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Arabic grammar or Arabic language sciences ( ar, النحو العربي ' or ar, عُلُوم اللغَة العَرَبِيَّة ') is the grammar of the
Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C. E.Watson; Walter de G ...

Arabic language
. Arabic is a
Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region in Afro-Eurasia which generally includes Western Asia ...

Semitic language
and its grammar has many similarities with the grammar of other Semitic languages. The article focuses both on the grammar of Literary Arabic (i.e.
Classical Arabic Classical Arabic ( ar, links=no, ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ, al-ʿarabīyah al-fuṣḥā) or Quranic Arabic is the standardized literary form of the Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, ...
and
Modern Standard Arabic Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) or Modern Written Arabic (shortened to MWA), terms used mostly by Western linguists, is the variety of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standa ...
, which have largely the same grammar) and of the colloquial spoken
varieties of Arabic The varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in univer ...
. The grammar of the two types is largely similar in its particulars. Generally, the grammar of Classical Arabic is described first, followed by the areas in which the colloquial variants tend to differ (note that not all colloquial variants have the same grammar). The largest differences between the classical/standard and the colloquial Arabic are the loss of morphological markings of
grammatical case Grammatical case is a term regarding a manner of categorizing s, s, s, s, and s according to their traditionally corresponding s within a given , , or . In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, s, participles, prepositions, numerals, art ...
; changes in
word order In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
, an overall shift towards a more analytic morphosyntax, the loss of the previous system of
grammatical mood In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
, along with the evolution of a new system; the loss of the inflected
passive voice A passive voice construction is a grammatical voice In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. ...

passive voice
, except in a few relic varieties; restriction in the use of the
dual number In algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical analysis, analysis. I ...
and (for most varieties) the loss of the feminine
plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or ph ...

plural
. Many Arabic dialects,
Maghrebi Arabic Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern or Mashriqi Arabic) is a vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The ...
in particular also have significant
vowel shift#REDIRECT Vowel shift A vowel shift is a systematic sound change A sound change, in historical linguistics, is a change in the pronunciation of a language over time. A sound change can involve the replacement of one speech sound (or, more ge ...
s and unusual
consonant cluster In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the metho ...
s. Unlike other dialects, in
Maghrebi Arabic Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern or Mashriqi Arabic) is a vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The ...
first person singular verbs begin with a n- (ن).


History

The identity of the oldest Arabic grammarian is disputed; some sources state that it was
Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali Abu or ABU may refer to: Places * Abu (volcano) is the name of a group of shield volcanoes located on the coast of Japan on the southwest end of the island of Honshū. It is primarily based in the city of Hagi, Yamaguchi, Hagi, Yamaguchi Prefect ...
, who established
diacritical A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter (alphabet), letter or to a basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek (, "distinguishing"), from (, "to distinguish"). T ...
marks and vowels for
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
in the mid-600s,
Kojiro Nakamura Kojiro Nakamura (中村 廣治郎 ''Nakamura Kōjirō'') is a Japanese scholar of Islam. He is professor emeritus of Islamic studies at both Tokyo University and Oberlin University. Tokyo University's Department of Islamic Studies was the first such ...
, "Ibn Mada's Criticism of Arab Grammarians." ''Orient'', v. 10, pgs. 89-113. 1974
Others have said that the earliest grammarian would have been
Ibn Abi Ishaq ʿAbd-Allāh ibn Abī Isḥāq al-Ḥaḍramī (Arabic, عَبْدُ اللّهِ بْنُ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ الْحَضْرَمِيُّ), (died Anno Domini, AD 735 / Islamic Calendar, AH 117)Kees Versteegh, ''Arabic Grammar and Qur'a ...
(died AD 735/6, AH 117).Monique Bernards, "Pioneers of Arabic Linguistic Studies." Taken from In the Shadow of Arabic: The Centrality of Language to Arabic Culture, pg. 213. Ed. Bilal Orfali. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2011. The schools of
Basra Basra ( ar, ٱلْبَصْرَة, al-Baṣrah) is an Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Basra
and
Kufa Kufa ( ar, الْكُوفَة ), also spelled Kufah, is a city in Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَا ...

Kufa
further developed grammatical rules in the late 8th century with the rapid rise of Islam.Goodchild, Philip. ''Difference in Philosophy of Religion'', 2003. Page 153.
Archibald Sayce The Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce (25 September 18454 February 1933), was a pioneer British Assyriologist and linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, ...

