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The Apple Computer 1, originally released as the Apple Computer and known later as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a
desktop computer A desktop computer is a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, ...
released by the Apple Computer Company (now
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...
) in 1976. It was designed and hand-built by
Steve Wozniak Stephen Gary Wozniak (; born August 11, 1950), also known by his nickname "Woz", is an American electronics engineer Image:Silego clock generator.JPG, Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications en ...

Steve Wozniak
. The idea of selling the computer came from Wozniak's friend
Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term ch ...

Steve Jobs
. The Apple I was Apple's first product, and to finance its creation, Jobs sold his only motorized means of transportation, a
VW Microbus The Volkswagen Type 2, known officially (depending on body type) as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus (US), Camper (UK) or Bulli (Germany), is a forward control Cab-over, also known as cab over engine (COE), cab ...
, for a few hundred dollars (Wozniak later said that Jobs planned instead to use his bicycle to get around), and Wozniak sold his
HP-65 HP-65 in original hard case with manuals, software "Standard Pac" of magnetic cards, soft leather case, and charger The HP-65 is the first magnetic card-programmable handheld calculator. Introduced by Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packar ...

HP-65
calculator for $500. Wozniak demonstrated the first prototype in July 1976 at the
Homebrew Computer Club The Homebrew Computer Club was an early computer hobbyist group in Menlo Park, California Menlo Park is a city located at the eastern edge of San Mateo County within the San Francisco Bay Area of California in the United States. It is border ...
in
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...

Palo Alto
, California. Production was discontinued on September 30, 1977, after the June 10, 1977 introduction of its successor, the
Apple II The Apple II (stylized as apple ] '') is an 8-bit home computer">8-bit.html" ;"title="'') is an 8-bit">'') is an 8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products. It was designed primari ...

Apple II
, which Byte (magazine), ''Byte'' magazine referred to as part of the "1977 Trinity" of personal computing (along with the
PET 2001 The Commodore PET is a line of personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monito ...
from
Commodore Business Machines Commodore International (other names include Commodore International Limited, or just simply Commodore) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel. Commodore International (CI), along with its subsidiary ...
and the
TRS-80 Model I The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their RadioShack stores. The name is an abbreviation of ''Tan ...

TRS-80 Model I
from
Tandy Corporation Tandy Corporation was an American family-owned leather goods company based in Fort Worth, Texas, United States. Tandy Leather was founded in 1919 as a leather supply store. By the end of the 1950s, under the tutelage of then-CEO Charles Tandy, ...
).


History

On March 5, 1975, Steve Wozniak attended the first meeting of the
Homebrew Computer Club The Homebrew Computer Club was an early computer hobbyist group in Menlo Park, California Menlo Park is a city located at the eastern edge of San Mateo County within the San Francisco Bay Area of California in the United States. It is border ...
in Gordon French's garage. He was so inspired that he immediately set to work on what would become the Apple I computer. After building it for himself and showing it at the club, he and Steve Jobs gave out schematics (technical designs) for the computer to interested club members and even helped some of them build and test out copies. Then, Steve Jobs suggested that they design and sell a single etched and silkscreened circuit board—just the bare board, with no electronic parts—that people could use to build the computers. Wozniak calculated that having the board design laid out would cost $1,000 and manufacturing would cost another $20 per board; he hoped to recoup his costs if 50 people bought the boards for $40 each. To fund this small venture—their first company—Jobs sold his van and Wozniak sold his
HP-65 HP-65 in original hard case with manuals, software "Standard Pac" of magnetic cards, soft leather case, and charger The HP-65 is the first magnetic card-programmable handheld calculator. Introduced by Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packar ...

HP-65
calculator. Very soon after, Steve Jobs arranged to sell "something like 50" completely built computers to the
Byte Shop The byte is a units of information, unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character (computing), character of text in a computer and for this ...

Byte Shop
(a computer store in Mountain View, California) at $500 each. To fulfill the $25,000 order, they obtained $20,000 in parts at 30 days net and delivered the finished product in 10 days. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 at a price of , because Wozniak "liked repeating digits" and because of a one-third markup on the $500 wholesale price.: " iWoz", page 180. W. W. Norton, 2006. The first unit produced was used in a high school math class, and donated to
Liza Loop Liza Loop is an educational technology pioneer, futurist, technical author, and consultant. She is notable for her early use of computers in education, her creation of a public-access computer center, consulting work with Atari, Inc., Atari, Apple I ...
's public-access computer center. About 200 units were produced, and all but 25 were sold within nine or ten months. The Apple I's built-in
computer terminal A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical In engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and b ...
circuitry was distinctive. All one needed was a keyboard and a
television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly called the television, TV, TV set, tube, telly, or tele, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers, for the purpose of viewing and hearing television Television ...
. Competing machines such as the
Altair 8800 The Altair 8800 is a microcomputer A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU). It includes a microprocessor, Computer memory, memory and minimal input/output (I/O) cir ...

