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Ariana, the
Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
form of the
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
''Ar(e)ianē'' (inhabitants: '; ''Ar(e)ianoi''), originating from the
Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languagesIndo-Iranian may refer to: * Indo-Iranian languages * Indo-Iranians, the various peoples speaking ...
word ''Ariyanem'' (Ariana) meaning "The Land of the
Aryans Aryan or Arya (, Indo-Iranian *''arya'') is a term originally used as an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each othe ...
", similar to the use of
Āryāvarta alt=, Cemetery H, Late Harappan, OCP, Copper Hoard and Painted Grey ware sites Āryāvarta (Sanskrit: आर्यावर्त, lit. "abode of the Aryans, Aryas" (noble or excellent ones),geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...
term used by some
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
authors of the
ancient period Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0
"History"
from t ...

ancient period
for a district of wide extent between
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
and the
Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rivers, including t ...

Indus River
, comprising the eastern provinces of the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
that covered the whole of modern-day
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
, as well as the easternmost part of
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
and up to the Indus River in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
.The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008 At various times, various parts of the region were governed by the
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
(the
Achaemenids The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offic ...

Achaemenids
from 550 to 330 BC, the
Sasanians The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians ( Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 '' Ērānshahr''), and called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last Persian Empire, Persian imper ...

Sasanians
from 275 to 650 AD and the
Kushano-Sasanians Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom (also called Kushanshas KΟÞANΟ ÞAΟ ''Koshano Shao'' in BactrianBactrian may refer to *Bactria Bactria ( Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which ...
from 345 to 450 AD), the
Macedonians Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
, the
Seleucids The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), off ...
from 330 to 305 BC, the
Maurya Empire The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human h ...
from 305 BC to 184 BC, then the
Greco-Bactrians The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was, along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdia Sogdia () ( Sogdian: soɣd) or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different ti ...
from and the
Indo-Greeks The Indo-Greek Kingdom, or Graeco-Indian Kingdom, also known historically as the Yavana Kingdom (Yavanarajya), was a Hellenistic period, Hellenistic-era Ancient Greece, Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regio ...
from 155 to 90 BC), the
Indo-Scythians Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European languages, Indo-European ethnolinguistic group who are identified by their use of the Iranian ...
from 90 BC to 20 AD, the
ParthiansParthian may be: Historical * A demonym "of Parthia Parthia ( peo, 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 ''Parθava''; xpr, 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 ''Parθaw''; pal, 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 ''Pahlaw'') is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran Iran ...

Parthians
from 160 BC to 225 AD including the Indo-Parthians from 20 to 225 AD and the
Kushans The Kushan Empire ( grc, Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; xbc, Κυϸανο, ; Late Brahmi Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia b ...

Kushans
from 110 BC to 225 AD, the
Xionites Xionites, Chionites, or Chionitae ( Middle Persian: ''Xiyōn'' or ''Hiyōn''; Avestan: ''Xiiaona''; Sogdian ''xwn''; Pahlavi ''Xyon'') were a nomadic people in Transoxiana and Bactria. The Xionites appear to be synonymous with the Huna peop ...
(the
Kidarites The Kidarites, or Kidara Huns, were a dynasty that ruled Bactria Bactria (BactrianBactrian may refer to *Bactria Bactria ( Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stre ...
from 360 to 465 AD and the
Hephthalites The Hephthalites ( xbc, ηβοδαλο, translit= Ebodalo), sometimes called the White Huns (also known as the White Hunas, in as the ''Spet Xyon'' and in as the ''Sveta-huna''), were a people who lived in during the 5th to 8th centuries CE. ...
from 450 to 565 AD) and various other Huna peoples.


Etymology

The
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
term ''Arianē'' (Latin: ''
Ariana Ariana, the Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to repla ...
''), a term found in Iranian
Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian ...
''Airiiana-'' (especially in
Airyanem Vaejah (; ; ; , 'expanse of the Aryans Aryan or Arya (, Indo-Iranian *''arya'') is a term originally used as an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping o ...
, the name of the
Iranian peoples The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the norther ...
' mother country). The modern name ''
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
'' represents a different form of the ancient name ''Ariana'', which was derived from "Airyanem Vaejah" and implies that Iran is the Ariana itself, a word that is found in
Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languagesIndo-Iranian may refer to: * Indo-Iranian languages * Indo-Iranians, the various peoples speaking ...
, a view supported by the traditions of the country preserved in the Muslim writers in the 9th and the 10th centuries. The Greeks also referred to Haroyum/Haraiva (
Herat Herāt (; Dari Dari (, , ), or Dari Persian (, ), is a political term used for the various dialects of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) i ...

Herat
) as ':Aria'', which is one of the many provinces found in Ariana. The names ''Ariana'' and ''Aria'' and many other ancient titles, of which ''Aria'' is a component element, are connected with the Avestan term ''Airya-'', and the
Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languagesIndo-Iranian may refer to: * Indo-Iranian languages * Indo-Iranians, the various peoples speaking ...
term ''Ariya-'', a self-designation of the peoples of
Ancient Iran The history of Iran, which was commonly known until the mid-20th century as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia Anato ...