Archibald Sayce
, ''Introduction to the Science of Language''. Pg. 28, 1880.
From the school of Basra, generally regarded as being founded by Abu Amr ibn al-Ala, two representatives laid important foundations for the field:
Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi Abu ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Khalīl ibn Aḥmad ibn ‘Amr ibn Tammām al-Farāhīdī al-Zahrāni al-Azdī al-Yaḥmadī ( ar, أبو عبدالرحمن الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي الزهراني; 718 – 786 CE), known as Al-F ...
authored the first Arabic dictionary and book of Arabic
prosody Prosody may refer to: * Sanskrit prosody, Prosody (Sanskrit), the study of poetic meters and verse in Sanskrit and one of the six Vedangas, or limbs of Vedic studies * Prosody (Greek), the theory and practice of Greek versification * Prosody (Lati ...
, and his student
Sibawayh Sibawayh ( ar, سِيبَوَيْهِ ' or ; fa, سِیبُویه‎ ' ; c. 760–796), whose full name is Abu Bishr Amr ibn Uthman ibn Qanbar al-Basri (, '), was a Persian leading grammarian of Basra and author of the earliest book on Arabic ...
authored the first book on theories of Arabic grammar. From the school of Kufa,
Al-Ru'asiAbu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Abi Sara Ali Al-Ru'asi () (d. 187AH/802CE) was an early convert from Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaism ...
is universally acknowledged as the founder, though his own writings are considered lost, with most of the school's development undertaken by later authors. The efforts of al-Farahidi and
Sibawayh Sibawayh ( ar, سِيبَوَيْهِ ' or ; fa, سِیبُویه‎ ' ; c. 760–796), whose full name is Abu Bishr Amr ibn Uthman ibn Qanbar al-Basri (, '), was a Persian leading grammarian of Basra and author of the earliest book on Arabic ...
consolidated Basra's reputation as the analytic school of grammar, while the Kufan school was regarded as the guardian of
Arabic poetry Arabic poetry ( ar, الشعر العربي ''ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu'') is the earliest form of Arabic literature Arabic literature ( ar, الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: ''al-Adab al-‘Arabī'') is the writing, both as prose Prose ...

Arabic poetry
and
Arab culture Arab culture is the culture of the Arabs, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. Language, literature, gastrono ...
. The differences were polarizing in some cases, with early Muslim scholar Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi favoring the Kufan school due to its concern with poetry as a primary source. Early Arabic grammars were more or less lists of rules, without the detailed explanations which would be added in later centuries. The earliest schools were different not only in some of their views on grammatical disputes, but also their emphasis. The school of Kufa excelled in Arabic poetry and
exegesis Exegesis (; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is app ...

exegesis
of the
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Qur'an
, in addition to
Islamic law Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Different religious systems hold sacred law in a greater or lesser degree of importance to their beli ...
and Arab genealogy. The more rationalist school of Basra, on the other hand, focused more on the formal study of grammar.


Division

For classical Arabic grammarians, the grammatical sciences are divided into five branches: *' (language/
lexicon A lexicon is the vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, pra ...

lexicon
) concerned with collecting and explaining
vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed la ...
. *' (
morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines *Morphology (archaeology) In archaeology, morphology is the study of the shape of Artifact (archaeology), artefacts and ecofacts. Morphology is a major consid ...
) determining the form of the individual words. *' (
syntax In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...

syntax
) primarily concerned with
inflection In linguistic morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeology), study of the shapes or forms of artifacts * Morphology (astronomy), study of the shape of astronomical ob ...
('' ''). *' (
derivation Derivation may refer to: * Derivation (differential algebra), a unary function satisfying the Leibniz product law * Derivation (linguistics) * Formal proof or derivation, a sequence of sentences each of which is an axiom or follows from the precedi ...
) examining the origin of the words. *' (
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
) which elucidates stylistic quality, or eloquence. The grammar or grammars of contemporary
varieties of Arabic The varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in univer ...
are a different question. Said M. Badawi, an expert on Arabic grammar, divided Arabic grammar into five different types based on the speaker's level of
literacy Literacy is popularly understood as an ability to read and write Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (p ...
and the degree to which the speaker deviated from
Classical Arabic Classical Arabic ( ar, links=no, ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ, al-ʿarabīyah al-fuṣḥā) or Quranic Arabic is the standardized literary form of the Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, ...
. Badawi's five types of grammar from the most colloquial to the most formal are Illiterate Spoken Arabic ( ), Semi-literate Spoken Arabic ( ), Educated Spoken Arabic ( ),
Modern Standard Arabic Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) or Modern Written Arabic (shortened to MWA), terms used mostly by Western linguists, is the variety of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standa ...
( ), and
Classical Arabic Classical Arabic ( ar, links=no, ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ, al-ʿarabīyah al-fuṣḥā) or Quranic Arabic is the standardized literary form of the Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, ...
( ).


Phonology

Classical Arabic has 28
consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of d ...
al
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
s, including two
semi-vowel In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the syllable nucleus, nucleus of a syllable. Examples of semivowels in English are the ...
s, which constitute the
Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة, ' or , ', ), or Arabic abjad, is the as it is codified for writing . It is written from right to left in a style and includes 28 letters. Most letters hav ...

