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)), is an adjective which means "white-colored mixed with black". , motto = , image_map = , mapsize = , map_caption = , image_map1 = , mapsize1 = , map_caption1 = , pushpin_map = Syria Aleppo#Syria , pushpin_label_position = left , pushpin_relief = yes , pushpin_mapsize = , pushpin_map_caption = Location of Aleppo in Syria , coordinates = , subdivision_type =
Country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social ...
, subdivision_name = , subdivision_type1 =
Governorate A governorate is an administrative division of a country. It is headed by a governor. As English-speaking nations tend to call regions administered by governors either State (administrative division), states or provinces, the term ''governorate'' ...
, subdivision_type2 =
District A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipal ...
, subdivision_type3 =
Subdistrict A subdistrict or sub-district is an administrative division that is generally smaller than a district. Equivalents * Administrative posts of East Timor, formerly Portuguese-language * Kelurahan, in Indonesia * Mukim, a township in Brunei, Indon ...
, subdivision_name1 =
Aleppo Governorate Aleppo Governorate ( ar, محافظة حلب / ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The ...

Aleppo Governorate
, subdivision_name2 =
Mount Simeon Mount Simeon or Mount Simon ( ar, جبل سمعان Jabal Semʻān ), also called Mount Laylūn ( ar, جبل ليلون, is a highland region in Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria. The mountain is located in the Mount Simeon (district), Mount Si ...

Mount Simeon
(Jabal Semaan) , subdivision_name3 = Mount Simeon (Jabal Semaan) , established_title = First settled , established_date = 5000 BC , established_title2 = First city council , established_date2 = 1868 , established_title3 = , parts_type = , parts_style = , p1 = , government_footnotes = , government_type = , leader_title = Governor , leader_name = Ahmad Hussein Diyab , leader_title1 = Mayor , leader_name1 = Maad al-Madlaji , area_footnotes = , area_magnitude = , area_total_km2 = 190 , area_land_km2 = , area_water_km2 = , area_urban_km2 = , area_metro_km2 = , area_blank1_title = , area_blank1_km2 = , elevation_footnotes = , elevation_m = 379 , elevation_ft = , population_total = 1,850,000 , population_as_of = 2018 est. , population_footnotes = , population_density_km2 = , population_urban = , population_density_urban_km2 = , population_metro = , population_density_metro_km2 = auto , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , population_density_blank1_km2 = , population_demonyms = ar, حلبي Ḥalabi
en, Aleppine , population_blank2_title = , population_blank2 = , population_note = , postal_code_type = , postal_code = , area_code = Country code: 963
City code: 21 , geocode = C1007 , unemployment_rate = , footnotes = Sources: Aleppo city area Sources: City population Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS)
Aleppo Subdistrict Population
.
, image_dot_map = , dot_mapsize = , dot_map_caption = , dot_x = , dot_y = , leader_title2 = , leader_name2 = , leader_name3 = , leader_title4 = , leader_name4 = , area_water_percen = , timezone = EET , utc_offset = +2 , timezone_DST =
EEST Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of the UTC+03:00 time zone A time zone is an area that observes a uniform standard time for legal, Commerce, commercial and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries ...
, utc_offset_DST = +3 , blank_name =
Climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...
, blank_info = BSk , Revnue = Aleppo ( ; ar, ﺣَﻠَﺐ /
ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used to represent bibliographic information ...
: ', ) is a city in
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
, which serves as the capital of the
Aleppo Governorate Aleppo Governorate ( ar, محافظة حلب / ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The ...

Aleppo Governorate
, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 4.6 million in 2010, Aleppo was the largest Syrian city before the
Syrian Civil War#REDIRECT Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ, ''al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah'') is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Ara ...

Syrian Civil War
; however, it is now the second-largest city in Syria, after the capital
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
. Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world; it may have been inhabited since the sixth millennium BC. Excavations at Tell as-Sawda and Tell al-Ansari, just south of the
old city of Aleppo The Ancient City of Aleppo ( ar, مدينة حلب القديمة, Madīnat Ḥalab al-Qadīma) is the historic city centre of Aleppo, Syria. Before the Syrian Civil War, many districts of the ancient city remained essentially unchanged since its ...
, show that the area was occupied by
Amorites The Amorites (; Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 ''MAR.TU''; AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''Th ...

