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Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat, (25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was an Egyptian politician who served as the third President of Egypt, from 15 October 1970 until his
assassination Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, head of government, heads of government, politicians, Monarchy, royalty, celebrity, celebrities, journalists, or CEOs. An assassin ...
by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the
Free OfficersFree Officers Movement can mean: * Free Officers Movement (Egypt) File:Free Officers, 1953.jpg, alt=Eight men in dressed in military uniform, posing in a room around a rectangular table. All the men, except for third and fifth persons from the left ...
who overthrew
King Farouk Farouk I (; ar, فاروق الأول ''Fārūq al-Awwal''; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to th ...
in the
Egyptian Revolution of 1952 The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 ( ar, ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the 23 July Revolution, was a period of profound political, economic, and societal change in Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic ...
, and a close confidant of President
Gamal Abdel Nasser Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein, ( ɡəˈmɑːl æbdɛl ˈnɑːsər; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East Th ...

Gamal Abdel Nasser
, under whom he served as
Vice President A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously apply ...
twice and whom he succeeded as president in 1970. In 1978, Sadat and
Menachem Begin Menachem Begin ( ''Menaḥem Begin'' (); pl, Menachem Begin (Polish documents, 1931–1937); ''Menakhem Volfovich Begin''; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the List of Prime Ministers of Israel, ...

Menachem Begin
, Prime Minister of Israel, signed a peace treaty in cooperation with United States President
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
, for which they were recognized with the
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 Decemb ...
. In his eleven years as president, he changed
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
's trajectory, departing from many of the political and economic tenets of
Nasserism Nasserism ( ''at-Tayyār an-Nāṣerī'') is a Arab socialism, socialist Arab nationalism, Arab nationalist List of political ideologies, political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the 1952 ...
, re-instituting a
multi-party system In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decis ...
, and launching the
Infitah ''Infitah'' ( ar, انفتاح ', "openness") was Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A con ...
economic policy. As President, he led Egypt in the
Yom Kippur War The Yom Kippur War, also known as the Ramadan War, the October War, the 1973 Arab–Israeli War or the Fourth Arab–Israeli War, was an armed conflict fought from 6 to 25 October 1973 between Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵ ...
of 1973 to regain Egypt's
Sinai Peninsula The Sinai Peninsula, or simply Sinai (now usually ) (, ), is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other ...

Sinai Peninsula
, which
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
had occupied since the
Six-Day War The Six-Day War (; ar, النكسة, translit=an-Naksah, lit=The Setback or ), also known as the June War, the 1967 Arab–Israeli War or the Third Arab–Israeli War, was an armed conflict fought from 5 to 10 June 1967 between Israel and a ...
of 1967, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a time, the wider
Arab World The Arab world ( ar, العالم العربي '), formally the Arab homeland ( '), also known as the Arab nation ( '), the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Member states of the Arab League, Arab countries which are members of ...

Arab World
. Afterwards, he engaged in negotiations with Israel, culminating in the
Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty
Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty
; this won him and Menachem Begin the Nobel Peace Prize, making Sadat the first
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
Nobel laureate. Although reaction to the treaty—which resulted in the return of Sinai to Egypt—was generally favorable among Egyptians,Peace with Israel
/ref> it was rejected by the country's
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
and the left, which felt Sadat had abandoned efforts to ensure a
Palestinian The Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī''), also referred to as Palestinians ( ar, الفلسطينيون, links=no, ''al-Filasṭīniyyūn''; he, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian A ...
state. With the exception of Sudan, the Arab world and the
Palestine Liberation Organization The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; ar, منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية, ') is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the Arab unity and the liberation of Palestine. It is recognized as the sole legitimat ...
(PLO) strongly opposed Sadat's efforts to make a separate peace with Israel without prior consultations with the Arab states. His refusal to reconcile with them over the Palestinian issue resulted in Egypt being suspended from the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
from 1979 to 1989. The peace treaty was also one of the primary factors that led to his assassination; on 6 October 1981, militants led by
Khalid Islambouli Khalid Ahmed Showky El Islambouli ( ar, خالد أحمد شوقي الإسلامبولي, ) (15 January 1955 – 15 April 1982) was an Egyptian army officer who planned and participated in the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, duri ...
opened fire on Sadat with automatic rifles during the 6 October parade in Cairo, killing him.


