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The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
. The older Armenian calendar was based on an invariant year length of 365 days. As a result, the correspondence between it and both the
solar year A tropical year (also known as a solar year or tropical period) is the time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past ...
and the
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
slowly drifted over time, shifting across a year of the Julian calendar once in 1,461 calendar years (see
Sothic cycle The Sothic cycle or Canicular period is a period of 1,461  Egyptian civil years of 365 days each or 1,460  Julian years averaging 365¼ days each. During a Sothic cycle, the 365 day year loses enough time that the start of ...
). Thus, the Armenian year 1461 ( Gregorian and Julian 2010/2011) completed the first full cycle. Armenian year 1 began on 11 July 552 of the
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
, Armenian year 1462 (the first of the second cycle) began on 11 July 2012 of the Julian calendar which coincided with 24 July 2012 of the
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
. An analytical expression of the Armenian date includes ancient name of Day of week, Christian name of Day of week, named Day of month, Date, Month, Year number after 552 A.D. and the religious feasts.Armenian calendar for 2021
/ref> The Armenian calendar is divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional (
epagomenal The intercalary month or epagomenal days. of the ancient Egyptian calendar, Egyptian, Coptic calendar, Coptic, and Ethiopian calendars are a period of five days in common years and six days in leap years in addition to those calendars' 12 standard ...
) five days, called '' aweleacʿ'' ("superfluous"). Years are usually given in Armenian numerals, letters of the
Armenian alphabet The Armenian alphabet ( hy, Հայոց գրեր, ' or , '; Eastern Armenian: ; Western Armenian: ) is an alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a ...

Armenian alphabet
preceded by the abbreviation for ''t’vin'' "in the year" (for example, "in the year 1455").


Months

The Armenian month names show influence of the
Zoroastrian calendar Adherents of Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is an Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest continuously-practiced organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster Zoroaster (, ; ...
,L. H. Gray, "On Certain Persian and Armenian Month- Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar," ''JAOS'' 28 (1907), 339. and, as noted by
Antoine Meillet Paul Jules Antoine Meillet (; 11 November 1866, Moulins, France – 21 September 1936, Châteaumeillant, France) was one of the most important French linguists of the early 20th century. He began his studies at the Sorbonne University Sorbo ...
, influence in two cases. There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to the Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system.


Days of the month

The Armenian calendar names the days of the month instead of numbering them – a peculiarity also found in the
Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian ...
calendars. Zoroastrian influence is evident in five names.


See also

* Armenian numerals * Calendar of Saints (Armenian Apostolic Church) * Caspian calendar *
Georgian calendar The Georgian calendar ( ka, ქართული კალენდარი) is the ancient or modern calendar of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is ...
*
Iranian calendar The Iranian calendars or Iranian chronology ( fa, گاه‌شماری ایرانی, ''Gāh-Šomāri-ye Irāni'') are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in , also known as Persia. One of the longest chronological re ...
*
Zoroastrian calendar Adherents of Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is an Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest continuously-practiced organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster Zoroaster (, ; ...
* :hy:Հայկյան տոմար


References


External links


The Haik calendar
(Origin of the Armenian calendar).


Literature

* V. Bănăţeanu, “Le calendrier arménien et les anciens noms des mois”, in: Studia et Acta Orientalia 10, 1980, pp. 33–46 * Edouard Dulaurier,
Recherches sur la chronologie arménienne technique et historique
' (1859), 2001 reprint . * Jost Gippert, ''Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems'' in The Annual of The Society for The Study of Caucasia", 1, 1989, 3-1

http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/personal/jg/html/jg1986f.htm Jost Gippert: Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems Frame] * Louis Herbert Gray, Louis H. Gray, ''On Certain Persian and Armenian Month-Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar'', Journal of the American Oriental Society (1907) * P'. Ingoroq'va, “Jvel-kartuli c'armartuli k'alendari” (“The Old Georgian pagan calendar”), in: Sakartvelos muzeumis moambe (“Messenger of the Museum of Georgia”), 6, 1929–30, pp. 373–446 and 7, 1931–32, pp. 260–336 * K'. K'ek'elije, “Jveli kartuli c'elic'adi” (“The Old Georgian year”), in: St'alinis saxelobis Tbilisis Saxelmc'ipo Universit'et'is šromebi (“Working papers of the Tbilisi State University by the name of Stalin”) 18, 1941, reprinted in the author's “Et'iudebi jveli kartuli lit'erat'uris ist'oriidan” (“Studies in the history of Old Georgian literature”) 1, 1956, pp. 99–124. {{DEFAULTSORT:Armenian Calendar
Calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also ...
Calendar eras
Calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also ...
Specific calendars