Amorites
by the latter part of the third millennium BC. That is also the time at which Aleppo is first mentioned in
cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the Common Era. It is nam ...

cuneiform
tablets unearthed in
Ebla Ebla (Sumer Sumer ()The name is from '; ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", ifrom ''The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary''). Literally, "land of the native ...

Ebla
and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
, which speak of it as part of the Amorite state of
Yamhad Yamhad was an ancient Semitic people, Semitic kingdom centered on Aleppo, Ḥalab (Aleppo), Syria. The kingdom emerged at the end of the 19th century BC, and was ruled by the Yamhad dynasty, Yamhadite dynasty kings, who counted on both military ...
, and note its commercial and military importance. Such a long history is attributed to its strategic location as a trading center between the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
and Mesopotamia. For centuries, Aleppo was the largest city in the Syrian region, and the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
's third-largest after
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...
(now
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
) and
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
. Russell, Alexander (1794), ''
The Natural History of Aleppo ''The Natural History of Aleppo'' is a 1756 book by naturalist Alexander Russell (naturalist), Alexander Russell on the natural history of Aleppo. In 1794 his half-brother, Patrick Russell (herpetologist), Patrick Russell, revised and expanded the t ...
'', 2nd Edition, Vol. I
pp. 1–2
Gaskin, James J. (1846)
''Geography and sacred history of Syria''
, pp. 33–34
The city's significance in history has been its location at one end of the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
, which passed through Central Asia and Mesopotamia. When the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
was inaugurated in 1869, much trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. At the
fall of the Ottoman Empire The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution. It restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and brought in List of political parties in the Ottoman Empire, multi-party ...
after
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, Aleppo lost its northern hinterland to modern
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
, as well as the important
Baghdad Railway Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq and one of the largest cities in the Arab world, and compared to its large population it has a small area at just 673 square kilometers (260 sq mi). Located along the Tigris, near the ...
connecting it to
Mosul Mosul ( ar, الموصل, al-Mawṣil, ku, مووسڵ, translit=Mûsil, Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe a ...

Mosul
. In the 1940s it lost its main access to the sea,
Antakya Antakya (), historically known as Antioch (Greek: Αντιόχεια), is the capital of Hatay Province Hatay Province ( tr, Hatay ili, ,'' پارێزگای خاتای, ar, لواء إسكندرون, translit=Liwa Iskenderun, lit=District of ...

Antakya
and
İskenderun İskenderun ( ar, الإسكندرونة, el, Αλεξανδρέττα "Little Alexandria ) , name = Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; ...

İskenderun
, also to Turkey. The growth in importance of Damascus in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation. This decline may have helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage. It won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", and has had a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks. The
Battle of Aleppo (2012–2016) The Battle of Aleppo ( ar, مَعْرَكَةُ حَلَبَ, Maʿrakat Ḥalab) was a major military confrontation in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria, between the Syrian opposition (including the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and other largely-Sunni ...
occurred in the city during the
Syrian Civil War#REDIRECT Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ, ''al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah'') is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Ara ...

Syrian Civil War
, and many parts of the city suffered massive destruction. Affected parts of the city are currently undergoing reconstruction. An estimated 31,000 people were killed in Aleppo during the conflict.


Etymology

Modern-day English-speakers commonly refer to the city as ''Aleppo''. It was known in antiquity as ''Khalpe'', ''Khalibon'', and to the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
and
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
as ''Beroea'' (). During the
Crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusades
, and again during the
French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon The Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon (french: Mandat pour la Syrie et le Liban; ar, الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان, al-intidāb al-fransi 'ala suriya wa-lubnān) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate ...
of 1923–1946, the name ''Alep'' was used. ''Aleppo'' represents the Italianised version of this. The original ancient name, ''Halab'', has survived as the current Arabic name of the city. It is of obscure origin. Some have proposed that ''Ḥalab'' means "iron" or "copper" in
Amorite language Amorite is an extinct early Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region in Afro- ...
s, since the area served as a major source of these metals in antiquity. Another possibility is that ''Ḥalab'' means 'white', as this is the word for 'white' in Aramaic, the local language which preceded regional Arabization. This may explain how ''Ḥalab'' became the Hebrew word for 'milk' or vice versa, as well as offering a possible explanation for the modern-day Arabic nickname of the city, ash-Shahbaa ( ar, الشهباء), which means "the white-colored mixed with black" and allegedly derives from the white marble found at Aleppo. According to a
folk etymology Folk etymology (also known as popular etymology, analogical reformation, reanalysis, morphological reanalysis or etymological reinterpretation) is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familia ...
related by the twelfth century CE Rabbi Pethahiah of Regensburg and the Berber traveler
Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta (; 24 February 13041368/1369); fully: ; Arabic: was a Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an e ...
, the name derives from he, חלב, lit=milk or ar, ḥaleb, lit=milk because
Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the Abrahamic religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenan ...

