. He recorded: "The living conditions need to improve or my men won't work as hard, so I have come to a conclusion that I must hire surgeons to fix the convicts."


Stabilising the colony

Phillip insisted that no retaliation be taken to avenge his own non-fatal spearing. Convict John MacIntyre had been fatally speared during a hunting expedition by unknown Aboriginal people apparently without provocation. MacIntyre swore on his death bed that he had done them no harm, but marine officer
Watkin Tench Lieutenant General Lieutenant general or lieutenant-general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a Three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-9) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lie ...

Watkin Tench
was suspicious of the claim. Tench was sent on a punitive expedition but finding no Aboriginal people other than
Bennelong Woollarawarre Bennelong (c. 1764 – 3 January 1813) ''(also: "Baneelon")'' was a senior man of the Eora, an Indigenous Australians, Aboriginal Koori people of the Port Jackson area, at the time of the History of Australia#1788: New South Wales, ...

Bennelong
took no action. Phillip, growing frustrated with the burdens of upholding a colony and his health suffering, resigned soon after this episode. By 1790 the situation had stabilised. The population of about 2,000 was adequately housed and fresh food was being grown. Phillip assigned a convict,
James Ruse James Ruse (9 August 17595 September 1837) was a Cornish farmer who, at the age of 23, was convicted of burglary Burglary, also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking, is illegally entering a building or other areas to c ...
, land at Rose Hill (now
Parramatta Parramatta () is a major commercial suburb and Central business district, centre in Greater Western Sydney, located in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located approximately west of the Sydney central business district on the bank ...
) to establish proper farming, and when Ruse succeeded he received the first land grant in the colony. Other convicts followed his example. ''Sirius'' was wrecked in March 1790 at the satellite settlement of
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island (, ; Norfuk Norfuk ( pih, Norfuk) (increasingly spelt Norfolk) or Norf'k is the language spoken on Norfolk Island (in the Pacific Ocean) by the local residents. It is a blend of 18th-century English and Tahitian language, Ta ...
, depriving Phillip of vital supplies. In June 1790 the Second Fleet arrived with hundreds more convicts, most of them too sick to work. By December 1790 Phillip was ready to return to England, but the colony had largely been forgotten in London and no instructions reached him, so he carried on. In 1791 he was advised that the government would send out two convoys of convicts annually, plus adequate supplies. But July, when the vessels of the Third Fleet began to arrive, with 2,000 more convicts, food again ran short, and he had to send the ship '' Atlantic'' to
Calcutta Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , List of renamed Indian cities and states#West Bengal, the official name until 2001) is the Capital city, capital of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of West Bengal. Located on ...

Calcutta
for supplies. By 1792 the colony was well established, though Sydney remained an unplanned huddle of wooden huts and tents. The
whaling industry File:Number of whales killed, OWID.svg, 300px, Number of whales killed through time Whaling is the process of hunting of whales for their usable products such as Whale meat, meat and blubber, which can be turned into Whale oil, a type of oil whi ...

whaling industry
was established, ships were visiting Sydney to trade, and convicts whose sentences had expired were taking up farming. John Macarthur and other officers were importing sheep and beginning to grow wool. The colony was still very short of skilled farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen, and the convicts continued to work as little as possible, even though they were working mainly to grow their own food. In late 1792, Phillip, whose health was suffering, relinquished his governorship and sailed for England on the ship '' Atlantic'', taking with him many specimens of plants and animals. He also took Bennelong and his friend
Yemmerrawanne Yemmerrawanne ( - 18 May 1794) was a member of the Wangal The Wangal people ( Wanegal or Won-gal,) are a clan A clan is a group of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that h ...
, another young Indigenous Australian who, unlike Bennelong, would succumb to English weather and disease and not live to make the journey home. The European population of New South Wales at his departure was 4,221, of whom 3,099 were convicts. The early years of the colony had been years of struggle and hardship, but the worst was over, and there were no further famines in New South Wales. Phillip arrived in London in May 1793. He tendered his formal resignation and was granted a pension of £500 a year.