Ancient Iran
and
Ancient India According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago. Quote: "Y-Chromosome and Mt-DNA data support the colonization of South Asia by mod ...
, meaning "noble", "excellent" and "honourable".


Extent

The exact limits of Ariana are laid down with little accuracy in classical sources. It seems to have been often confused (as in
Pliny Pliny may refer to: People from antiquity * Pliny the Elder (AD 23–79), ancient Roman nobleman, scientist, historian, and author of ''Naturalis Historia'' (''Pliny's Natural History'') * Pliny the Younger (died 113), ancient Roman statesman, ...

Pliny
, ''
Naturalis Historia The ''Natural History'' ( la, Naturalis Historia) is a work by Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, ...
'', book vi
chapter 23
with the small province of
Aria In music, an aria (; it, air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphere (0.04402961% at ...
. As a geographical term, Ariana was introduced by the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
geographer,
Eratosthenes Eratosthenes of Cyrene (; grc-gre, Ἐρατοσθένης ;  – ) was a Greek polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a ...

Eratosthenes
(c. 276 BC – c. 195 BC) and was fully described by the Greek geographer
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
(64/63 BC – ca. AD 24). Per Eratosthenes' definition, the borders of Ariana were defined by the
Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rivers, including t ...

Indus River
in the east, the sea in the south, a line from Carmania to the
Caspian Gates The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog) from invading the land to the south. The gates were a ...
(apparently referring to the pass near the southeastern edge of the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
) in the west, and the so-called
Taurus Mountains The Taurus Mountains (Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Gr ...
in the north. This large region included almost all of the countries east of
Media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...
and ancient
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
, including south of the great mountain ranges up to the deserts of
Gedrosia Map showing Gedrosia in the Indian campaign of Alexander the Great Gedrosia (; el, Γεδρωσία) is the Hellenization, Hellenized name of the part of coastal Baluchistan that roughly corresponds to today's Makran. In books about Alexander th ...
and Carmania, i.e. the provinces of Carmania, Gedrosia,
Drangiana Drangiana or Zarangiana ( el, Δραγγιανή, ''Drangianē''; also attested in Old Western Iranian as 𐏀𐎼𐎣, ''Zraka'' or ''Zranka'', was a historical region and administrative division of the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Em ...
,
Arachosia Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Hellenistic state in W ...
,
Aria In music, an aria (; it, air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphere (0.04402961% at ...
, the
Paropamisadae Paropamisadae or Parapamisadae (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approx ...
; also
Bactria Bactria (BactrianBactrian may refer to *Bactria Bactria ( Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the ...
was reckoned to Ariana and was called "the ornament of Ariana as a whole" by
Apollodorus of ArtemitaApollodorus of Artemita ( grc, Ἀπολλόδωρος Ἀρτεμιτηνός) was a Greek historian who flourished between 130 and 87 BC. He hailed from the Greco-Parthian city of Artemita in Apolloniatis and was a citizen of the Parthian Empire ...
. After having described the boundaries of Ariana,
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
writes that the name Αρειανή could also be extended to part of the
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
and the
Medes The Medes ( peo, 𐎶𐎠𐎭 ; akk, , ; grc, Μῆδοι ) were an Iranian peoples, ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and who inhabited an area known as Media (region), Media between western Iran, western and nor ...
and also to the northwards
Bactrians Bactria (BactrianBactrian may refer to *Bactria Bactria ( Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the e ...

Bactrians
and the
Sogdians :''This Wikipedia:Category, category lists articles related to historical Iranian peoples'' Iranian peoples, Historical History of Iranian peoples, Peoples Historical ethnic groups of Europe, Iranian Historical ethnic groups of Asia, Iranian Histor ...
. A detailed description of that region is to be found in Strabo's ''
Geographica The ''Geographica'' (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...
''
Book XV – "Persia, Ariana, the Indian subcontinent", chapter 2, sections 1–9
By
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
Ariana is not mentioned, nor is it included in the geographical description of
Stephanus of Byzantium Stephanus or Stephan of Byzantium ( la, Stephanus Byzantinus; grc-gre, Στέφανος Βυζάντιος, ''Stéphanos Byzántios''; centuryAD), was a Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzant ...

Stephanus of Byzantium
and
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, , ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes ...
, or in the narrative of
Arrian Arrian of Nicomedia (; Ancient Greek, Greek: ''Arrianos''; la, Lucius Flavius Arrianus; ) was a Greek people, Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman Greece, Roman period. ''The Anabasis of Alex ...

Arrian
.


Inhabitants of Ariana

The peoples by whom Ariana was inhabited, as enumerated by
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
were: * Arachoti; * Arii; *
Bactrians Bactria (BactrianBactrian may refer to *Bactria Bactria ( Bactrian: , ), or Bactriana, was an ancient region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the e ...

Bactrians
; * Drangae; * Gedrosii; *
Paropamisadae Paropamisadae or Parapamisadae (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approx ...
; *
ParthiansParthian may be: Historical * A demonym "of Parthia Parthia ( peo, 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 ''Parθava''; xpr, 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 ''Parθaw''; pal, 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 ''Pahlaw'') is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran Iran ...