Abraham
milked his sheep there to feed the poor. From the 11th century it was common
Rabbinic Rabbinic Judaism ( he, יהדות רבנית, Yahadut Rabanit), also called Rabbinism, Rabbinicism, or Judaism espoused by the Rabbanites, has been the mainstream form of Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, als ...
usage to apply the term " Aram-Zobah" to the area of Aleppo, and many
Syrian Jews Syrian Jews ( he, יהודי סוריה ''Yehudey Surya'', ar, الْيَهُود السُّورِيُّون ''al-Yahūd as-Sūriyyūn'', colloquially called SYs in the United States) are Jews who lived in the region of the modern state of Syria ...
continue to do so.


History


Pre-history and pre-classical era

Aleppo has scarcely been touched by archaeologists, since the modern city occupies its ancient site. The earliest occupation of the site was around 5000 BC, as shown by excavations in Tallet Alsauda. Aleppo appears in historical records as an important city much earlier than
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
. The first record of Aleppo comes from the third millennium BC, in the
Ebla tablets The Ebla tablets are a collection of as many as 1,800 complete clay tablets, 4,700 fragments, and many thousands of minor chips found in the palace archives of the ancient city of Ebla, Syria. The tablets were discovered by Italian archaeologist ...
when Aleppo was referred to as Ha-lam (𒄩𒇴). Some historians, such as Wayne Horowitz, identify Aleppo with the capital of an independent kingdom closely related to
Ebla Ebla (Sumer Sumer ()The name is from '; ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", ifrom ''The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary''). Literally, "land of the native ...

Ebla
, known as Armi, although this identification is contested. The main temple of the storm god
Hadad Hadad ( uga, 𐎅𐎄 ), Adad, Haddad (AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cam ...

Hadad
was located on the citadel hill in the center of the city, when the city was known as the city of Hadad.
Naram-Sin of Akkad Naram-Sin also transcribed Narām-Sîn or Naram-Suen ( akk, 𒀭𒈾𒊏𒄠𒀭𒂗𒍪: '' DNa-ra-am D Sîn'', meaning "Beloved of the Moon God Sîn", the "𒀭 ''Dingir'' (, usually transliteration of cuneiform, transliterated DIĜIR, ) is a ...
mentioned his destruction of Ebla and Armani/Armanum, in the 23rd century BC.Hawkins, John David (2000) ''Inscriptions of the iron age'' p.388 but the identification of Armani in the inscription of Naram-Sim as Armi in the Eblaite tablets is heavily debated, as there was no Akkadian annexation of Ebla or northern Syria. In the
Old Babylonian Old Babylonian may refer to: *the period of the First Babylonian dynasty (20th to 16th centuries BC) *the historical stage of the Akkadian language of that time See also

*Old Assyrian (disambiguation) {{disambig ...
and
Old Assyrian Empire The Old Assyrian Empire was the second stage of Assyrian history, covering the history of the city of Assur Aššur (; Sumerian language, Sumerian: AN.ŠAR2KI, Assyrian cuneiform: ''Aš-šurKI'', "City of God Ashur (god), Aššur"; syr, ܐܫ ...
period, Aleppo's name appears in its original form as Ḥalab (Ḥalba) for the first time. Aleppo was the capital of the important
Amorite The Amorites (; Sumerian language, Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 ''MAR.TU''; Akkadian language, Akkadian ''Amurrūm'' or ''Tidnum''; Egyptian language, Egyptian ''Amar''; he, אמורי ''ʼĔmōrī''; grc, Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic lan ...
dynasty of Yamḥad. The kingdom of Yamḥad (c. 1800–1525 BC), alternatively known as the 'land of Ḥalab,' was one of the most powerful in the Near East during the reign of
Yarim-Lim I Yarim-Lim I, also given as Yarimlim, (reigned ) was the second king of the ancient Amorite The Amorites (; Sumerian language, Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 ''MAR.TU''; Akkadian language, Akkadian ''Amurrūm'' or ''Tidnum''; Egyptian language, Egyptian ''Ama ...
, who formed an alliance with
Hammurabi Hammurabi () was the sixth king of the First Babylonian dynasty The First Babylonian Empire, or Old Babylonian Empire, is dated to BC – BC, and comes after the end of Sumerian power with the destruction of the Third Dynasty of Ur The ...

