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''Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules'' (AACR) were an international
library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily basis. A library provid ...

library
cataloging In library and information science Library and information science (LIS) (sometimes given as the plural library and information sciences) is a branch of academic disciplines that deal generally with organization, access, and collection of informati ...
standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of ...
. First published in 1967 and edited by C. Sumner Spalding, a second edition (AACR2) edited by Michael Gorman and Paul W. Winkler was issued in 1978, with subsequent revisions (AACR2R) appearing in 1988 and 1998; all updates ceased in 2005. Published jointly by the
American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes library, libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world, with more than ...
, the
Canadian Library Association The Canadian Library Association (CLA) was a national, predominantly English-language association which represented 57,000 library A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defin ...
, and the UK
Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, since 2017 brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands ...
, the rules were designed for the construction of
library catalog A library catalog (or library catalogue in British English) is a register of all bibliography, bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A catalog for a group of librar ...
s and similar
bibliographic 250px, Bibliographies at the University Library of Graz Bibliography (from and ), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from ). English auth ...
tools. The rules cover the physical description of library resources, as well as the provision of name and title access points. AACR2 was issued in several print versions, including a concise edition, as well as an online version. Various translations were also available. Principles of AACR included cataloguing based on the item 'in hand' rather than inferring information from external sources and the concept of the 'chief source of information' which is preferred where conflicts exist.


Initial adoption

Despite the claim to be 'Anglo-American', the first edition of AACR was published in 1967 in somewhat distinct North American and British texts. The second edition of 1978 unified the two sets of rules (adopting the British spelling 'cataloguing') and brought them in line with the
International Standard Bibliographic DescriptionThe International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) is a set of rules produced by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to create a bibliographic description in a standard, human-readable form, especiall ...
. Libraries wishing to migrate from the previous North American text were obliged to implement 'desuperimposition', a substantial change in the form of headings for
corporate bodies
corporate bodies
.


Successor

While the 2002 updates included substantial improvements to AACR's treatment of non-book materials, the proliferation of 21st century formats in a
networked environment
networked environment
and the rise of
electronic publishing Electronic publishing (also referred to as publishing, digital publishing, or online publishing) includes the digital publication of e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a publication made availabl ...
signaled the necessity for significant change in the cataloging code. Plans for a third edition (AACR3) were abandoned in 2005. The international cataloging community turned its attention to drafting a completely new standard to succeed AACR. Informed by the work of the
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international body representing the interests of people who rely on Library, libraries and information professionals. An independent, non-governmental, not ...
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic RecordsFunctional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR ) is a conceptual entity–relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in onlin ...
, the new framework was crafted to be more flexible and suitable for use in a digital environment:
Resource Description and AccessResource Description and Access (RDA) is a standard for descriptive cataloging initially released in June 2010, providing instructions and guidelines on formulating bibliographic data. Intended for use by libraries A library is a curated col ...
(RDA) was released in June 2010. The
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
,
National Library of Medicine The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United Sta ...
,
National Agricultural Library The United States National Agricultural Library (NAL) is one of the world's largest agricultural research libraries, and serves as a national library of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United St ...
, and several national libraries of other English-speaking countries performed a formal test of RDA, resulting in a June 2011 report of findings.Testing ''Resource Description and Access'' (RDA): Archives
/ref>


See also

*
MARC standards MARC (machine-readable cataloging) standards are a set of digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electro ...


References


External links


AACR2

JSC (Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA)ALCTS Newsletter article on RDACataloger's Desktop
{{DEFAULTSORT:Aacr2 Archival science Metadata Metadata standards