Early life and revolutionary activities

Anwar Sadat was born on 25 December 1918 in Mit Abu El Kom, Monufia, Egypt to a poor family, one of 13 brothers and sisters. One of his brothers,
Atef Sadat Mohamed Atef Anwar Sadat ( ar, محمد عاطف أنور السادات; 13 March 1948 – 6 October 1973) was a fighter pilot in the Egyptian Air Force who had the rank of flight lieutenant. In the Yom Kippur War, he and a colleague were killed ...
, later became a pilot and was killed in action during the October War of 1973. His father, Anwar Mohammed El Sadat was an Upper Egyptian, and his mother, Sit Al-Berain, was Sudanese from her father. He graduated from the
Royal Military AcademyRoyal Military Academy may refer to: * Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, a British Army academy established in 1741 and closed in 1939 * Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, a British Army academy established in 1947 * Royal Military Academy (Belgium) ...
in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
in 1938 and was appointed to the Signal Corps. He entered the army as a second lieutenant and was posted to Sudan (Egypt and Sudan were one country at the time). There, he met
Gamal Abdel Nasser Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein, ( ɡəˈmɑːl æbdɛl ˈnɑːsər; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East Th ...

Gamal Abdel Nasser
, and along with several other junior officers they formed the secret
Free OfficersFree Officers Movement can mean: * Free Officers Movement (Egypt) File:Free Officers, 1953.jpg, alt=Eight men in dressed in military uniform, posing in a room around a rectangular table. All the men, except for third and fifth persons from the left ...
, a movement committed to freeing Egypt and Sudan from British domination, and royal corruption. During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
he was imprisoned by the British for his efforts to obtain
help Help may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Help (2010 film), ''Help'' (2010 film), a Bollywood horror film * Help (2021 film), ''Help'' (2021 film), a British psychological thriller film * Help! (film), ''Help!'' (film), a 196 ...
from the Axis Powers in expelling the occupying British forces. Anwar Sadat was active in many political movements, including the Muslim Brotherhood, the fascist Young Egypt, the pro-palace Iron Guard of Egypt, and the secret military group called the Free Officers. Along with his fellow Free Officers, Sadat participated in the military coup that launched the
Egyptian Revolution of 1952 The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 ( ar, ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the 23 July Revolution, was a period of profound political, economic, and societal change in Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic ...
, which overthrew
King Farouk Farouk I (; ar, فاروق الأول ''Fārūq al-Awwal''; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to th ...
on 23 July of that year. Sadat was assigned to announce the news of the revolution to the Egyptian people over the radio networks.


During Nasser's presidency

During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat was appointed minister of State in 1954. He was also appointed editor of the newly founded daily ''
Al Gomhuria ''Al Gomhuria'' ( ar, الجمهورية; en, The Republic) is an influential state-owned Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corner o ...
''. In 1959, he assumed the position of Secretary to the National Union. Sadat was the President of the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
(1960–1968) and then
vice president A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously apply ...
and member of the presidential council in 1964. He was reappointed as vice president again in December 1969.


Presidency

Some of the major events of Sadat's presidency were his "Corrective Revolution" to consolidate power, the break with Egypt's long-time ally and aid-giver the
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state that spanned Eurasia during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a Federation, federal union of multiple national Republics of ...

USSR
, the 1973 October War with Israel, the Camp David peace treaty with Israel, the "opening up" (or
Infitah ''Infitah'' ( ar, انفتاح ', "openness") was Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A con ...
) of Egypt's economy, and lastly his assassination in 1981. Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after the latter's death in October 1970. Sadat's presidency was widely expected to be short-lived. Viewing him as having been little more than a puppet of the former president, Nasser's supporters in government settled on Sadat as someone they could manipulate easily. Sadat surprised everyone with a series of astute political moves by which he was able to retain the presidency and emerge as a leader in his own right. On 15 May 1971,''Le prophète et Pharaon'' by Kepel, p. 74 Sadat announced his '' Corrective Revolution'', purging the government, political and security establishments of the most ardent Nasserists. Sadat encouraged the emergence of an Islamist movement, which had been suppressed by Nasser. Believing Islamists to be socially conservative he gave them "considerable cultural and ideological autonomy" in exchange for political support. In 1971, three years into the
War of Attrition The War of Attrition ( ar, حرب الاستنزاف, Ḥarb al-Istinzāf; he, מלחמת ההתשה, Milhemet haHatashah) involved fighting between Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْر ...
in the Suez Canal zone, Sadat endorsed in a letter the peace proposals of UN negotiator
Gunnar Jarring Gunnar Valfrid Jarring (12 October 1907 – 29 May 2002) was a Sweden, Swedish diplomat and Turkic languages, Turkologist. Early life Jarring was born in Brunnby, Malmöhus County, Sweden, the son of Gottfrid Jönsson, a farmer, and his wife Betty ...
, which seemed to lead to a full peace with
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
on the basis of Israel's withdrawal to its pre-war borders. This peace initiative failed as neither Israel nor the United States of America accepted the terms as discussed then.