Hammurabi
of
Babylonia Babylonia () was an and based in central-southern which was part of Ancient Persia (present-day and ). A small -ruled state emerged in 1894 BCE, which contained the minor administrative town of . It was merely a small provincial town dur ...
against
Shamshi-Adad I Shamshi-Adad ( akk, Šamši-Adad; Amorite language, Amorite: ''Shamshi-Addu'' ), ruled 1808–1776 BC, was an Amorite conqueror who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia.Some of the Mari letters addressed to Sha ...

Shamshi-Adad I
of
Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of We ...

Assyria
. Yamḥad was devastated by the
Hittites The Hittites () were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing first a kingdom in Kussara before 1750 BC, then the Kanesh or Nesha kingdom (c. 1750–1650 BC), and next an empire centered on Hattusa Hattusa (also ...

Hittites
under
Mursilis I Mursili I (also known as Mursilis; sometimes transcribed as Murshili) was a king of the Hittites 1620-1590 BC, as per the middle chronology, the most accepted chronology in our times, or alternatively c. 1556–1526 BCE (short chronology), and was ...
in the 16th century BC. However, it soon resumed its leading role in the Levant when the Hittite power in the region waned due to internal strife. Taking advantage of the power vacuum in the region,
Parshatatar Parshatatar, Paršatar, Barattarna, or Parattarna was the name of a Hurrian The Hurrians (; Cuneiform script, cuneiform: ; transliteration: ''Ḫu-ur-ri''; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronz ...
, king of the
Hurrian The Hurrians (; Cuneiform script, cuneiform: ; transliteration: ''Ḫu-ur-ri''; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Ancient Near East, Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language cal ...
kingdom of
Mitanni Mitanni (; Hittite cuneiform ; ''Mittani'' '), also called Hanigalbat or Hani-Rabbat (''Hanikalbat'', ''Khanigalbat'', cuneiform ') in Assyrian or Naharin in Ancient Egypt, Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian language, Hurrian-speaking state in nor ...

Mitanni
instigated a rebellion that ended the life of Yamhad last king
Ilim-Ilimma I Ilim-Ilimma I (reigned middle 16th century BC - c. 1524 BC - Middle chronology) was the king of Halab (formerly Yamhad) succeeding his father Abba-El II. Reign Ilim-Ilimma is known through the inscriptions found on the Statue of Idrimi, Statue of h ...
in c. 1525 BC, Subsequently, Parshatatar conquered Aleppo and the city found itself on the frontline in the struggle between the Mitanni, the Hittites and
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
.
Niqmepa Niqmepa (died 1270 BC) was the fifth-from-last King of Ugarit, a city-state in northwestern Syria. Niqmepa was a contemporary of Mursili II and Hattusili III, the great List of Hittite kings, Hittite kings, as well as Horemheb and Seti I of Ancien ...
of
Alalakh Alalakh (Hittite Hittite may refer to: * Hittites, ancient Anatolian people ** Hittite language, the earliest-attested Indo-European language ** Hittite grammar ** Hittite phonology ** Hittite cuneiform ** Hittite inscriptions ** Hittite laws ** H ...
who descends from the old Yamhadite kings controlled the city as a vassal to Mitanni and was attacked by
Tudhaliya ITudhaliya is the name of several Hittite kings: *Tudhaliya (also Tudhaliya I) is a hypothetic pre-Empire king of the Hittites The Hittites () were an Anatolian peoples, Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire ce ...
of the Hittites as a retaliation for his alliance to Mitanni. Later the Hittite king Suppiluliumas I permanently defeated Mitanni, and conquered Aleppo in the 14th century BC. Suppiluliumas installed his son
Telepinus Telipinu was a king of the Hittites ca. 1460 BC (short chronology timeline). At the beginning of his reign, the Hittite Empire had contracted to its core territories, having long since lost all of its conquests, made in the former era under Hattus ...
as king and a dynasty of Suppiluliumas descendants ruled Aleppo until the
Late Bronze Age collapse The Late Bronze Age collapse was a transition period in a large area covering much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly ac ...
. However, Talmi-Šarruma, grandson of Suppiluliumas I, who was the king of Aleppo, had fought on the Hittite side, along with king
Muwatalli II:''See also Muwatalli I'' Muwatalli II (also Muwatallis, or Muwatallish) was a king of the New Kingdom of the Hittite empire The Hittites () were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa ...
during the
Battle of Kadesh The Battle of Kadesh or Battle of Qadesh took place between the forces of the under and the under at the city of on the , just upstream of near the modern . The battle is generally dated to 1274 BC from the , and is the earliest battle i ...
against the Egyptian army led by
Ramesses II Ramesses II ( egy, rꜥ-ms-sw meaning "Ra is the one who bore him", ''Rīʿa-məsī-sū'', ; ) was the third pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state ...
. Aleppo had
cult In modern English, a cult is a social group In the social sciences, a social group can be defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity. Regardless, soc ...