Later life and death

Phillip's estranged wife, Margaret, had died in 1792 and was buried in St Beuno's Churchyard, Llanycil, Bala,
Merionethshire Merionethshire or Merioneth ( cy, Meirionnydd or ') is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales, a Watsonian vice-counties, vice county and a former administrative county. Name The spelling of the Welsh name in standard modern orthography is ''M ...
. In 1794 Phillip married Isabella Whitehead, and lived for a time at
Bath Bath may refer to: * Bathing, immersion in a fluid ** Bathtub, a large open container for water, in which a person may wash their body ** Public bathing, a public place where people bathe * Thermae, ancient Roman public bathing facilities Plac ...
. His health gradually recovered and in 1796 he went back to sea, holding a series of commands and responsible posts in the wars against the French. In January 1799 he became a Rear-Admiral. In 1805, aged 67, he retired from the Navy with the rank of
Admiral of the Blue The Admiral of the Blue was a senior rank of the Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's Navy, naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major mar ...
, and spent most of the rest of his life in Bath. He continued to correspond with friends in New South Wales and to promote the colony's interests with government officials. Phillip died in Bath in 1814. His Last Will and Testament has been transcribed and is online. Phillip was buried in St Nicholas's Church,
Bathampton Bathampton () is a village and Civil parishes in England, civil parish east of Bath, Somerset, Bath, England on the south bank of the River Avon, Bristol, River Avon. The parish has a population of 1,603. The Kennet and Avon Canal passes thro ...
. Forgotten for many years, the grave was discovered in 1897 and the Premier of New South Wales,
Sir Henry Parkes Sir Henry Parkes, (27 May 1815 – 27 April 1896) was a colonial Australian politician and longest non-consecutive Premier of New South Wales, Premier of the Colony of New South Wales, the present-day state of New South Wales in the Commonwea ...
, had it restored. An annual service of remembrance is held here around Phillip's birthdate by the Britain–Australia Society to commemorate his life. In 2007, alleged that Phillip's remains are no longer in St Nicholas Church, Bathampton and have been lost: "Captain Arthur Phillip is not where the ledger stone says he is: it may be that he is buried somewhere outside, it may simply be that he is simply lost. But he is not where Australians have been led to believe that he now lies."


Legacy

A number of places in Australia bear Phillip's name, including
Port Phillip Port Phillip (Kulin languages, Kulin: ''Naarm Naarm''), or Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped enclosed bay on the central coast of southern Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The bay opens into the Bass Strait via a short, narr ...
,
Phillip Island Phillip Island (Boonwurrung language, Boonwurrung: ''Corriong'', ''Worne'' or ''Millowl'') is an Australian island about south-southeast of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria. The island is named after Arthur Phillip, Governor Arthur Ph ...

Phillip Island
(Victoria),
Phillip Island (Norfolk Island) Phillip Island is an island located south of Norfolk Island in the Southwest Pacific, and is part of the Norfolk Island group. It was named in 1788 by Lieutenant Philip Gidley King after Arthur Phillip, the first Governor of New South Wales. Phil ...
,
Phillip Street Image:Chifley tower statue.JPG, 150px, Ben Chifley statue in Chifley Place Phillip Street is a street in the Sydney central business district, central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. While the street runs from King St ...
in Sydney, the federal electorate of Phillip (1949–1993), the suburb of Phillip in
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
, the
Governor Phillip Tower The Governor Phillip Tower, the Governor Macquarie Tower, and the Museum of Sydney are the main elements of one of the largest developments in the Sydney central business district, central business district of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia ...
building in Sydney, and many streets, parks and schools including a state
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...
in Parramatta. A monument to Phillip in
Bath Abbey Bath Abbey is a parish church A parish church (or parochial church) in is the which acts as the religious centre of a . In many parts of the world, especially in areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activit ...

Bath Abbey
Church was unveiled in 1937. Another was unveiled at St Mildred's Church, Bread St, London, in 1932; that church was destroyed in the
London Blitz The Blitz was a German bombing campaign against the United Kingdom in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from ...
in 1940, but the principal elements of the monument were re-erected at the west end of Watling Street, near
Saint Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Cathedral is an Anglicanism, Anglican cathedral in London, United Kingdom, which, as the cathedral of the Bishop of London, serves as the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the Cit ...

Saint Paul's Cathedral
, in 1968. A different bust and memorial is inside the nearby church of
St Mary-le-Bow St Mary-le-Bow () is a historic church rebuilt after the Great Fire of 1666 by Sir Christopher Wren in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county a ...