Parthians
; *
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
*
Sogdians :''This Wikipedia:Category, category lists articles related to historical Iranian peoples'' Iranian peoples, Historical History of Iranian peoples, Peoples Historical ethnic groups of Europe, Iranian Historical ethnic groups of Asia, Iranian Histor ...
.
Pliny Pliny may refer to: People from antiquity * Pliny the Elder (AD 23–79), ancient Roman nobleman, scientist, historian, and author of ''Naturalis Historia'' (''Pliny's Natural History'') * Pliny the Younger (died 113), ancient Roman statesman, ...

Pliny

vi. 25
specifies the following ethnicities: * Angutturi; * Arii; * the inhabitants of Daritis; * Dorisci; * Drangae; * Evergetae; * Gedrussi; *
IchthyophagiIchthyophagoi ( grc, Ἰχθυοφάγοι, "fish-eaters") and Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kno ...
; * Methorici; * Pasires; * Urbi; * Zarangae. Pliny
vi. 23
says that some add to
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
four satrapies to the west of the river, – the Gedrosii, Arachosii, Arii, and Paropamisadae, as far as the river Cophes (the ). Pliny therefore agrees on the whole with Strabo.
Dionysius Periegetes Dionysius Periegetes ( grc-gre, Διονύσιος ὁ Περιηγητής, literally Dionysius the Voyager or Traveller, often Latinisation of names, Latinized to ''Dionysius Periegeta''), also known as Dionysius of Alexandria or Dionysius the A ...
(1097) agrees with Strabo in extending the northern boundary of the Ariani to the
Paropamisus Paropamisadae or Parapamisadae (Greek language, Greek: Παροπαμισάδες) was a satrapy of the Alexandrian Empire in modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, which largely coincided with the Achaemenid province of Parupraesanna. It consisted of t ...
, and (714) speaks of them as inhabiting the shores of the
Erythraean Sea The Erythraean Sea ( grc-gre, Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα, ''Erythrà Thálassa'', ."Red Sea") was a former maritime designation that always included the Gulf of Aden and at times other seas between Arabia Felix and the Horn of Africa. Origina ...

Erythraean Sea
. It is probable, from Strabo
xv. p.724
, that the term was extended to include the east Persians, Bactrians, and Sogdians, with the people of Ariana below the mountains, because they were for the most part of one speech. Rüdiger Schmitt, the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
scholar of Iranian Studies, also believes that Ariana should have included other
Iranian people The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European languages, Indo-European ethnolinguistic group who are identified by their use of the Iranian languages and other cultural similarities. The Proto-Iranian language, Proto-Ira ...
. He writes in the ''
Encyclopædia Iranica ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language ...
'':


See also

*
History of Afghanistan The history of Afghanistan ( fa, تاریخ افغانستان, '; ps, د افغانستان تاريخ, ') as a state began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani. The written recorded history of the land presently constituting Af ...
*
Avestan geography Avestan geography is the compilation of the geographical references in the Avesta The Avesta () is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in Avestan language. The Avesta texts fall into several different cat ...
*
Āryāvarta alt=, Cemetery H, Late Harappan, OCP, Copper Hoard and Painted Grey ware sites Āryāvarta (Sanskrit: आर्यावर्त, lit. "abode of the Aryans, Aryas" (noble or excellent ones),Greater Khorasan Greater KhorāsānDabeersiaghi, Commentary on Safarnâma-e Nâsir Khusraw, 6th Ed. Tehran, Zavvâr: 1375 (Solar Hijri Calendar) 235–236 or Khorāsān ( pal, Xwarāsān; fa, wikt:خراسان, خراسان ), is a historical eastern region ...


References

{{Reflist, 30em


Further reading

* Horace Hayman Wilson, Charles Masson, ''Ariana Antiqua: a Descriptive Account of the Antiquities and Coins of Afghanistan'', 1841 * Henry Walter Bellew, ''An inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan'', 1891 * Tomaschek in Pauly-Wissowa, II/1, cols. 619f., and 813f. * G. Gnoli, Postilla ad Ariyō šayana, RSO 41, 1966, pp. 329–34. * P. Calmeyer, AMI 15, 1982, pp. 135ff.


External links

*The Online Etymology Dictionary
Aryana'Ărĭāna', Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Perseus Digital Library.'Ariana', Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography, William Smith, 1870Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Chap. 23. (20.)—The Indus, Perseus Digital Library.Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Chap. 25.—The Ariani and the adjoining nations, Perseus Digital Library.Ariana antiqua: a descriptive account of the antiquities and coins of Afghanistan By Horace Hayman Wilson, Charles Masson

Eratosthenes, Duane W. Roller, Strabo, 2010, 'Eratosthenes' Geography'
Historiography of Afghanistan Historical regions of Iran History of Zoroastrianism History of Iranian peoples Nomadic groups in Eurasia Ancient Greek geography Geographic history of Afghanistan Historical regions