Corrective Revolution

Shortly after taking office, Sadat shocked many Egyptians by dismissing and imprisoning two of the most powerful figures in the regime, Vice President
Ali Sabri Ali Sabri ( ar, على صبرى, ) (30 August 1920 – 3 August 1991, Cairo) was an Egyptian politician of Turkish people, Turkish origin. Family background His parents, Dewlet Shamsi (mother) and Abbas-Baligh Sabri (father) were of Turks in E ...

Ali Sabri
, who had close ties with Soviet officials, and Sharawy Gomaa, the Interior Minister, who controlled the secret police. Sadat's rising popularity would accelerate after he cut back the powers of the hated secret police, expelled Soviet military from the country and reformed the Egyptian army for a renewed confrontation with Israel.


Yom Kippur War

On 6 October 1973, in conjunction with
Hafez al-Assad Hafez al-Assad ', , (6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and military officer who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. He was also Prime Minister of Syria from 1970 to 1971, as well as regional secretary o ...
of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
, Sadat launched the October War, also known as the Yom Kippur War (and less commonly as the Ramadan War), a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Egyptian
Sinai Peninsula The Sinai Peninsula, or simply Sinai (now usually ) (, ), is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other ...

Sinai Peninsula
, and the Syrian
Golan Heights The Golan Heights ( ar, هَضْبَةُ الْجَوْلَانِ, Haḍbatu l-Jawlān or , he, רמת הגולן, ), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region ...
in an attempt to retake these respective Egyptian and Syrian territories that had been occupied by Israel since the Six Day War six years earlier. The Egyptian and Syrian performance in the initial stages of the war astonished both Israel, and the Arab World. The most striking achievement ( Operation Badr, also known as The Crossing) was the Egyptian military's advance approximately 15 km into the occupied Sinai Peninsula after penetrating and largely destroying the
Bar Lev Line The Bar Lev Line ( he, קו בר לב, ''Kav Bar Lev''; ar, خط بارليف, ''Khaṭṭ Barlīf'') was a chain of fortifications built by Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as th ...
. This line was popularly thought to have been an impregnable defensive chain. As the war progressed, three divisions of the Israeli army led by General
Ariel Sharon Ariel Sharon (; , ', also known by his diminutive A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can ...

Ariel Sharon
had crossed the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
, trying to encircle first the Egyptian Second Army. Although this failed, prompted by an agreement between the United States of America and the Soviet Union, the
United Nations Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...

United Nations Security Council
passed Resolution 338 on 22 October 1973, calling for an immediate ceasefire. Although agreed upon, the ceasefire was immediately broken.
Alexei Kosygin Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin ( rus, Алексе́й Никола́евич Косы́гин, r=Aleksej Nikolajevič Kosygin, p=ɐlʲɪkˈsʲej nʲɪkɐˈla(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ kɐˈsɨɡʲɪn; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet people, Soviet-Russians, ...
, the
Chairman The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn flat ** Plank (wood) ** Cutting ...
of the
USSR Council of Ministers The Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( rus, Сове́т мини́стров СССР, r=Sovet Ministrov SSSR, p=sɐˈvʲɛt mʲɪˈnʲistrəf ɛsɛsɛˈsɛr; sometimes abbreviated to ''Sovmin'' or referred to as th ...
, cancelled an official meeting with Danish Prime Minister Anker Jørgensen to travel to Egypt where he tried to persuade Sadat to sign a peace treaty. During Kosygin's two-day long stay it is unknown if he and Sadat ever met in person. The Israeli military then continued their drive to encircle the Egyptian army. The encirclement was completed on 24 October, three days after the ceasefire was broken. This development prompted superpower tension, but a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on 25 October to end the war. At the conclusion of hostilities, Israeli forces were 40 kilometres (25 mi) from
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
and 101 kilometres (63 mi) from
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
.


