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In
structural geology Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by th ...
, an anticline is a type of
fold Fold or folding may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media *Fold (album), ''Fold'' (album), the debut release by Australian rock band Epicure *Fold (poker), in the game of poker, to discard one's hand and forfeit interest in the current pot *Ab ...
that is an arch-like shape and has its oldest
beds A bed is a piece of furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furniture ...
at its core, whereas a
syncline In structural geology Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of Rock (geology), rock units with respect to their Deformation (geology), deformational histories. The primary goal of structural geology is to use meas ...

syncline
is the inverse of a anticline. A typical anticline is
convex Convex means curving outwards like a sphere, and is the opposite of concave. Convex or convexity may refer to: Science and technology * Convex lens A lens is a transmissive optics, optical device which focuses or disperses a light beam by me ...
up in which the hinge or crest is the location where the
curvature In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...

curvature
is greatest, and the limbs are the sides of the fold that
dip
dip
away from the hinge. Anticlines can be recognized and differentiated from antiforms by a sequence of rock layers that become progressively older toward the center of the fold. Therefore, if age relationships between various
rock strata In geology Geology (from the γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of concerned with both the liquid and , the of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over t ...
are unknown, the term antiform should be used. The progressing age of the rock strata towards the core and uplifted center, are the trademark indications for evidence of anticlines on a
geologic map A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map A map is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by ...
. These formations occur because anticlinal ridges typically develop above
thrust fault A thrust fault is a break in the Earth's crust, across which older rocks are pushed above younger rocks. Thrust geometry and nomenclature Reverse faults A thrust fault is a type of reverse fault Reverse or reversing may refer to: Arts ...

thrust fault
s during crustal deformations. The uplifted core of the fold causes compression of strata that preferentially erodes to a deeper stratigraphic level relative to the topographically lower flanks. Motion along the fault including both shortening and extension of tectonic plates, usually also deforms strata near the fault. This can result in an
asymmetrical Asymmetry is the absence of, or a violation of, symmetry (the property of an object being invariant to a transformation, such as reflection). Symmetry is an important property of both physical and abstract systems and it may be displayed in prec ...

asymmetrical
or overturned fold.


Terminology of different folds

An antiform can be used to describe any fold that is convex up. It is the relative ages of the rock strata that distinguish anticlines from antiforms. The hinge of an anticline refers to the location where the curvature is greatest, also called the crest. The hinge is also the highest point on a stratum along the top of the fold. The culmination also refers to the highest point along any geologic structure. The limbs are the sides of the fold that display less curvature. The
inflection point In differential calculus In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathem ...

inflection point
is the area on the limbs where the curvature changes direction. The axial surface is an imaginary plane connecting the hinge of each layer of rock stratum through the cross section of an anticline. If the axial surface is vertical and the angles on each side of the fold are equivalent, then the anticline is symmetrical. If the axial plane is tilted or offset, then the anticline is asymmetrical. An anticline that is cylindrical has a well-defined axial surface, whereas non-cylindrical anticlines are too complex to have a single axial plane. An overturned anticline is an asymmetrical anticline with a limb that has been tilted beyond
perpendicular In elementary geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relativ ...

perpendicular
, so that the beds in that limb have basically flipped over and may dip in the same direction on both sides of the axial plane. If the angle between the limbs is large (70–120 degrees), then the fold is an "open" fold, but if the angle between the limbs is small (30 degrees or less), then the fold is a "tight" fold. If an anticline plunges (i.e., the anticline crest is inclined to the Earth's surface), it will form ''V''s on a
geologic map A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map A map is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by ...
view that point in the direction of plunge. A plunging anticline has a hinge that is not parallel to the earth's surface. All anticlines and synclines have some degree of plunge. Periclinal folds are a type of anticlines that have a well-defined, but curved hinge line and are doubly plunging and thus elongate
domes A dome () is an architectural element similar to the hollow upper half of a sphere. There is significant overlap with the term cupola, which may also refer to a dome or a structure on top of a dome. The precise definition of a dome has been a m ...
. Folds in which the limbs dip toward the hinge and display a more U-like shape are called
syncline In structural geology Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of Rock (geology), rock units with respect to their Deformation (geology), deformational histories. The primary goal of structural geology is to use meas ...

syncline
s. They usually flank the sides of anticlines and display opposite characteristics. A syncline's oldest rock strata are in its outer limbs; the rocks become progressively younger toward its hinge. A
monocline A monocline (or, rarely, a monoform) is a step-like fold in rock strata consisting of a zone of steeper dip within an otherwise horizontal or gently-dipping sequence. Formation Monoclines may be formed in several different ways (see diagram) * ...