cult
ic importance to the Hittites for being the center of worship of the Storm-God. this religious importance continued after the collapse of the Hittite empire at the hands of the
Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of We ...

Assyria
ns and
Phrygians The Phrygians (Greek language, Greek: Φρύγες, ''Phruges'' or ''Phryges'') were an ancient Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited central-western Anatolia in antiquity. They were related to the Greeks. Ancient ...

Phrygians
in the 12th century BC, when Aleppo became part of the
Middle Assyrian Empire The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَ ...
, whose king renovated the temple of Hadad which was discovered in 2003. In 2003, a statue of a king named Taita bearing inscriptions in
Luwian The Luwians were a group of Anatolian peoples who lived in central, western, and southern Anatolia, in present-day Turkey, in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. They spoke the Luwian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian languages, ...
was discovered during excavations conducted by German archeologist Kay Kohlmeyer in the
Citadel of Aleppo The Citadel of Aleppo ( ar, قلعة حلب, Qalʿat Ḥalab) is a large medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and t ...

Citadel of Aleppo
. The new readings of Anatolian hieroglyphic signs proposed by the Hittitologists Elisabeth Rieken and Ilya Yakubovich were conducive to the conclusion that the country ruled by Taita was called
Palistin Palistin (or Walistin), was an early Syro-Hittite and Aramean states ( 800 BCE) The states that are called Syro-Hittite (in older literature), or Luwian-Aramean (in modern scholarly works), were Luwians, Luwian and Aramean regional polities of ...
. This country extended in the 11th-10th centuries BCE from the Amouq Valley in the west to Aleppo in the east down to Mehardeh and
Shaizar Shaizar or Shayzar ( ar, شيزر; in modern Arabic Saijar; Hellenistic name: Larissa in Syria, Λάρισα εν Συρία in Greek) is a town in northern Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Rep ...
in the south. Due to the similarity between Palistin and Philistines,
HittitologistHittitology is the study of the Hittites The Hittites () were an Anatolian peoples, Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing first a kingdom in Kussara before 1750 BC, then the Kültepe, Kanesh or Nesha kingdom (c. 1750–16 ...
John David Hawkins (who translated the Aleppo inscriptions) hypothesizes a connection between the
Syro-Hittite and Aramean states ( 800 BCE) The states that are called Syro-Hittite (in older literature), or Luwian-Aramean (in modern scholarly works), were Luwians, Luwian and Aramean regional polities of the Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of ...
Palistin and the Philistines, as do archaeologists Benjamin Sass and Kay Kohlmeyer. Gershon Galil suggests that King David halted the Arameans' expansion into the Land of Israel on account of his alliance with the southern Philistine kings, as well as with Toi, king of Ḥamath, who is identified with Tai(ta) II, king of Palistin (the northern Sea Peoples). At some point in the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, Aleppo became part of the
Aramean The Arameans (Old Aramaic language, Old Aramaic: 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Greek language, Greek: Ἀραμαῖοι; Syriac language, Syriac: ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ / Ārāmāyē) were an ancient Semitic languages, Semitic-speaking people in the Near East, fi ...
state of
Bit Agusi Bit Agusi or Bit Agushi (also written Bet Agus) was an ancient Aramaean Syro-Hittite states, Syro-Hittite state, established by Gusi of Yakhan at the beginning of the 9th century BC. It had included the cities of Arpad, Syria, Arpad, Nampigi (Nampi ...
(which had its capital at Arpad).Lipinsky, Edward, 2000.'' The Aramaeans: Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion'' (Peeters), p. 195. Bit Agusi along with Aleppo and the entirety of the Levant was conquered by the
Assyrians Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people, an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East * Assyrian Church (disambiguation) * Assyrian language (disambiguation) * SS Assyrian, SS ''Assyrian'', seve ...
in the 8th century BC and became part of the
Neo-Assyrian Empire The Neo-Assyrian Empire (Assyrian cuneiform Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people, an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East * Assyrian Church (disambiguation) * Assyrian language (disam ...