Altair 8800
generally were programmed with front-mounted toggle switches and used indicator lights (red
LEDs A light-emitting diode (LED) is a that emits light when flows through it. s in the semiconductor recombine with s, releasing energy in the form of s. The color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photons) is determined b ...
, most commonly) for output, and had to be extended with separate hardware to allow connection to a computer terminal or a teletypewriter machine. This made the Apple I an innovative machine for its day. In April 1977, the price was dropped to $475. It continued to be sold through August 1977, despite the introduction of the
Apple II The Apple II (stylized as apple ] '') is an 8-bit home computer">8-bit.html" ;"title="'') is an 8-bit">'') is an 8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products. It was designed primari ...

Apple II
in April 1977, which began shipping in June of that year. In October 1977, the Apple I was officially discontinued and removed from Apple's price list. As Wozniak was the only person who could answer most customer support questions about the computer, the company offered Apple I owners discounts and trade-ins for Apple IIs to persuade them to return their computers. These recovered boards were then destroyed by Apple, contributing to their rarity today.


Collectors' item

As of 2013, sixty-three Apple I computers have been confirmed to exist. Only six have been verified to be in working condition. * An Apple I reportedly sold for US$50,000 at auction in 1999. * In 2008, the website ''Vintage Computing and Gaming'' reported that Apple I owner Rick Conte was looking to sell his unit and was "expecting a price in excess of $15,000 U.S." The site later reported Conte had donated the unit to the Maine Personal Computer Museum in 2009. * A unit was sold in September 2009 for $17,480 on eBay. * A unit belonging to early Apple Computer engineers Dick and Cliff Huston was sold on March 23, 2010, for $42,766 on eBay. * In November 2010, an Apple I sold for £133,250 ($210,000) at
Christie's Christie's is a British auction house An auction is usually a process of buying and selling goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economi ...

Christie's
auction house in London. The high price was likely due to the rare documents and packaging offered in the sale in addition to the computer, including the original packaging (with the return label showing Steve Jobs' parents' address, the original Apple Computer Inc "headquarters" being their garage), a personally typed and signed letter from Jobs (answering technical questions about the computer), and the original invoice showing "Steven" as the salesman. The computer was brought to
Polytechnic University of Turin The Polytechnic University of Turin ( it, Politecnico di Torino) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receive ...
where it was fixed and used to run the
BASIC BASIC (Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming language In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the ar ...

BASIC
programming language. * On June 15, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by
Sotheby's Sotheby's () is a British-founded American multinational corporation with headquarters in New York City. It is one of the world's largest brokers of fine art, fine and decorative art, jewellery, and collectibles. It has 80 locations in 40 countr ...

Sotheby's
for a then-record $374,500, more than double the expected price. This unit is on display at the
Nexon Computer Museum The Nexon Computer Museum is a museum on Jeju Island, South Korea. It opened on July 27, 2013. It is known as one of the first permanent museum in Korea that is dedicated for the history of computer and video games. In 2017, the museum houses 6,900 ...

Nexon Computer Museum
in
Jeju City Jeju City ( ko, 제주시, Jeju-si; ) is the capital city, capital of the Jeju Province in South Korea and the largest city on Jeju Island. The city is served by Jeju International Airport (International Air Transport Association, IATA code CJU). ...
,
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
. * In October 2012, a non-working Apple I from the estate of former Apple Computer employee Joe Copson was put up for auction by Christie's, but found no bidder who was willing to pay the starting price of US$80,000 (£50,000). Copson's board had previously been listed on eBay in December 2011, with a starting bid of $170,000 and failed to sell. Following the Christie's auction, the board was restored to working condition by computer historian Corey Cohen. Copson's Apple I was once again listed on eBay, where it sold for US$236,100.03 on April 23, 2015. * On November 24, 2012, a working Apple I was sold at auction by Auction Team Breker for €400,000 (US$515,000). *On May 25, 2013, a functioning 1976 model was sold for a then-record €516,000 (US$668,000) in
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
. Auction Team Breker said "an unnamed Asian client" bought the Apple I. This particular unit has Wozniak's signature. An old business transaction letter from Jobs also was included, as well as the original owner's manual. *On June 24, 2013, an Apple I was listed by Christie's as part of a special online-only auction lot called "First Bytes: Iconic Technology From the Twentieth Century." Bidding ran through July 9, 2013. The unit sold for $390,000. *In November 2013, a working unit speculated to have been part of the original lot of 50 boards delivered to the Byte Shop was listed by Auction Team Breker for €180,000 ($242,820), but failed to sell during the auction. Immediately following the close of bidding, a private collector purchased it for €246,000 ($330,000). This board was marked "01-0046," matching the numbering placed on other units sold to the Byte Shop and included the original operation manuals, software cassettes, and shipping box autographed by Steve Wozniak. The board also bears Wozniak's signature. *In October 2014, a working, early Apple I was sold at auction for $905,000 to the
Henry Ford Museum The Henry Ford (also known as the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation and Greenfield Village, and as the Edison Institute) is a history museum complex in the Detroit suburb of Dearborn, Michigan, Dearborn, Michigan, United States. The museum ...
in Dearborn, Michigan. The sale included the keyboard, monitor, cassette decks and a manual. The auction was run by
Bonhams Bonhams is a privately owned international auction house and one of the world's oldest and largest auctioneers of fine art and antiques. It was formed by the merger In corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in whic ...
. *On December 13, 2014, a fully functioning, early Apple I was sold at auction for $365,000 by auction house
Christie's Christie's is a British auction house An auction is usually a process of buying and selling goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economi ...