Peace with Israel

The initial Egyptian and Syrian victories in the war restored popular morale throughout Egypt and the Arab World and, for many years after, Sadat was known as the "Hero of the Crossing". Israel recognized Egypt as a formidable foe, and Egypt's renewed political significance eventually led to regaining and reopening the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
through the peace process. His new peace policy led to the conclusion of two agreements on disengagement of forces with the Israeli government. The first of these agreements was signed on 18 January 1974, and the second on 4 September 1975. One major aspect of Sadat's peace policy was to gain some religious support for his efforts. Already during his visit to the US in October–November 1975, he invited Evangelical pastor
Billy Graham William Franklin Graham Jr. (November 7, 1918 – February 21, 2018) was an American evangelist, a prominent evangelical Christian Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-den ...

Billy Graham
for an official visit, which was held a few days after Sadat's visit. In addition to cultivating relations with Evangelical Christians in the US, he also built some cooperation with the Vatican. On 8 April 1976, he visited the Vatican for the first time, and got a message of support from
Pope Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the ...
regarding achieving peace with Israel, to include a just solution to the Palestinian issue. Sadat, on his part, extended to the Pope a public invitation to visit Cairo. Sadat also used the media to promote his purposes. In an interview he gave to the Lebanese paper ''El Hawadeth'' in early February 1976, he claimed he had secret commitment from the US government to put pressure on the Israeli government for a major withdrawal in Sinai and the Golan Heights. This statement caused some concern to the Israeli government, but Kissinger denied such a promise was ever made. In January 1977, a series of 'Bread Riots' protested Sadat's economic liberalization and specifically a government decree lifting
price controls Price controls are restrictions set in place and enforced by governments, on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market. The intent behind implementing such controls can stem from the desire to maintain affordability of goods ...
on basic necessities like bread. The riots lasted for two days and included hundreds of thousands in Cairo. 120 buses and hundreds of buildings were destroyed in Cairo alone. The riots ended with the deployment of the army and the re-institution of the subsidies/price controls. During this time, Sadat was also taking a new approach towards improving relations with the West. The United States and the Soviet Union agreed on 1 October 1977, on principles to govern a Geneva conference on the Middle East. Syria continued to resist such a conference. Not wanting either Syria or the Soviet Union to influence the peace process, Sadat decided to take more progressive stance towards building a comprehensive peace agreement with Israel. On 19 November 1977, Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel officially when he met with Israeli Prime Minister
Menachem Begin Menachem Begin ( ''Menaḥem Begin'' (); pl, Menachem Begin (Polish documents, 1931–1937); ''Menakhem Volfovich Begin''; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the List of Prime Ministers of Israel, ...

Menachem Begin
, and spoke before the
Knesset The Knesset ( he, הַכְּנֶסֶת ; "gathering" or "assembly") is the unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber ...

Knesset
in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
about his views on how to achieve a comprehensive peace to the
Arab–Israeli conflict The Arab–Israeli conflict includes the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between Arab League, Arab countries and Israel, which escalated during the 20th century, but had mostly faded out in the early 21st century. The roots o ...
, which included the full implementation of UN Resolutions 242 and 338. He said during his visit that he hopes "that we can keep the momentum in Geneva, and may God guide the steps of Premier Begin and Knesset, because there is a great need for hard and drastic decision". The Peace treaty was finally signed by Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in Washington, D.C., United States, on 26 March 1979, following the
Camp David Accords (1978) The Camp David Accords were a pair of political agreements signed by President of Egypt, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Prime Minister of Israel, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret neg ...
, a series of meetings between Egypt and Israel facilitated by US President
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
. Both Sadat and Begin were awarded the
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 Decemb ...
for creating the treaty. In his acceptance speech, Sadat referred to the long-awaited peace desired by both Arabs and Israelis: The main features of the agreement were the mutual recognition of each country by the other, the cessation of the state of war that had existed since the
1948 Arab–Israeli War The 1948 (or First) Arab–Israeli War was the second and final stage of the 1947–1949 Palestine war, 1947–49 Palestine war. It formally began following the end of the British Mandate for Palestine at midnight on 14 May 1948; the Israeli ...
, and the complete withdrawal by Israel of its armed forces and civilians from the rest of the
Sinai Peninsula The Sinai Peninsula, or simply Sinai (now usually ) (, ), is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other ...