Neo-Assyrian Empire
during the reign of
Tiglath-Pileser III Tiglath-Pileser III (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform is a logo up Chiswick_Press.html"_;"title="Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press">Coat_of_arms_of_the_Chiswick_Press_ A_logo_(abbreviation_of_logotype,_from__el.html" ;"title="Chiswick_ ...
until the late 7th century BC,Healy, Mark (1992). ''The Ancient Assyrians'' (Osprey) p. 25. before passing through the hands of the
Neo-Babylonian The Neo-Babylonian Empire, also known as the Second Babylonian Empire and historically known as the Chaldean Empire, was the last of the Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc, Μεσοποταμία; S ...
s and the Achamenid Persians.Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2000). ''Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology''. p. 626. The region remained known as Aramea and Eber Nari throughout these periods.


Classical antiquity

Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
took over the city in 333 BC. Seleucus Nicator established a Hellenic settlement in the site between 301 and 286 BC. He called it ''Beroea'' (Βέροια), after in
Macedon Macedonia (; grc-gre, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an Classical antiquity, ancient monarchy, kingdom on the periphery of Archaic Greece, Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. Th ...

Macedon
; it is sometimes spelled as Beroia. Northern Syria was the center of gravity of the Hellenistic colonizing activity, and therefore of Hellenistic culture in the
Seleucid Empire The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), off ...
. As did other Hellenized cities of the Seleucid kingdom, Beroea probably enjoyed a measure of local autonomy, with a local civic assembly or '' boulē'' composed of free Hellenes.Phenix, Robert R. (2008) ''The sermons on Joseph of
Balai of QenneshrinBalai of Qenneshrin ( syr, ܒܠܝ ܕܩܢܫܪܝܢ), was a Syriac saint who lived in Qinnasrin in the 5th century CE. Very little is known about his early life. It has been suggested that he might have been a native of Edessa who later moved to Qinnas ...
''
Beroea remained under Seleucid rule until 88 BC when Syria was occupied by the
Armenian Armenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Armenia, a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia * Armenians, the national people of Armenia, or people of Armenian descent ** Armenian language, the Indo-European language spoken ...
king
Tigranes the Great Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great ( hy, Տիգրան Մեծ, ''Tigran Mets''; grc, Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας ''Tigránes ho Mégas''; la, Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Kingdom of Armenia (ant ...
and Beroea became part of the
Kingdom of ArmeniaKingdom of Armenia may refer to: *Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), also known as Artaxiad or Arsacid Armenia, 380 BC to AD 387/428 *Kingdom of Armenia (Middle Ages), also known as Bagratid Armenia, AD 885 to 1045 Other ancient Armenian kingdoms *Satr ...
. After the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
victory over Tigranes, Syria was handed over to
Pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization f ...
in 64 BC, at which time they became a
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
. Rome's presence afforded relative stability in northern Syria for over three centuries. Although the province was administered by a from Rome, Rome did not impose its administrative organization on the Greek-speaking ruling class or
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac ...
speaking populace. The Roman era saw an increase in the population of northern Syria that accelerated under the well into the 5th century. In
Late Antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Inst ...
, Beroea was the second largest Syrian city after
Antioch Antioch on the Orontes (; grc, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, ''Antiókheia hē epì Oróntou''; also Syrian Antioch) grc-koi, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ ...
, the capital of Syria and the third largest city in the Roman world. Archaeological evidence indicates a high population density for settlements between Antioch and Beroea right up to the 6th century. This agrarian landscape still holds the remains of large estate houses and churches such as the
Church of Saint Simeon Stylites The Church of Saint Simeon Stylites ( ar, كنيسة مار سمعان العمودي , Kanīsat Mār Simʿān el-ʿAmūdī) is a building that can be traced back to the 5th century, located approximately northwestern part of Aleppo, Syria. It i ...
. Beroea is mentioned in 1 Macc. 9:4.