Arabic alphabet
. It also has six
vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...

vowel
phonemes (three short vowels and three long vowels). These appear as various
allophone In phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of e ...
s, depending on the preceding consonant. Short vowels are not usually represented in the written language, although they may be indicated with diacritics. Word stress varies from one Arabic dialect to another. A rough rule for word-stress in Classical Arabic is that it falls on the penultimate
syllable A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels a ...

syllable
of a word if that syllable is closed, and otherwise on the antepenultimate. ' (), elidable ''hamza'', is a phonetic object prefixed to the beginning of a word for ease of pronunciation, since Literary Arabic doesn't allow consonant clusters at the beginning of a word. Elidable ''hamza'' drops out as a vowel, if a word is preceding it. This word will then produce an ending vowel, "helping vowel" to facilitate pronunciation. This short vowel may be, depending on the preceding vowel, a ' (:  ), pronounced as ; a ' (:  ), pronounced as ; or a ' (:  ), pronounced as . If the preceding word ends in a ' (), meaning that it is not followed by a short vowel, the ' assumes a ' . The symbol ( ') indicates
gemination In phonetics and phonology, gemination (), or consonant lengthening (from Latin 'doubling', itself from ''Gemini (constellation), gemini'' 'twins'), is an articulation of a consonant for a longer period of time than that of a singleton consonan ...

gemination
or consonant doubling. See more in Tashkīl.


Nouns and adjectives

In
Classical Arabic Classical Arabic ( ar, links=no, ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ, al-ʿarabīyah al-fuṣḥā) or Quranic Arabic is the standardized literary form of the Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, ...
and
Modern Standard Arabic Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) or Modern Written Arabic (shortened to MWA), terms used mostly by Western linguists, is the variety of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standa ...
(MSA), nouns and adjectives ( ') are declined, according to
case Case or CASE may refer to: Containers * Case (goods) A case of some merchandise is a collection of items packaged together. A case is not a strict unit of measure. For consumer foodstuff such as canned goods, soft drink, soda, cereal, and such, ...
('' ''),
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
(definiteness),
gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is ...
and
number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduct ...
. In colloquial or spoken Arabic, there are a number of simplifications such as the loss of certain final vowels and the loss of case. A number of derivational processes exist for forming new nouns and adjectives. Adverbs can be formed from adjectives.


Pronouns


Personal pronouns

In Arabic,
personal pronoun Personal pronouns are pronoun In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas ...
s have 12 forms. In singular and plural, the 2nd and 3rd persons have separate
masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of vari ...
and
feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is an adult female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism that produces the large non-mob ...
forms, while the 1st person does not. In the dual, there is no 1st person, and only a single form for each 2nd and 3rd person. Traditionally, the pronouns are listed in the order 3rd, 2nd, 1st. Informal Arabic tends to avoid the dual forms ' and ' . The feminine plural forms ' and ' are likewise avoided, except by speakers of conservative colloquial varieties that still possess separate feminine plural pronouns.


Enclitic pronouns

Enclitic In morphology and syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word ...
forms of personal pronouns ( ') are affixed to various parts of speech, with varying meanings: * To the
construct state In Afro-Asiatic languages, the first noun in a genitive phrase of a possessed noun followed by a possessor noun often takes on a special morphology (linguistics), morphological form, which is termed the construct state (Latin ''status constructus'' ...
of nouns, where they have the meaning of possessive demonstratives, e.g. "my, your, his" * To verbs, where they have the meaning of direct object pronouns, e.g. "me, you, him" * To prepositions, where they have the meaning of objects of the prepositions, e.g. "to me, to you, to him" * To conjunctions and particles like ' "that ...", ' "because ...", ' "but ...", ' (topicalizing particle), where they have the meaning of subject pronouns, e.g. "because I ...", "because you ...", "because he ...". (These particles are known in Arabic as ' ( "sisters of '".) * If the personal pronoun ''-ī'' is added to a word ending in a vowel (e.g. ' "you saw"), an extra ''-n-'' is added between the word and the enclitic form to avoid a hiatus between the two vowels ( ' "you saw me"). Most of them are clearly related to the full personal pronouns.