Sinai Peninsula
, which Israel had captured during the 1967
Six-Day War The Six-Day War (; ar, النكسة, translit=an-Naksah, lit=The Setback or ), also known as the June War, the 1967 Arab–Israeli War or the Third Arab–Israeli War, was an armed conflict fought from 5 to 10 June 1967 between Israel and a ...
. The agreement also provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
and recognition of the
Strait of Tiran The Straits of Tiran ( ar, مضيق تيران ') are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai peninsula, Sinai and Arabian Peninsula, Arabian peninsulas which separate the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea proper. The distance between the two peni ...
and the
Gulf of Aqaba The Gulf of Aqaba ( ar, خَلِيجُ ٱلْعَقَبَةِ, Khalīj al-ʿAqabah) or Gulf of Eilat ( he, מפרץ אילת, Mifrátz Eilát) is a large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian ...

Gulf of Aqaba
as international waterways. The agreement notably made Egypt the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel. The peace agreement between Egypt and Israel has remained in effect since the treaty was signed. The treaty was extremely unpopular in most of the Arab World and the wider Muslim World. His predecessor Nasser had made Egypt an icon of Arab nationalism, an ideology that appeared to be sidelined by an Egyptian orientation following the 1973 war (see
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...
). The neighboring Arab countries believed that in signing the accords, Sadat had put Egypt's interests ahead of Arab unity, betraying Nasser's
pan-Arabism Pan-Arabism ( ar, الوحدة العربية or ) is an ideology that espouses the unification of the countries of North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is ...
, and destroyed the vision of a united "Arab front" for the support of the Palestinians against the "Zionist Entity". However, Sadat decided early on that peace was the solution. Sadat's shift towards a strategic relationship with the US was also seen as a betrayal by many Arabs. In the United States his peace moves gained him popularity among some
Evangelical Evangelicalism (), also called evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century ...
circles. He was awarded the Prince of Peace Award by
Pat Robertson Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is an American , , political commentator, former Republican presidential candidate, and former minister. Robertson advocates a ideology and is known for his past activities in . He is as ...
. In 1979, the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
suspended Egypt in the wake of the Egyptian–Israel peace agreement, and the League moved its headquarters from
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
to
Tunis Tunis ( ar, تونس ') is the and largest city of . The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as "", has about 2,700,000 inhabitants. , it is the fourth-largest city in the region (after , and ) and the in the . Situated on ...

Tunis
. Arab League member states believed in the elimination of the "Zionist Entity" and Israel at that time. It was not until 1989 that the League re-admitted Egypt as a member, and returned its headquarters to Cairo. As part of the peace deal, Israel withdrew from the
Sinai Peninsula The Sinai Peninsula, or simply Sinai (now usually ) (, ), is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other ...

Sinai Peninsula
in phases, completing its withdrawal from the entire territory except the town of Taba by 25 April 1982 (withdrawal from which did not occur until 1989). The improved relations Egypt gained with the West through the Camp David Accords soon gave the country resilient economic growth. By 1980, however, Egypt's strained relations with the Arab World would result in a period of rapid inflation.


Relationship with Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran

The relationship between Iran and Egypt had fallen into open hostility during
Gamal Abdel Nasser Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein, ( ɡəˈmɑːl æbdɛl ˈnɑːsər; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East Th ...

Gamal Abdel Nasser
's presidency. Following his death in 1970, President Sadat turned this around quickly into an open and close friendship. In 1971, Sadat addressed the
Iranian parliament The Islamic Consultative Assembly ( fa, مجلس شورای اسلامی, Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majles (Arabicised spelling Majlis), is the national legislative body A legislature is ...
in
Tehran Tehran (; fa, تهران ) is the Capital city, capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the List of largest cities o ...

Tehran
in fluent
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
, describing the 2,500-year-old historic connection between the two lands. Overnight, the Egyptian and Iranian governments were turned from bitter enemies into fast friends. The relationship between
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
and
Tehran Tehran (; fa, تهران ) is the Capital city, capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the List of largest cities o ...

Tehran
became so friendly that the
Shah Shah (; fa, شاه, Šâh or Šāh, , ) was a title given to the emperors and kings of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is ...

Shah
of Iran,
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Pahlavi ( fa, محمدرضا پهلوی, ; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (), was the last ''Shah Shah (; fa, شاه, Šâh or Šāh, , ) was a title given to the emperors and king ...