monocline
is a bend in the strata resulting in a local steepening in only one direction of dip. Monoclines have the shape of a carpet draped over a stairstep. An anticline that has been more deeply eroded in the center is called a breached or scalped anticline. Breached anticlines can become incised by stream erosion, forming an anticlinal valley. A structure that plunges in all directions to form a circular or elongate structure is a
dome A dome () is an architectural element similar to the hollow upper half of a sphere. There is significant overlap with the term cupola, which may also refer to a dome or a structure on top of a dome. The precise definition of a dome has been a m ...
. Domes may be created via
diapir A diapir (; , ) is a type of geologic intrusion in which a more mobile and ductily deformable material is forced into brittle overlying rocks. Depending on the tectonic environment, diapirs can range from idealized mushroom-shaped Rayleigh–T ...
ism from underlying
magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others ...

magma
tic intrusions or upwardly mobile, mechanically ductile material such as
rock salt Halite ( or ), commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its natural form as a cry ...

rock salt
(
salt dome A salt dome is a type of structural dome formed when salt (or other evaporite An evaporite () is a water-soluble Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called ''solution, solute'' to dissolve in a s ...
) and
shale Shale is a fine-grained, clastic Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defi ...

shale
(shale diapir) that cause deformations and uplift in the surface rock. The
Richat Structure The Richat Structure, also called ''Guelb er Richât'' (Arabic قلب الريشات ''Qalb ar-Rīšāt''), is a prominent circular geological feature in the 's , near , west–central , . In the local dialect, ''Richat'' means ''feather'' an ...
of the Sahara is considered a dome that has been laid bare by erosion. An anticline which plunges at both ends is termed a doubly plunging anticline, and may be formed from multiple deformations, or superposition of two sets of folds. It may also be related to the geometry of the underlying detachment fault and the varying amount of displacement along the surface of that detachment fault. An anticlinorium is a large anticline in which a series of minor anticlinal folds are superimposed. Examples include the
Late Jurassic The Late Jurassic is the third Epoch (geology), epoch of the Jurassic Period (geology), Period, and it spans the geologic time scale, geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic stratu ...
to
Early Cretaceous The Early Cretaceous ( geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous ( chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a that lasted from about 145 to 66 (Mya). It is the t ...
Purcell Henry Purcell (; September 1659 – 21 November 1695) was an English composer. Although he incorporated Music of Italy, Italian and Music of France, French stylistic elements, Purcell's style was a uniquely English form of Baroque music. He is ...

Purcell
Anticlinorium in British Columbia and the Blue Ridge anticlinorium of northern Virginia and Maryland in the Appalachians, or the
Nittany Valley The Little Nittany Valley, looking north from Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, Bellefonte. Sand Ridge is to the right, Bald Eagle Mountain is on the left, and Interstate 80 is in-between. Foster Joseph Sayers Reservoir located at Bald Eagle State Park ca ...

Nittany Valley
in central Pennsylvania.


Formation processes

Anticlines are usually developed above thrust faults, so any small
compression Compression may refer to: Physical science *Compression (physics), size reduction due to forces *Compression member, a structural element such as a column *Compressibility, susceptibility to compression *Gas compression *Compression ratio, of a co ...
and motion within the inner crust can have large effects on the upper rock stratum. Stresses developed during mountain building or during other tectonic processes can similarly warp or bend bedding and
foliation In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no g ...
(or other planar features). The more the underlying fault is tectonically uplifted, the more the strata will be deformed and must adapt to new shapes. The shape formed will also be very dependent on the properties and cohesion of the different types of rock within each layer. During the formation of flexural-slip folds, the different rock layers form parallel-slip folds to accommodate for
buckling In structural engineering Structural engineering is a sub-discipline of in which s are trained to design the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man-made structures. also must understand and calculate the , strength, and ...

buckling
. A good way to visualize how the multiple layers are manipulated, is to bend a deck of cards and to imagine each card as a layer of rock stratum. The amount of slip on each side of the anticline increases from the hinge to the inflection point. Passive-flow folds form when the rock is so soft that it behaves like weak plastic and slowly flows. In this process different parts of the rock body move at different rates causing shear stress to gradually shift from layer to layer. There is no mechanical contrast between layers in this type of fold. Passive-flow folds are extremely dependent on the rock composition of the stratum and can typically occur in areas with high temperatures.