= Variant forms

= For all but the first person singular, the same forms are used regardless of the part of speech of the word attached to. In the third person masculine singular, ' occurs after the vowels ''u'' or ''a'' ('), while ' occurs after ''i'' or ''y'' ('). The same alternation occurs in the third person dual and plural. In the first person singular, however, the situation is more complicated. Specifically, ' "me" is attached to verbs, but ' "my" is attached to nouns. In the latter case, ' is attached to nouns whose construct state ends in a long vowel or diphthong (e.g. in the sound masculine plural and the dual), while ' is attached to nouns whose construct state ends in a short vowel, in which case that vowel is elided (e.g. in the sound feminine plural, as well as the singular and broken plural of most nouns). Furthermore, ' of the masculine sound plural is assimilated to ' before ' (presumably, ' of masculine defective ''-an'' plurals is similarly assimilated to '). Examples: * From ' "book", pl. ': ' "my book" (all cases), ' "my books" (all cases), ' "my two books (nom.)", ' "my two books (acc./gen.)" * From ' "word", pl. ': ' "my word" (all cases), ' "my words" (all cases) * From ' "world", pl. ': ' "my world" (all cases), ' "my worlds" (all cases) * From ' "judge", pl. ': ' "my judge" (all cases), ' "my judges" (all cases) * From ' "teacher", pl. ': ' "my teacher" (all cases), ' "my teachers" (all cases, see above) * From ' "father": ' "my father" (nom.), ' "my father" (acc.), ' "my father" (gen.) Prepositions use ', even though in this case it has the meaning of "me" (rather than "my"). The "sisters of '" can use either form (e.g. ' or '), but the longer form (e.g. ') is usually preferred. The second-person masculine plural past tense verb ending ' changes to the variant form ' before enclitic pronouns, e.g. ' "you (masc. pl.) wrote it (masc.)".


= Pronouns with prepositions

= Some very common prepositions — including the proclitic preposition ' "to" (also used for indirect objects) — have irregular or unpredictable combining forms when the enclitic pronouns are added to them: In the above cases, when there are two combining forms, one is used with "... me" and the other with all other person/number/gender combinations. (More correctly, one occurs before vowel-initial pronouns and the other before consonant-initial pronouns, but in Classical Arabic, only ' is vowel-initial. This becomes clearer in the spoken varieties, where various vowel-initial enclitic pronouns exist.) Note in particular: * ' "to" and ' "on" have irregular combining forms ', '; but other pronouns with the same base form are regular, e.g. ' "with". * ' "to" has an irregular combining form ', but ' "in, with, by" is regular. * ' "from" and ' "on" double the final ''n'' before '.


= Less formal pronominal forms

= In a less formal Arabic, as in many spoken dialects, the endings ''-ka, -ki, and -hu'' and many others have their final short vowel dropped, for example, كِتابُكَ ''kitābuka'' would become كِتابُك ''kitābuk'' for ease of pronunciation. This doesn't make a difference to the spelling as the diacritics used to represent short vowels are not usually written.


Demonstratives

There are two
demonstrative Demonstratives (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) are words, such as ''this'' and ''that'', used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others. They are typically deictic; their meaning ...
s ( '), near-
deictic In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...

deictic
('this') and far-deictic ('that'): The dual forms are only used in very formal Arabic. Some of the demonstratives (', and ') should be pronounced with a long ', although the unvocalised script is not written with alif (). Instead of an alif, they have the diacritic (
dagger alif The dagger alif or superscript alif ( ar, ألف خنجرية ) is written as a short vertical stroke on top of an Arabic letter. It indicates a long sound where alif is normally not written, e.g. or . The dagger alif occurs in only a few mo ...
: '), which doesn't exist on Arabic keyboards and is seldom written, even in vocalised Arabic. Qur'anic Arabic has another demonstrative, normally followed by a noun in a genitive construct and meaning 'owner of': Note that the demonstrative and relative pronouns were originally built on this word. ', for example, was originally composed from the prefix ' 'this' and the masculine accusative singular '; similarly, ' was composed from ', an infixed syllable ', and the
clitic In morphology and syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word ...
suffix ' 'you'. These combinations had not yet become completely fixed in Qur'anic Arabic and other combinations sometimes occurred, e.g. ', '. Similarly, the relative pronoun ' was originally composed based on the genitive singular ', and the old Arabic grammarians noted the existence of a separate nominative plural form ' in the speech of the Hudhayl tribe in Qur'anic times. This word also shows up in
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
, e.g. masculine ''zeh'' (cf. '), feminine ''zot'' (cf. '), plural ''eleh'' (cf. ').


Relative pronoun

The
relative pronoun A relative pronoun is a pronoun In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
is declined as follows: Note that the relative pronoun agrees in gender, number and case, with the noun it modifies—as opposed to the situation in other inflected languages such as
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
and
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
, where the gender and number agreement is with the modified noun, but the case marking follows the usage of the relative pronoun in the embedded clause (as in formal English "the man who saw me" vs. "the man whom I saw"). When the relative pronoun serves a function other than the subject of the embedded clause, a
resumptive pronounA resumptive pronoun is a personal pronoun Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as ''I''), second person (as ''you''), or third person (as ''he'', ''she'', ''it'', ''th ...
is required: ', literally "the man who I spoke with him". The relative pronoun is normally omitted entirely when an indefinite noun is modified by a relative clause: ' "a man that I spoke with", literally "a man I spoke with him".