Ecclesiastical history

The names of several bishops of the
episcopal see The seat or ''cathedra'' of the Bishop of Rome in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Phrases concerning actions occurring within o ...
of Beroea, which was in the
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
of
Syria Prima Syria I or Syria Prima ("First Syria", in el, Πρώτη Συρία, ''Prote Syria'') was a Byzantine province, formed c. 415 out of Coele Syria (Roman province), Syria Coele. The province survived until the Muslim conquest of Syria in the 630s. ...
, are recorded in extant documents. The first whose name survives is that of Saint
Eustathius of Antioch Eustathius of Antioch, sometimes surnamed the Great, was a Christian bishop and archbishop of Antioch in the 4th century. His feast day in the Orthodox Church is February 21. Life He was a native of Side in Pamphylia. About 320 he was bishop ...

Eustathius of Antioch
, who, after being bishop of Beroea, was transferred to the important
metropolitan see Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area dis ...
of
Antioch Antioch on the Orontes (; grc, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, ''Antiókheia hē epì Oróntou''; also Syrian Antioch) grc-koi, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ ...

Antioch
shortly before the 325
First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea (; grc, Νίκαια ) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialec ...
. His successor in Beroea Cyrus was for his fidelity to the Nicene faith sent into exile by the
Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Politica ...
Constantius II Flavius Julius Constantius ( grc-gre, Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361), known as Constantius II, was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). ...

Constantius II
. After the
Council of Seleucia The Council of Seleucia was an early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christianity, Christian religion, Christendom, Christian countries, and the Christian Church, Church with its various Christian denomination, denominations, ...
of 359, called by Constantius,
Meletius of Antioch Saint Meletius (Greek: Μελέτιος, ''Meletios'') was a Christianity, Christian Patriarch of Antioch, bishop of Antioch from 360 until his death in 381. He was opposed by a rival bishop named Paulinus II of Antioch, Paulinus and his episcopate ...
was transferred from to Beroea but in the following year was promoted to Antioch. His successor in Beroea, Anatolius, was at a council in Antioch in 363. Under the persecuting Emperor
Valens Flavius Valens (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ) ...

Valens
, the bishop of Beroea was Theodotus, a friend of
Basil the Great Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great ( grc, Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, ''Hágios Basíleios ho Mégas''; cop, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was an East Roman b ...
. He was succeeded by Acacius of Beroea, who governed the see for over 50 years and was at the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Council of Ephesus in 431. In 438, he was succeeded by Theoctistus, who participated in the Council of Chalcedon in 451 and was a signatory of the joint letter that the bishops of the province of Syria Prima sent in 458 to Emperor Leo I the Thracian about the murder of Proterius of Alexandria. In 518, Emperor Justin I exiled the bishop of Beroea Antoninus for rejecting the Council of Chalcedon. The last known bishop of the see is Megas, who was at a synod called by Patriarch Menas of Constantinople in 536. After the Arab conquest, Beroea ceased to be a residential bishopric, and is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. Very few physical remains have been found from the Roman and Byzantine periods in the Citadel of Aleppo. The two mosques inside the Citadel are known to be converted from churches originally built by the Byzantines.Gonnela, 2008, pp. 12–13 They were later converted into mosques by the Mirdasid dynasty, Mirdasids during the 11th century.