Economic significance

Anticlines, structural domes, fault zones and stratigraphic traps are very favorable locations for
oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound ...

oil
and
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxid ...

natural gas
drilling. About 80 percent of the world's petroleum has been found in anticlinal traps. The low density of petroleum causes oil to buoyantly migrate out of its source rock and upward toward the surface until it is trapped and stored in reservoir rock such as sandstone or porous limestone. The oil becomes trapped along with water and natural gas by a caprock that is made up of impermeable barrier such as an impermeable stratum or fault zone. Examples of low-permeability seals that contain the hydrocarbons, oil and gas, in the ground include
shale Shale is a fine-grained, clastic Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defi ...

shale
,
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
,
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...

sandstone
, and rock salt. The actual type of
stratum In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that was formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "str ...
does not matter as long as it has low permeability. Water, minerals and specific rock strata such as
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
found inside anticlines are also extracted and commercialized. Lastly, ancient fossils are often found in anticlines and are used for paleontological research or harvested into products to be sold.


Notable examples


Asia

Ghawar Ghawar (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, trans ...
Anticline, Saudi Arabia, the
structural trap In petroleum geology Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels. It refers to the specific set of geological disciplines that are applied to the search for hydrocarbons (oil ex ...
for the largest conventional oil field in the world.


Australia

* Hill End Anticline, New South Wales, which is associated with deposits of gold. * Castlemaine Anticlinal Fold, Victoria, which is celebrated with a plaque that says, "This fine exhibit was disclosed when Lyttleton Street East was constructed in 1874. Saddle reefs occur in similar folds of the sandstones and slates on lower geological horizons."


Europe

The
Weald–Artois Anticline The Weald–Artois anticline is a large anticline, a geological structure running between the regions of the Weald in southern England and Artois in northern France. The fold formed during the Alpine orogeny, from the late Oligocene to middle Mioce ...
is a major anticline which
outcrop An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock Bedrock in geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the soli ...

outcrop
s in southeast England and northern France. It was formed from the late
Oligocene The Oligocene ( ) is a geologic epoch (geology), epoch of the Paleogene Geologic time scale, Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present ( to ). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define ...
to middle
Miocene The Miocene ( ) is the first geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age but shorter than a period (geology), period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of ...
, during the
Alpine orogeny The Alpine orogeny or Alpide orogeny is an orogenic An orogeny is an event that leads to both structural Deformation (physics), deformation and compositional differentiation of the Earth's lithosphere (Crust (geology), crust and uppermost Mant ...
.


North America

Anticlines can have a major effect on the local
geomorphology Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

geomorphology
and
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...

economy
of the regions in which they occur. One example of this is the El Dorado anticline in Kansas. The anticline was first tapped into for its
petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isoc ...

petroleum
in 1918. Soon after the site became a very prosperous area for entrepreneurs following World War I and the rapid popularization of
motor vehicles File:Yangzhou-WenchangLu-electric-bicycles-3278.jpg, Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost outnumbering regular bicycles A motor vehicle, also kno ...

motor vehicles
. By 1995 the El Dorado oil fields had produced 300 million barrels of oil. The central Kansas uplift is an antiform composed of several small anticlines that have collectively produced more than 2.5 million barrels of oil. Another notable anticline is the Tierra Amarilla anticline in San Ysidro, New Mexico. This is a popular hiking and biking site because of the great biodiversity, geologic beauty and paleontological resources. This plunging anticline is made up of Petrified Forest mudstones and sandstone and its caprock is made of Pleistocene and Holocene travertine. The anticline contains springs that deposit carbon dioxide travertine that help to contribute to the rich diversity of microorganisms. This area also contains remains of fossils and ancient plants from the Jurassic period that are sometimes exposed through geological erosion. The Ventura Anticline is a geologic structure that is part of the Ventura oil fields, the seventh largest oil field in California that was discovered in the 1860s. The anticline runs east to west for 16 miles, dipping steeply 30–60 degrees at both ends. Ventura County has a high rate of compression and seismic activity due to the converging San Andreas Fault. As a result, the Ventura anticline rises at a rate of 5 mm/year with the adjacent Ventura Basin converging at a rate of about 7–10 mm/year. The anticline is composed of a series of sandstone rock beds and an impermeable rock cap under which vast reserves of oil and gas are trapped. Eight different oil bearing zones along the anticline vary greatly from 3,500 to 12,000 feet. The oil and gas formed these pools as they migrated upward during the Pliocene Era and became contained beneath the caprock. This oil field is still active and has a cumulative production of one billion barrels of oil making it one of the most vital historical and economic features of Ventura County.