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
, called Sadat his "dear brother". After the 1973 war with Israel, Iran assumed a leading role in cleaning up and reactivating the blocked
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
with heavy investment. The country also facilitated the withdrawal of Israel from the occupied
Sinai Peninsula The Sinai Peninsula, or simply Sinai (now usually ) (, ), is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other ...

Sinai Peninsula
by promising to substitute the loss of the oil to the Israelis with free Iranian oil if they withdrew from the Egyptian oil wells in western Sinai. All these added more to the personal friendship between Sadat and the Shah of Iran. (The Shah's first wife was Princess Fawzia of Egypt. She was the eldest daughter of Sultan Fuad I of Egypt and Sudan (later King
Fuad I Fuad I ( ar, فؤاد الأول ''Fu’ād al-Awwal''; tr, I. Fuad or ; 26 March 1868 – 28 April 1936) was the Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a Royal and noble ranks, position with several historical meanings. Originally, it w ...
) and his second wife Nazli Sabri.) After his overthrow, the deposed Shah spent the last months of his life in exile in Egypt. When the Shah died, Sadat ordered that he be given a
state funeral A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of Etiquette, protocol, held to honour people of national significance. State funerals usually include much pomp and ceremony as well as religious overtones and distinctive e ...
and be interred at the
Al-Rifa'i Mosque Al-Rifa'i Mosque ( ar, مسجد الرفاعي, transliterated also as ''Al-Rifai'', Al-Refai, Al-Refa'i, El-Refa'i, and named in English: the Refaai Mosque) is located in Midan al-Qal'a ( ar, ميدان القلعة), adjacent to the Cairo Citade ...

Al-Rifa'i Mosque
in Cairo, the resting place of Egyptian
Khedive Khedive (, ota, خدیو, hıdiv; ar, خديوي, khudaywī) was an honorific An honorific is a title that conveys esteem, courtesy, or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person. Sometimes, the term "honor ...

Khedive
Isma'il Pasha Isma'il Pasha ( ar, إسماعيل باشا ''Ismā‘īl Bāshā''; tr, İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive Khedive (, ota, خدیو, hıdiv; ar, خديوي, khudaywī) was ...

Isma'il Pasha
, his mother Khushyar Hanim, and numerous other members of the royal family of Egypt and Sudan.


Assassination

The last months of Sadat's presidency were marked by internal uprising. Sadat dismissed allegations that the rioting was incited by domestic issues, believing that the Soviet Union was recruiting its regional allies in Libya and Syria to incite an uprising that would eventually force him out of power. Following a failed military coup in June 1981, Sadat ordered a major crackdown that resulted in the arrest of numerous opposition figures. Although Sadat still maintained high levels of popularity in Egypt, it has been said that he was assassinated "at the peak" of his unpopularity. Earlier in his presidency,
Islamists Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts. The term can refer to diverse forms of social and political activism advocating that public and political life should be guided by Islamic principles or m ...
had benefited from the 'rectification revolution' and the release from prison of activists jailed under Nasser. But Sadat's Sinai treaty with Israel enraged Islamists, particularly the radical
Egyptian Islamic Jihad The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ, ar, الجهاد الإسلامي المصري), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad ( ar, الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jih ...
. According to interviews and information gathered by journalist
Lawrence Wright Lawrence Wright (born August 2, 1947) is an American writer and journalist, who is a staff writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different styles and techniques to communicate ideas. Writers produce different forms of liter ...