Christie's
. The sale included a keyboard, custom case, original manual and a check labeled "Purchased July 1976 from
Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term ch ...

Steve Jobs
in his parents' garage in Los Altos". *On May 30, 2015, a woman reportedly dropped off boxes of electronics for disposal at an electronics recycling center in the
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
of Northern California. Included in the items removed from her garage after the death of her husband was an original Apple I computer, which the recycling firm sold for $200,000 to a private collector. It is the company's practice to give back 50% of the proceeds to the original owner when an item is sold, so they want to find the mystery donor. *On September 21, 2015, an Apple I bearing the Byte Shop number 01-0059 was listed by Bonhams Auctions as part of their "History of Science and Technology" auction with a starting bid of US$300,000. The machine was described as, "in near perfect condition." The owner, Tom Romkey, "...only used the Apple-1 once or twice, and ...set it on a shelf, and did not touch it again." The machine did not sell. However, Glenn and Shannon Dellimore, the co-founders of GLAMGLOW, a beauty company which they sold to Estee Lauder Companies, bought it after the auction through Bonhams Auction house. On the 40th Anniversary of Apple Computers 2016 the Dellimore's working Apple-1 went on loan and on display in 'Artifact' at the
V&A Museum The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of Applied arts, applied and decorative arts and design, as well as sculpture, housing a permanent collection of over 2.27 million object ...
in London, England. * On August 26, 2016, (the 40th Anniversary year of Apple Computers), the rarest Apple-1 in existence, an Apple-I prototype made and hand-built by Steve Jobs himself (according to Apple-1 expert Corey Cohen) and dubbed the 'Holy Grail' of computers was sold for $815,000 to winning bidders Glenn and Shannon Dellimore, the co-founders of cosmetics firm Glamglow, in an auction by Charitybuzz. The for-profit internet company that raises funds for nonprofit organizations declared that ten percent of the proceeds will go to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, based in New York. * On April 15, 2017, an Apple I removed from Steve Jobs's office by Apple quality control engineer Don Hutmacher was placed on display at Living Computers: Museum + Labs. This Apple I was modified by Dan Kottke and Bill Fernandez. This previously unknown unit was purchased from Hutmacher's heirs for an undisclosed amount. *On September 25, 2018, a functioning Apple I was purchased at a Dallas auction for $375,000 by an anonymous buyer. *As of January 23, 2020, a functioning, registered Apple I is listed on eBay for US$1,750,000.


Serial numbers

Both Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak have stated that Apple did not assign serial numbers to the Apple l. Several boards have been found with numbered stickers affixed to them, which appear to be inspection stickers from the PCB manufacturer/assembler. A batch of boards is known to have numbers hand-written in black permanent marker on the back; these usually appear as "01-00##" and anecdotal evidence suggests they are inventory control numbers added by the Byte Shop to the batch Apple sold them. These Byte Shop numbers have often erroneously been described as serial numbers by auction houses and in related press coverage.


Museums displaying an original Apple 1 Computer


United States

* American Computer & Robotics Museum in Bozeman, Montana *
Computer History Museum The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum of computer history, located in Mountain View, California. The museum presents stories and artifacts of Silicon Valley and the information age, and explores the computing revolution and its impact on s ...
in Mountain View, California * in Roswell, Georgia *
Pavek Museum of Broadcasting The Pavek Museum is a museum in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, United States (just west of Minneapolis, Minnesota, Minneapolis), which has one of the world's most significant collections of vintage radio and television equipment. It originated in the ...
in St. Louis Park, Minnesota *
Smithsonian Museum of American History The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves, and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, political, cultural, scientific, and military history. Among the items on display is th ...
in Washington, DC * Living Computers: Museum + Labs in Seattle, Washington
System Source Computer Museum
in Hunt Valley, Maryland


Australia

*
Powerhouse Museum The Powerhouse Museum is the major branch of the Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences (MAAS) in Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug language, Dharug: ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the List o ...
in Sydney, New South Wales


United Kingdom

*
Science Museum, London The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road Exhibition Road is a street in South Kensington South Kensington is a district just west of Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the ...
in London, United Kingdom


South Korea

*
Nexon Computer Museum The Nexon Computer Museum is a museum on Jeju Island, South Korea. It opened on July 27, 2013. It is known as one of the first permanent museum in Korea that is dedicated for the history of computer and video games. In 2017, the museum houses 6,900 ...