Gallery

File:Agiospavlos DM 2004 IMG003 Felsenformation nahe.JPG, Tight folds in
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
and
chert Chert () is a hard, fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline quartz, the mineral form of silicon dioxide (SiO2). Chert is characteristically of biological origin, but may also occur inorganically as a preci ...

chert
,
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
, Greece File:Wills Creek Fm fold.jpg, Tight anticline in the Wills Creek Formation, Pennsylvania File:Catedraldemarmol.JPG, Weathered marble anticline at
General Carrera Lake General Carrera Lake (Chilean part, officially renamed in 1959) or Lake Buenos Aires (Argentine part) is a lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural ...
,
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
File:Nittany Valley.jpg,
Nittany Valley The Little Nittany Valley, looking north from Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, Bellefonte. Sand Ridge is to the right, Bald Eagle Mountain is on the left, and Interstate 80 is in-between. Foster Joseph Sayers Reservoir located at Bald Eagle State Park ca ...

Nittany Valley
in central
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
is an anticlinorium File:Elk Basin MT WY.jpg, Elk Basin, on the border of
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
and
Wyoming Wyoming () is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. The List of U.S. states and territories by area, 10th largest state by area, it is also the List of U.S. states and territories b ...
, is a breached anticline File:Cumberland Narrows air.jpg, The
Tuscarora Formation The Silurian Tuscarora Formation — also known as Tuscarora Sandstone or Tuscarora Quartzite — is a mapped bedrock unit in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia, USA. Description The Tuscarora is a thin- to thick-bedded fine-grai ...
forms a clear anticline in
Wills Mountain Wills Mountain is a quartzite-capped ridge in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, Ridge and Valley physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania and Maryland, United States, extending from near Bedford, Pennsylvania, to near Cu ...
at
Cumberland Narrows The Cumberland Narrows (or simply "The Narrows") is a water gap in western Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and th ...
,
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware ...

Maryland
File:Roundtop Hill outcrop2.jpg, Anticline in Wills Creek or Bloomsburg Formation at Roundtop Hill, Maryland File:Anticline with axial planar cleavage.JPG, Anticline with well-developed axial planar
cleavage Cleavage may refer to: Science * Cleavage (crystal), in mineralogy and materials science, a process of splitting a crystal * Cleavage (geology), the foliation perpendicular to stress as a result of ductile deformation * Cleavage (embryo), in embr ...
.
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
sand-shale sequence above Tudes, SE of Potes, Cantabria,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
File:Ovens anticline.JPG, Anticline and quartz "saddle reef" vein at The Ovens, Nova Scotia File:Anticline_I-70_Fulton_County_PA.jpg, Anticline in Devonian
Catskill Formation The Devonian Catskill Formation or the Catskill Clastic wedge is a unit of mostly terrestrial sedimentary rock found in Pennsylvania and New York (state), New York. Minor marine layers exist in this thick rock unit (up to ). It is equivalent to th ...
,
I-70 Interstate 70 (I-70) is a major east–west Interstate Highway The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that fo ...

I-70
,
Fulton County, Pennsylvania Fulton County is a County (United States), county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population was 14,845, making it the fourth-least populous county in Pennsylvania. Its county seat ...
File:Anticline Conococheague Holcim Quarry.jpg, Anticline in the Cambrian Conococheague Formation, in the wall of Holcim Quarry, Hagerstown, Maryland File:Cave Mountain.jpg, The Cave Mountain Anticline, on the edge of the
Smoke Hole Canyon Smoke Hole Canyon — traditionally called The Smoke Holes and later simply Smoke Hole — is a rugged long gorge carved by the South Branch Potomac River in the Allegheny Mountains The Allegheny Mountain Range , informally the Alleghenies an ...
in
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
File:I70 at San Rafael swell-Green River.jpg, A portion of the
San Rafael Swell The San Rafael Swell is a large geologic feature located in south-central Utah Utah ( , ) is a state in the Mountain West region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. ...

San Rafael Swell
in
Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its so ...

Utah


See also

* Israel C. White and his "Anticlinal Theory" for
oil and gas exploration Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologist A petroleum geologist is an earth scientist who works in the field of petroleum geology, which involves all aspects of Hydrocarbon exploration, oil discover ...
. *
Syncline In structural geology, a syncline is a Fold (geology), fold with younger layers closer to the center of the structure, whereas an anticline is the inverse of a syncline. A synclinorium (plural synclinoriums or synclinoria) is a large syncline wi ...

Syncline
*
Homocline In structural geology Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of Rock (geology), rock units with respect to their Deformation (geology), deformational histories. The primary goal of structural geology is to use mea ...
*
River anticlinesA river anticline is a geologic structure that is formed by the focused uplift of rock caused by high erosion rates from large rivers relative to the surrounding areas. An anticline is a fold that is concave down, whose limbs are dipping away from i ...


References


Bibliography

* * * —''Entire book is freely available in PDF format''. {{Authority control Structural geology