Lawrence Wright
, the group was recruiting military officers and accumulating weapons, waiting for the right moment to launch "a complete overthrow of the existing order" in Egypt. Chief strategist of El-Jihad was
Abbud al-Zumar Aboud El Zomor (also ''Abboud Al-Zumar'', ''Abbud al-Zumar'', ''Aboud el-Zomoor'', ''Abboud el-Zomor'', ''Abboud al-Zomor'', ''Abod Zoummar'', ar, عبود الزمر, Abbud al-Zummar, , born August 1948) is an Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِص ...
, a colonel in the military intelligence whose "plan was to kill the main leaders of the country, capture the headquarters of the army and State Security, the telephone exchange building, and of course the radio and television building, where news of the Islamic revolution would then be broadcast, unleashing—he expected—a popular uprising against secular authority all over the country". In February 1981, Egyptian authorities were alerted to El-Jihad's plan by the arrest of an operative carrying crucial information. In September, Sadat ordered a highly unpopular roundup of more than 1,500 people, including many Jihad members, but also the Coptic Pope and other Coptic clergy, intellectuals and activists of all ideological stripes. All non-government press was banned as well. The round up missed a Jihad cell in the military led by Lieutenant
Khalid Islambouli Khalid Ahmed Showky El Islambouli ( ar, خالد أحمد شوقي الإسلامبولي, ) (15 January 1955 – 15 April 1982) was an Egyptian army officer who planned and participated in the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, duri ...
, who would succeed in assassinating Anwar Sadat that October. According to Tala'at Qasim, ex-head of the Gama'a Islamiyya interviewed in '' Middle East Report'', it was not Islamic Jihad but his organization, known in English as the "Islamic Group", that organized the assassination and recruited the assassin (Islambouli). Members of the Group's 'Majlis el-Shura' ('Consultative Council') – headed by the famed 'blind shaykh' – were arrested two weeks before the killing, but they did not disclose the existing plans and Islambouli succeeded in assassinating Sadat. On 6 October 1981, Sadat was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Egypt's crossing of the Suez Canal. Islambouli emptied his assault rifle into Sadat's body while in the front of the grandstand, mortally wounding the President. In addition to Sadat, eleven others were killed, including the
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
n ambassador, an
Oman Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Formerly a maritime empire, Oman is the oldest continuously in ...

Oman
i general, a
Coptic Orthodox Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts The Copts ( cop, ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, translit=niremenkhemi; ar, الْقِبْط, ) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt. Mos ...
bishop and Samir Helmy, the head of Egypt's
Central Auditing AgencyThe Central Auditing Organization () is an independent auditing An audit is an "independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, irrespective of its size or legal form when such an examination is co ...
(CAA). Twenty-eight were wounded, including Vice President Hosni Mubarak, Minister for Defence (Ireland), Irish Defence Minister James Tully (Irish politician), James Tully, and four US military liaison officers. The assassination squad was led by Lieutenant
Khalid Islambouli Khalid Ahmed Showky El Islambouli ( ar, خالد أحمد شوقي الإسلامبولي, ) (15 January 1955 – 15 April 1982) was an Egyptian army officer who planned and participated in the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, duri ...
after a fatwā approving the assassination had been obtained from Omar Abdel-Rahman. Islambouli was tried, found guilty, sentenced to death, and executed by firing squad in April 1982.


Aftermath

Sadat was succeeded by his vice president Hosni Mubarak, whose hand was injured during the attack. Sadat's funeral was attended by a record number of dignitaries from around the world, including a rare simultaneous attendance by three former US presidents: Gerald Ford,
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
and Richard Nixon. Sudan's President Gaafar Nimeiry was the only Arab head of state to attend the funeral. Only 3 of 24 states in the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
—Oman, Somalia and Sudan—sent representatives at all. Israel's prime minister,
Menachem Begin Menachem Begin ( ''Menaḥem Begin'' (); pl, Menachem Begin (Polish documents, 1931–1937); ''Menakhem Volfovich Begin''; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the List of Prime Ministers of Israel, ...

Menachem Begin
, considered Sadat a personal friend and insisted on attending the funeral, walking throughout the funeral procession so as not to desecrate the Sabbath. Sadat was buried in Unknown Soldier Memorial (Egypt), the unknown soldier memorial in Cairo, across the street from the stand where he was assassinated. Over three hundred Islamic radicals were indicted in the trial of assassin Khalid Islambouli, including future al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, Omar Abdel-Rahman, and Abd al-Hamid Kishk. The trial was covered by the international press and Zawahiri's knowledge of English made him the de facto spokesman for the defendants. Zawahiri was released from prison in 1984. Aboud El Zomor, Abboud al-Zomor and Tareq al-Zomor, two Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Islamic Jihad leaders imprisoned in connection with the assassination, were released on 11 March 2011. Despite these facts, the nephew of the late president, Talaat Sadat, claimed that the assassination was an international conspiracy. On 31 October 2006, he was sentenced to a year in prison for Defamation, defaming Egypt's armed forces, less than a month after he gave the interview accusing Egyptian generals of masterminding his uncle's assassination. In an interview with a Saudi television channel, he also claimed both the United States and Israel were involved: "No one from the special personal protection group of the late president fired a single shot during the killing, and not one of them has been put on trial," he said.