Nexon Computer Museum
in Jeju Island, South Korea


Switzerland


ENTER Computer Museum
in Solothurn, Switzerland


Clones and replicas

Several Apple I clones and replicas have been released in recent years. These are all created by hobbyists and marketed to the hobbyist/collector community. Availability is usually limited to small runs in response to demand. *
Replica 1 The Replica 1 is a Home computer remakes, clone of the Apple I designed by Vince Briel with permission from the Apple I's original creator Steve Wozniak. The Replica 1 is functionally a close copy of the original, but it is designed using much more ...

Replica 1
: Created by Vince Briel. A software-compatible clone, produced using modern components, released in 2003 at a price of around $150. * PE6502: Created by Jason Putnam. A single board computer kit made with all through-hole and current production components. Runs Apple 1 "Integer BASIC", a clone of AppleSoft BASIC (floating point capable), Wozmon and Krusader- all built-in ROM. 32k of RAM, and a Parallax Propeller terminal. Software compatible with the Apple 1. putnamelectronics.com * A-One: Created by Frank Achatz, also using modern components.
RC6502 Apple I Replica
which uses a modern or period CPU and MC6821 PIA, and usually modern RAM and ROM. The system is modular, with multiple boards plugging into a backplane, but a single-board version (using an Arduino Nano to replace the keyboard and video hardware with a serial interface) is also available. * Obtronix Apple I reproduction: Created by Steve Gabaly, using original components or equivalents thereof. Sold through eBay. * Mimeo 1: Created by Mike Willegal. A hardware kit designed to replicate a real Apple I as accurately possible. Buyers are expected to assemble the kits themselves. * : Created by Michael Ng and released in 2012. Similar to the Mimeo 1, but is made using the same materials and same obsolete processing technique commonly used in the 1970s. Over 400 bare boards, kits and assembled boards were sold. There are Newton NTI and non-NTI versions available. *Brain Board, a plug-in firmware board for the Apple II that, with the optional "Wozanium Pack" program, can emulate a functional Apple-1. * Replica by MDesk. An accurate copy of original Apple 1 was researched in 2012–2014. A few PCBs without components were sold for $26 in 2014.


Emulation

*Apple 1js, a web-based Apple I emulator written in JavaScript. *
MESS The mess (also called a mess deck aboard ships) is an area where military personnel Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized forc ...
, a multi-system emulator able to emulate the Apple I. *OpenEmulator, an accurate emulator of the Apple I, the ACI (Apple Cassette Interface) and CFFA1 expansion card. *Pom1, an open source Apple I emulator for Microsoft Windows, Arch Linux and Android devices. *Apple 1 Emulator, an emulator for the home computer. *CocoaPom, a Java-based emulator with a Cocoa front-end for Macintosh. *Sim6502, an Apple I emulator for Macintosh. *Green Delicious Apple-1, an emulator for the
Commodore 64 The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit In computer architecture In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation ...

Commodore 64
.http://csdb.dk/release/?id=118857, retrieved February 28, 2018


See also

* Computer museums *
History of computing The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one o ...
*
History of computer science The history of computer science began long before our modern discipline of computer science, usually appearing in forms like mathematics or physics. Developments in previous centuries alluded to the discipline that we now know as computer science. ...


References


Citations


Sources

* Price, Rob, So Far: the First Ten Years of a Vision, Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA, 1987, . * Owad, Tom (2005).
Apple I Replica Creation: Back to the Garage.
' Rockland, MA: Syngress Publishing. Copyright 2005. .


External links


Apple I Computer specifications



Apple I Owners Club

Apple I Operational Manual

Apple I project on www.sbprojects.com

Apple 1 Computer Registry



John Calande III blog – Building the Apple I clone, including corrections on the early history of Apple ComputerSale of Apple 1 on EbayApple 1 , Cameron's Closet
– includes display of the Apple 1's character set on real hardware, compared to on most emulators {{Use mdy dates, date=October 2013 Computer-related introductions in 1976 Apple II family Apple Inc. hardware Early microcomputers 6502-based home computers