Colloquial varieties

The above system is mostly unchanged in the colloquial varieties, other than the loss of the dual forms and (for most varieties) of the feminine plural. Some of the more notable changes: *The third-person ' variants disappear. On the other hand, the first person ' variation is preserved exactly (including the different circumstances in which these variants are used), and new variants appear for many forms. For example, in
Egyptian Arabic Egyptian Arabic, locally known as Colloquial Egyptian ( ar, العامية المصرية, ), or simply ''Masri'' (), is the spoken vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people tha ...
, the second person feminine singular appears either as ' or ' depending on various factors (e.g. the phonology of the preceding word); likewise, the third person masculine singular appears variously as ', ', or ' (no ending, but stress is moved onto the preceding vowel, which is lengthened). *In many varieties, the
indirect object In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...
forms, which appear in Classical Arabic as separate words (e.g. ' "to me", ' 'to him'), become fused onto the verb, following a direct object. These same varieties generally develop a
circumfix A circumfix (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for ...
for negation (from Classical ' 'not ... a thing', composed of two separate words). This can lead to complicated
agglutinative The middle sign is in Hungarian, which agglutinates extensively. (The top and bottom signs are in Romanian and German, respectively, both inflecting languages.) The English translation is "Ministry of Food and Agriculture: Satu Mare County D ...
constructs, such as
Egyptian Arabic Egyptian Arabic, locally known as Colloquial Egyptian ( ar, العامية المصرية, ), or simply ''Masri'' (), is the spoken vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people tha ...
'he didn't write it (fem.) to me'. (Egyptian Arabic in particular has many variant pronominal affixes used in different circumstances, and very intricate
morphophonemic Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and ...
rules leading to a large number of complex alternations, depending on the particular affixes involved, the way they are put together, and whether the preceding verb ends in a vowel, a single consonant, or two consonants.) *Other varieties instead use a separate Classical pseudo-pronoun ' for direct objects (but in Hijazi Arabic the resulting construct fuses with a preceding verb). *Affixation of dual and sound plural nouns has largely vanished. Instead, all varieties possess a separate preposition with the meaning of "of", which replaces certain uses of the
construct Construct, Constructs or constructs may refer to: * Construct (information technology), a collection of logic components forming an interactive agent or environment ** Language construct * Construct (album), ''Construct'' (album), a 2013 album by ...
genitive (to varying degrees, depending on the particular variety). In
Moroccan Arabic Moroccan Arabic ( ar, اللهجة المغربية, ), known as Darija in Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark gree ...

Moroccan Arabic
, the word is ''dyal'' (also ''d-'' before a noun), e.g. ''l-kitab dyal-i'' "my book", since the construct-state genitive is mostly unproductive.
Egyptian Arabic Egyptian Arabic, locally known as Colloquial Egyptian ( ar, العامية المصرية, ), or simply ''Masri'' (), is the spoken vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people tha ...
has ''bitā‘ '', which agrees in gender and number with the preceding noun (feminine ''bitā‘it/bita‘t'', plural ''bitū‘ ''). In Egyptian Arabic, the construct-state genitive is still productive, hence either ''kitāb-i'' or ''il-kitāb bitā‘-i'' can be used for "my book" he difference between them is simlar to the difference between 'my book' and 'the book is mine' but only ''il-mu‘allimūn bitū‘-i'' "my teachers". *The declined relative pronoun has vanished. In its place is an indeclinable particle, usually ''illi'' or similar. *Various forms of the demonstrative pronouns occur, usually shorter than the Classical forms. For example, Moroccan Arabic uses ''ha l-'' "this", ''dak l-/dik l-/duk l-'' "that" (masculine/feminine/plural). Egyptian Arabic is unusual in that the demonstrative follows the noun, e.g. ''il-kitāb da'' "this book", ''il-binti di'' "this girl". *Some of the independent pronouns have slightly different forms compared with their Classical forms. For example, usually forms similar to ''inta, inti'' "you (masc./fem. sg.)" occur in place of ', and ''(n)iḥna'' "we" occurs in place of '.


Numerals


Cardinal numerals

Numbers behave in a very complicated fashion. ' "one" and ' "two" are adjectives, following the noun and agreeing with it. ' "three" through ' "ten" require a following noun in the genitive plural, but disagree with the noun in gender, while taking the case required by the surrounding syntax. ' "eleven" through ' "nineteen" require a following noun in the accusative singular, agree with the noun in gender, and are invariable for case, except for ' "twelve". The formal system of
cardinal numeral In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
s, as used in Classical Arabic, is extremely complex. The system of rules is presented below. In reality, however, this system is never used: Large numbers are always written as numerals rather than spelled out, and are pronounced using a simplified system, even in formal contexts. Example: : Formal: ' "2,912 years" : Formal: ' "after 2,912 years" : Spoken: ' "(after) 2,912 years" Cardinal numerals ( ') from 0-10. Zero is ''ṣifr'', from which the words "
cipher In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is ''encipherment''. To encipher or encode i ...