Media portrayals of Anwar Sadat

In 1983, ''Sadat (film), Sadat'', a miniseries based on the life of Anwar Sadat, aired on US television with Academy Award, Oscar-winning actor Louis Gossett, Jr. in the title role. The film was promptly banned by the Egyptian government, as were all other movies produced and distributed by Columbia Pictures, over allegations of historical inaccuracies. A civil lawsuit was brought by Egypt's artists' and film unions against Columbia Pictures and the film's directors, producers and scriptwriters before a court in Cairo, but was dismissed, since the alleged slanders, having taken place outside the country, fell outside the Egyptian courts' jurisdiction. The film was critically acclaimed in North America, but was unpopular among Egyptians and in the Egyptian press. Western authors attributed the film's poor reception in Egypt to racism – Gossett being African-American – in the Egyptian government or Egypt in general.Benjamin P. Bowser, ''Racism and Anti-Racism in World Perspective (Sage Series on Race and Ethnic Relations, Volume 13)'', (Sage Publications, Inc: 1995), p. 108
Upset by 'Sadat,' Egypt Bars Columbia Films
/ref> Either way, one Western source wrote that Sadat's portrayal by Gossett "bothered race-conscious Egyptians and wouldn't have pleased [the deceased] Sadat," who identified as Egyptian and Northeast African, not black. The two-part series earned Gossett an Emmy Award, Emmy nomination in the United States. He was portrayed by Robert Loggia in the 1982 television movie ''A Woman Called Golda'', opposite Ingrid Bergman as Golda Meir. The first Egyptian depiction of Sadat's life came in 2001, when ''Ayyam El Sadat'' (English: ''Days of Sadat'') was released in Egyptian cinemas. This movie, by contrast, was a major success in Egypt, and was hailed as Ahmed Zaki (actor), Ahmed Zaki's greatest performance to date. The young Sadat is a major character in Ken Follett's thriller ''The Key to Rebecca'', taking place in World War II Cairo. Sadat, at the time a young officer in the Egyptian Army and involved in anti-British revolutionary activities, is presented quite sympathetically; his willingness to cooperate with German spies is clearly shown to derive from his wish to find allies against British domination of his country, rather than from support of Nazi ideology. Some of the scenes in the book, such as Sadat's arrest by the British, closely follow the information provided in Sadat's own autobiography. Sadat was a recurring character on ''Saturday Night Live'', played by Garrett Morris, who bore a resemblance to Sadat.


Honour


Foreign honour

* : Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm (1965) * : Congressional Gold Medal (2018)http://www.egypttoday.com/Article/1/61941/Trump-signs-law-honoring-Anwar-Sadat


Bibliography

* * * * *


Notes


See also

* History of Egypt under Anwar Sadat


References


Further reading

* * * * * * *


External links


Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Front Page

Ben-Gurion on Anwar Sadat Wanting Peace, 1971
Shapell Manuscript Foundation
Anwar Sadat Chair for Peace and Development
at the University of Maryland
''Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom – March 26, 1984''
* * *

(Internet Archive) * *
Sadat Movie (Produced in 1983) – Banned from the Middle East because of some historical mistakes.
* {{DEFAULTSORT:Sadat, Anwar Anwar Sadat, 1918 births 1981 deaths 1981 murders in Africa 20th-century Presidents of Egypt 20th-century Prime Ministers of Egypt Arab Socialist Union (Egypt) politicians Articles containing video clips Assassinated Egyptian politicians Assassinated heads of state Deaths by firearm in Egypt Egyptian anti-communists Egyptian Military Academy alumni Egyptian nationalists Egyptian Nobel laureates Egyptian people of Sudanese descent Egyptian people of the Yom Kippur War Egyptian Sunni Muslims Egyptian terrorism victims Free Officers Movement (Egypt) History of Egypt (1900–present) Honorary Grand Commanders of the Order of the Defender of the Realm Iron Guard of Egypt Male murder victims National Democratic Party (Egypt) politicians Nobel Peace Prize laureates People from Monufia Governorate People murdered in Egypt Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients Presidents of Egypt Prime Ministers of Egypt Speakers of the Parliament of Egypt Speakers of the People's Council of Syria Terrorism deaths in Egypt Vice-Presidents of Egypt 1981 crimes in Egypt 1980s murders in Egypt Politicide perpetrators