St Mary-le-Bow
.Details of move
/ref> There is a statue of him in the . There is a portrait of him by Francis Wheatley in the
National Portrait Gallery, London The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery An art gallery is a room or a building in which visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented li ...

National Portrait Gallery, London
.
Percival Serle Percival Serle (18 July 1871 – 16 December 1951) was an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, t ...
wrote of Phillip in his ''Dictionary of Australian Biography'': Michael Pembroke's biography of Phillip adds that he was also a highly skilled international spy employed by the British government.


200th anniversary

As part of a series of events on the bicentenary of his death, a memorial was dedicated in
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
on 9 July 2014. In the service the
Dean of Westminster The Dean of Westminster Westminster is a district in central London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames ...
, Very Reverend Dr John Hall, described Phillip as: "This modest, yet world-class seaman, linguist, and patriot, whose selfless service laid the secure foundations on which was developed the Commonwealth of Australia, will always be remembered and honoured alongside other pioneers and inventors here in the
Nave The nave () is the central part of a church architecture, church, stretching from the (normally western) main entrance or rear wall, to the transepts, or in a church without transepts, to the chancel. When a church contains Aisle#Church archit ...

Nave
:
David Livingstone David Livingstone (; 19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish physician, Congregationalist, and pioneer Christian missionary A missionary is a member of a Religious denomination, religious group sent into an area to promote thei ...

David Livingstone
, , and
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
." A similar memorial was unveiled by the outgoing 37th
Governor of New South Wales The governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the governor-general of Australia at the national level, the governors of the ...
,
Marie Bashir Dame Marie Roslyn Bashir, (born 1 December 1930) is the former and second longest-serving Governor of New South Wales. Born in Narrandera, New South Wales, Bashir graduated from the University of Sydney in 1956 and held various medical positions ...
, in
St James' Church, Sydney St James' Church, commonly known as St James', King Street, is an Australian heritage-listed Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican Church (building), parish church located at 173 King Street, Sydney, King Street, in the Sydney central business ...
on 31 August 2014. A bronze bust was installed at the
Museum of Sydney The Museum of Sydney is a historical collection and exhibit, built on the ruins of the house of New South Wales' first Governor, Arthur Phillip Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the hi ...

Museum of Sydney
, and a full-day symposium planned on his contributions to the founding of modern Australia.


In popular culture

Phillip is a principal character in the 1953 film ''Botany Bay''. Phillip is a prominent character in
Timberlake Wertenbaker Timberlake Wertenbaker (born 1951) is a British-based playwright, screenplay writer, and translator who has written plays for the Royal Court Theatre, Royal Court, the Royal Shakespeare Company and others. She has been described in ''The Washingt ...
's play ''
Our Country's Good ''Our Country's Good'' is a 1988 play written by British playwright, Timberlake Wertenbaker, adapted from the Thomas Keneally novel ''The Playmaker''. The story concerns a group of Royal Marines and Convictism in Australia, convicts in a penal co ...
'', in which he commissions Lieutenant
Ralph Clark Lieutenant (navy), Lieutenant Ralph Clark (30 March 1755 or 1762 – June 1794) was a British officer in the Royal Marines, best known for his diary spanning the early years of History of Australia (1788–1850)#Colonisation and convictism, Briti ...

Ralph Clark
to stage a production of ''
The Recruiting Officer ''The Recruiting Officer'' is a 1706 play by the Irish writer George Farquhar, which follows the social and sexual exploits of two officers, the womanising Plume and the cowardly Brazen, in the town of Shrewsbury Shrewsbury ( , ) is a larg ...
''. He is shown as compassionate and just, but receives little support from his fellow officers. Phillip is referred to in the John Williamson song "Chains Around My Ankle". Phillip is a prominent character in the 2005 film ''
The Incredible Journey of Mary Bryant ''The Incredible Journey of Mary Bryant'' is a 2005 miniseries loosely based on the life of Mary Bryant, an England, English girl from Cornwall who in this telling was convicted of petty theft (though the historical Mary Bryant was transported for ...
'' where he is portrayed by
Sam Neill Nigel John Dermot "Sam" Neill (born 14 September 1947) is a New Zealand actor, director, producer and screenwriter. Born in Omagh, Northern Ireland, Neill moved to Christchurch, New Zealand, with his family in 1954. He first achieved recognit ...