cipher
" and "
zero 0 (zero) is a number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and ...

zero
" are ultimately derived. * 0 ' () * 1 ' () * 2 ' () * 3 ' () * 4 ' () * 5 ' () * 6 ' () * 7 ' () * 8 ' () * 9 ' () * 10 ' () (feminine form ' ) The endings in brackets are dropped in less formal Arabic and in pausa. () is pronounced as simple in these cases. If a noun ending in is the first member of an idafa, the is pronounced as , while the rest of the ending is not pronounced. ' is changed to ' in oblique cases. This form is also commonly used in a less formal Arabic in the nominative case. The numerals 1 and 2 are adjectives. Thus they follow the noun and agree with gender. Numerals 3–10 have a peculiar rule of agreement known as polarity: A feminine referrer agrees with a numeral in masculine gender and vice versa, e.g. ' () "three girls". The noun counted takes indefinite genitive plural (as the attribute in a genitive construct). Numerals 11 and 13–19 are indeclinable for case, perpetually in the accusative. Numbers 11 and 12 show gender agreement in the ones, and 13-19 show polarity in the ones. Number 12 also shows case agreement, reminiscent of the dual. The gender of in numbers 11-19 agrees with the counted noun (unlike the standalone numeral 10 which shows polarity). The counted noun takes indefinite accusative singular. Unitary numbers from 20 on (i.e. 20, 30, ... 90, 100, 1000, 1000000, etc.) behave entirely as nouns, showing the case required by the surrounding syntax, no gender agreement, and a following noun in a fixed case. 20 through 90 require their noun to be in the accusative singular; 100 and up require the genitive singular. The unitary numbers themselves decline in various fashions: * ' "20" through ' "90" decline as masculine plural nouns * ' "100" ( or ) declines as a feminine singular noun * ' "1,000" () declines as a masculine singular noun The numbers 20-99 are expressed with the units preceding the tens. There is agreement in gender with the numerals 1 and 2, and polarity for numerals 3–9. The whole construct is followed by the accusative singular indefinite. * 20 ' () (plural of 10) * 21 ' () * 22 ' () * 23 ' () * 30 ' () * 40 ' () ' "100" and ' "1,000" can themselves be modified by numbers (to form numbers such as 200 or 5,000) and will be declined appropriately. For example, ' "200" and ' "2,000" with dual endings; ' "3,000" with ' in the plural genitive, but ' "300" since ' appears to have no plural. In compound numbers, the number formed with the last two digits dictates the declension of the associated noun, e.g. 212, 312, and 54,312 would all behave like 12. Large compound numbers can have, e.g.: * ' "1,909 years" * ' "after 1,909 years" * ' "94,863 years" * ' "after 94,863 years" * ' "12,222 years" * ' "after 12,222 years" * ' "12,202 years" * ' "after 12,202 years" Note also the special construction when the final number is 1 or 2: * ' "1,001 nights"
* ' "102 books"


Fractions

Fractions of a whole smaller than "half" are expressed by the structure ' () in the singular, ' () in the plural. * half ' () * one-third ' () * two-thirds ' () * one-fourth ' () * three-fourths ' () * etc.


Ordinal numerals

Ordinal numeral In linguistics, ordinal numerals or ordinal number words are words representing position or rank in a sequential order; the order may be of size, importance, chronology, and so on (e.g., "third", "tertiary"). They differ from cardinal numerals ...
s ( ') higher than "second" are formed using the structure ', ', the same as active participles of Form I verbs: *m. ', f. ' "first" *m. ' (definite form: '), f. ' "second" *m. ', f. ' "third" *m. ', f. ' "fourth" *m. ', f. ' "fifth" *m. ', f. ' "sixth" *m. ', f. ' "seventh" *m. ', f. ' "eighth" *m. ', f. ' "ninth" *m. ', f. ' "tenth" They are adjectives, hence there is agreement in gender with the noun, not polarity as with the cardinal numbers. Note that "sixth" uses a different, older root than the number six.


Verbs

Arabic verbs ( ''fi‘l''), like the verbs in other Semitic languages, are extremely complex. Verbs in Arabic are based on a root made up of three or four consonants (called a triliteral or quadriliteral root, respectively). The set of consonants communicates the basic meaning of a verb, e.g.
k-t-b K-T-B ( he, כ-ת-ב ; ar, ك-ت-ب ) is a triconsonantal root of a number of Semitic languages, Semitic words, typically those having to do with writing. The words for "office", "writer" and "record" all reflect this root. Most notably, the Arab ...
'write', q-r-’ 'read', ’-k-l 'eat'. Changes to the vowels in between the consonants, along with prefixes or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as tense, person and number, in addition to changes in the meaning of the verb that embody grammatical concepts such as mood (e.g. indicative, subjunctive, imperative), voice (active or passive), and
functions Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...
such as causative, intensive, or reflexive. Since Arabic lacks an auxiliary verb "to have", constructions using li-, ‘inda, and ma‘a with the pronominal suffixes are used to describe possession. For example: (''ʿindahu bayt'') - literally: At him (is) a house. → He has a house. For the negation of Arabic verbs, see Negation in Arabic.


Prepositions

There are two types of prepositions, based on whether they arise from the triconsonantal roots system or not. The 'true prepositions' ( ') do not stem from the triconsonantal roots. These true prepositions cannot have prepositions preceding them, in contrast to the derived triliteral prepositions. True prepositions can also be used with certain verbs to convey a particular meaning. For example, ' means "to discuss" as a transitive verb, but can mean "to search for" when followed by the preposition ', and "to do research about" when followed by '. The prepositions arising from the triliteral root system are called "adverbs of place and time" in the native tradition ( ') and work very much in the same way as the 'true' prepositions. A noun following a preposition takes the
genitive case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
. However, prepositions can take whole clauses as their object too if succeeded by the conjunctions ' or ', in which case the subject of the clause is in the nominative or the accusative respectively.


Syntax


Genitive construction ()

A noun may be defined more precisely by adding another noun immediately afterwards. In Arabic grammar, this is called ("annexation, addition") and in English is known as the "genitive construct", "construct phrase", or "annexation structure". The first noun must be in the construct form while, when cases are used, the subsequent noun must be in the genitive case. The construction is typically equivalent to the English construction "(noun) of (noun)". This is a very widespread way of forming possessive constructions in Arabic, and is typical of a Semitic language. Simple examples include: * "the daughter of Hasan/Hasan's daughter". * "the house of peace". * "a kilo of bananas". * ' "the house of a man/a man's house". * "the house of the man/the man's house". The range of relationships between the first and second elements of the ''idafah'' construction is very varied, though it usually consists of some relationship of possession or belonging. In the case of words for containers, the ''idāfah'' may express what is contained: ' "a cup of coffee". The ''idāfah'' may indicate the material something is made of: ' "a wooden ring, ring made of wood". In many cases the two members become a fixed coined phrase, the ''idafah'' being used as the equivalent of a
compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with defensive structu ...
noun used in some Indo-European languages such as English. Thus ' can mean "house of the (certain, known) students", but is also the normal term for "the student hostel".


Word order

Classical Arabic tends to prefer the word order VSO (verb before subject before object) rather than SVO (subject before verb). Verb initial
word order In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
s like in Classical Arabic are relatively rare across the world's languages, occurring only in a few language families including
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
,
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...

Austronesian
, and
Mayan Mayan most commonly refers to: * Maya peoples, various indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica and northern Central America * Maya civilization, pre-Columbian culture of Mesoamerica and northern Central America * Mayan languages, language family spoken i ...
. The alternation between VSO and SVO word orders in Arabic results in an agreement asymmetry: the verb shows person, number, and gender agreement with the subject in SVO constructions but only gender (and possibly person) agreement in VSO, to the exclusion of number. : : : : Despite the fact that the subject in the latter two above examples is plural, the verb lacks plural marking and instead surfaces as if it was in the singular form. Though early accounts of Arabic word order variation argued for a flat, non-configurational grammatical structure, more recent work has shown that there is evidence for a VP constituent in Arabic, that is, a closer relationship between verb and object than verb and subject. This suggests a hierarchical grammatical structure, not a flat one. An analysis such as this one can also explain the agreement asymmetries between subjects and verbs in SVO versus VSO sentences, and can provide insight into the syntactic position of pre- and post-verbal subjects, as well as the surface syntactic position of the verb. In the present tense, there is no overt copula in Arabic. In such clauses, the subject tends to precede the predicate, unless there is a clear demarcating pause between the two, suggesting a marked information structure. It is a matter of debate in Arabic literature whether there is a null present tense copula which syntactically precedes the subject in verbless sentences, or whether there is simply no verb, only a subject and predicate. Subject pronouns are normally omitted except for emphasis or when using a participle as a verb (participles are not marked for person). Because the verb agrees with the subject in person, number, and gender, no information is lost when pronouns are omitted. Auxiliary verbs precede main verbs, prepositions precede their objects, and nouns precede their relative clauses. Adjectives follow the noun they are modifying, and agree with the noun in case, gender, number, and state: For example, ' 'a beautiful girl' but ' 'the beautiful girl'. (Compare ' 'the girl is beautiful'.) Elative adjectives, however, usually don't agree with the noun they modify, and sometimes even precede their noun while requiring it to be in the genitive case.


''’inna''

The subject of a sentence can be topicalized and emphasized by moving it to the beginning of the sentence and preceding it with the word ' 'indeed' (or 'verily' in older translations). An example would be ' 'The sky is blue indeed'. ', along with its related terms (or "sister" terms in the native tradition) ' 'that' (as in "I think that ..."), ' 'that' (after ' 'say'), ' 'but' and ' 'as if' introduce subjects while requiring that they be immediately followed by a noun in the accusative case, or an attached pronominal suffix.