Sam Neill
.
Kate Grenville Catherine Elizabeth Grenville (born 1950) is an Australian author. She has published fifteen books, including fiction, non-fiction, biography, and books about the writing process. In 2001, she won the Orange Prize The Women's Prize for Fictio ...
's 2008 novel ''
The Lieutenant ''The Lieutenant'' is an American television program, television series, the first created by Gene Roddenberry. It aired on NBC on Saturday evenings in the 1963–1964 television schedule. It was produced by Arena Productions, one of MGM, Metr ...
'' portrays Phillip through the character Commodore James Gilbert. Phillip is a prominent character in the 2015 mini-series ''
BanishedBanished may refer to: * Banished (TV series), a 2015 drama television series * Banished (film), a 2007 documentary * Banished (video game), a city-building strategy game by Shining Rock Software * Banished (Halo), an alien faction in the ''Halo'' s ...
'' where he is portrayed by
David Wenham David Wenham (born 21 September 1965) is an Australian actor who has appeared in movies, television series and theatre productions. He is known in Hollywood for his roles as Faramir in ''The Lord of the Rings'' film trilogy, Carl in '' Van Hel ...
.


Memorials

Image:arthur.phillips.memorial.at.bathampton.arp.jpg, The Arthur Phillip memorial on the wall of the Australia Chapel,
Bathampton Bathampton () is a village and Civil parishes in England, civil parish east of Bath, Somerset, Bath, England on the south bank of the River Avon, Bristol, River Avon. The parish has a population of 1,603. The Kennet and Avon Canal passes thro ...
Image:Arthur-Phillip P1010024.JPG, Tomb of Arthur Phillip in St Nicholas Church, Bathampton Bust of Arthur Phillip in Mary-le-Bow Church - Diliff.jpg, Bust of Phillip at
St Mary-le-Bow St Mary-le-Bow () is a historic church rebuilt after the Great Fire of 1666 by Sir Christopher Wren in the City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county a ...

St Mary-le-Bow
Church in London. File:Phillip Memorial - St James' Church, Sydney.JPG, Memorial plaque to Governor Phillip in
St James' Church, Sydney St James' Church, commonly known as St James', King Street, is an Australian heritage-listed Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican Church (building), parish church located at 173 King Street, Sydney, King Street, in the Sydney central business ...


See also

* ''
Historical Records of Australia The ''Historical Records of Australia'' (''HRA'') were collected and published by the Library Committee of the Commonwealth Parliament, to create a series of accurate publications on the history of Australia. The records begin shortly before 1788, ...
'' *
Journals of the First Fleet There are 20 known contemporary accounts of the First Fleet The First Fleet comprised the 11 Age of sail, ships that departed from Portsmouth, England on 13 May 1787 to New South Wales, the penal colony that became the first European settlem ...


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * *


External links

* *
Arthur Phillip High School
Parramatta Parramatta () is a major commercial suburb and Central business district, centre in Greater Western Sydney, located in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located approximately west of the Sydney central business district on the bank ...
– state high (years 7–12) school named for Phillip
B._H._Fletcher,_'Phillip,_Arthur_(1738–1814)',_Australian_Dictionary_of_Biography
,_Volume_2,_Melbourne_University_Press.html" ;"title="Australian Dictionary of Biography">B. H. Fletcher, 'Phillip, Arthur (1738–1814)', Australian Dictionary of Biography
, Volume 2, Melbourne University Press">Australian Dictionary of Biography">B. H. Fletcher, 'Phillip, Arthur (1738–1814)', Australian Dictionary of Biography
, Volume 2, Melbourne University Press, 1967, pp 326–333.]
Royal Navy History
Biographical Memoir of Arthur Phillip, Esq.
The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay
– National Museum of Australia {{DEFAULTSORT:Phillip, Arthur Governors of New South Wales City founders Royal Navy admirals 1738 births 1814 deaths Australian penal colony administrators Royal Navy personnel of the Seven Years' War Royal Navy personnel of the American Revolutionary War People from Fulham English people of German descent Port Phillip 18th-century Australian people People educated at the Royal Hospital School Colony of New South Wales people Sea captains