Definite article

As a
particle In the Outline of physical science, physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small wikt:local, localized physical body, object to which can be ascribed several physical property, physical or chemical property, chemical p ...
, ''al-'' does not inflect for
gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is ...
,
number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduct ...
,
person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is ...
, or
grammatical case Grammatical case is a term regarding a manner of categorizing s, s, s, s, and s according to their traditionally corresponding s within a given , , or . In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, s, participles, prepositions, numerals, art ...
. The sound of the final -l consonant, however, can vary; when followed by a sun letter such as t, d, r, s, n and a few others, it is replaced by the sound of the initial consonant of the following noun, thus doubling it. For example: for "the Nile", one does not say ''al-Nīl'', but ''an-Nīl''. When followed by a
moon letter The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet ...
, like m-, no replacement occurs, as in ''al-masjid'' ("the mosque"). This affects only the pronunciation and not the spelling of the article.


Dynasty or family

Some people, especially in the region of
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabia
, when they are descended from a famous ancestor, start their last name with , a
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
meaning "family" or "clan", like the dynasty
Al Saud The House of Saud ( ar, آل سُعُود, ʾĀl Suʿūd ) is the ruling royal family A royal family is the immediate family of kings/queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of ...

Al Saud
(family of Saud) or
Al ash-Sheikh The Al ash-Sheikh ( ar, آل الشيخ, '),Using the term ''the Al ash-Sheikh family'' is a pleonasm as the word ''Al'' already means ''family''. See Etymology. It would, in theory, be correct to use the term ''Family of the Sheikh'', but, unlike ...
(family of the Sheikh). is distinct from the definite article ال.


Other

Object pronouns are
clitic In morphology and syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word ...
s and are attached to the verb; e.g., ' 'I see her'. Possessive pronouns are likewise attached to the noun they modify; e.g., ' 'his book'. The definite article ' is a clitic, as are the prepositions ' 'to' and ' 'in, with' and the conjunctions ' 'as' and ' 'then, so'.


Reform of the Arabic tradition

An overhaul of the native systematic categorization of Arabic grammar was first suggested by the medieval philosopher , though it was not until two hundred years later when
Ibn Maḍāʾ Abu al-Abbas Ahmad bin Abd al-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Sa'id bin Harith bin Asim al-Lakhmi al-Qurtubi, better known as Ibn Maḍāʾ ( ar, ابن مضاء; 1116–1196) was an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, I ...
wrote his ''Refutation of the Grammarians'' that concrete suggestions regarding word order and linguistic governance were made. In the modern era, Egyptian litterateur Shawqi Daif renewed the call for a reform of the commonly used description of Arabic grammar, suggesting to follow trends in Western linguistics instead."The Emergency of Modern Standard Arabic,"
by Kees Versteegh. Taken from ''The Arabic Language'' by permission of the Edinburgh University Press. 1997.


See also

*
Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C. E.Watson; Walter de G ...

Arabic language
*List of Arabic dictionaries *ʾIʿrab, I‘rab * Literary Arabic *Varieties of Arabic *
Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة, ' or , ', ), or Arabic abjad, is the as it is codified for writing . It is written from right to left in a style and includes 28 letters. Most letters hav ...

Arabic alphabet
*Quranic Arabic Corpus *Romanization of Arabic *:wikt:Appendix:Arabic verbs, Wiktionary: appendix on Arabic verbs *Wikibooks:en:Arabic, WikiBook: Learn Arabic *
Sibawayh Sibawayh ( ar, سِيبَوَيْهِ ' or ; fa, سِیبُویه‎ ' ; c. 760–796), whose full name is Abu Bishr Amr ibn Uthman ibn Qanbar al-Basri (, '), was a Persian leading grammarian of Basra and author of the earliest book on Arabic ...
*Ibn Adjurrum *Ajārūmīya *Ibn Malik *Alfiya


Notes


References


External links


''Arabic conjugation 24000 Verbs''''Wright's Arabic Grammar'' Arabic Grammar: Paradigms, Literature, Exercises and Glossary By Albert SocinA Practical Arabic Grammar, Part 1Einleitung in das studium der arabischen grammatiker: Die Ajrūmiyyah des Muh'ammad bin Daūd By Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Ibn Ājurrūm''Alexis Neme and Eric Laporte (2013) Pattern-and-root inflectional morphology: the Arabic broken plural'' , year=2013'' Alexis Neme (2011), A lexicon of Arabic verbs constructed on the basis of Semitic taxonomy and using finite-state transducers''''Alexis Neme and Eric Laporte (2015), Do computer scientists deeply understand Arabic morphology?'' - , available also in Arabic, Indonesian, French
{{Language grammars Arabic grammar,