Medieval period

The Sasanian Persians led by King Khosrow I pillaged and burned Aleppo in 540, then they Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, invaded and controlled Syria briefly in the early 7th century. Soon after Aleppo Siege of Aleppo (637), fell to Early Muslim conquests, Muslims under Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah in 637. In 944, it became the seat of an independent Emirate under the Hamdanid prince Sayf al-Dawla, and enjoyed a period of great prosperity, being home to the great poet al-Mutanabbi and the philosopher and polymath al-Farabi. In 962, the city was Sack of Aleppo (962), sacked by the Byzantine general Nikephoros II Phokas, Nicophorus Phocas. Subsequently, the city and its Emirate Treaty of Safar, became a temporary vassal of the Byzantine Empire. For the next few decades the city was disputed by the Fatimid Caliphate and Byzantine Empire, with the nominally independent Hamdanids in between, eventually falling to the Fatimids in 1017. In 1024, Salih ibn Mirdas launched an attack on the Fatimid Caliphate, Fatimid Aleppo, and after a few months was invited into the city by its population. In late 1077, Seljuk emir Tutush I launched a campaign to capture Aleppo during the reign of Sabiq ibn Mahmud of the Mirdasid dynasty, which lasted until 1080, when his reinforcements were ambushed and routed by a coalition of Arab tribesmen led by Banu Kilab, Kilabi chief Abu Za'ida at Wadi Butnan. After the death of Muslim ibn Quraysh, Sharaf al-Dawla of the Uqaylid dynasty in June 1085, the headman in Aleppo Sharif Hassan ibn Hibat Allah Al-Hutayti promised to surrender the city to Tutush, but then refused and wrote to Sultan Malik-Shah I offering to surrender the city to him, Tutush attacked and occupied the city except for the citadel in May 1086, he stayed until October and left for Damascus due to the advance of Malik-Shah armies, the Sultan himself arrived in December 1086. In 1087, Aq Sunqur al-Hajib became the Seljuk governor of Aleppo under Sultan Malik Shah I. The Siege of Aleppo (1124), city was besieged by Crusades, Crusaders led by the King of Jerusalem Baldwin II of Jerusalem, Baldwin II in 1124–1125, but was not conquered after receiving protection by forces of Aqsunqur al-Bursuqi, Aqsunqur al Bursuqi arriving from Mosul in January 1125. On 9 August 1138, 1138 Aleppo earthquake, a deadly earthquake ravaged the city and the surrounding area. Although estimates from this time are very unreliable, it is believed that 230,000 people died, making it the Lists of earthquakes#Deadliest earthquakes on record, sixth deadliest earthquake in recorded history. In 1128, Aleppo became capital of the expanding Zengid dynasty, which ultimately conquered Damascus in 1154. In 1183, Aleppo came under the control of Saladin and then the Ayyubid dynasty. When the Ayyubids were toppled in Egypt by the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mamluks, the Ayyubid emir of Aleppo An-Nasir Yusuf became sultan of the remaining part of the Ayyubid Empire. He ruled Syria from his seat in Aleppo until, on 24 January 1260, the Siege of Aleppo (1260), city was taken by the Mongols under Hulagu in alliance with their vassals the Franks, Frankish knights of the ruler of
Antioch Antioch on the Orontes (; grc, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, ''Antiókheia hē epì Oróntou''; also Syrian Antioch) grc-koi, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ ...
Bohemond VI and his father-in-law the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Armenian ruler Hetoum I. The city was poorly defended by Turanshah, and as a result the walls fell after six days of siege, and the citadel fell four weeks later. The Muslim population was massacred and many Jews were also killed. The Christian population was spared. Turanshah was shown unusual respect by the Mongols, and was allowed to live because of his age and bravery. The city was then given to the former Emir of Homs, al-Ashraf, and a Mongol garrison was established in the city. Some of the spoils were also given to Hethoum I for his assistance in the attack. The Mongol Army then continued on to
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
, which surrendered, and the Mongols entered the city on 1 March 1260. In September 1260, the Egyptian Mamluks negotiated for a treaty with the Franks of Acre which allowed them to pass through Crusader territory unmolested, and engaged the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut on 3 September 1260. The Mamluks won a decisive victory, killing the Mongols' Nestorian Christian general Kitbuqa, and five days later they had retaken Damascus. Aleppo was recovered by the Muslims within a month, and a Mamluk governor placed to govern the city. Hulagu sent troops to try to recover Aleppo in December. They were able to massacre a large number of Muslims in retaliation for the death of Kitbuqa, but after a fortnight could make no other progress and had to retreat. The Mamluk governor of the city became insubordinate to the central Mamluk authority in Cairo, and in Autumn 1261 the Mamluk leader Baibars sent an army to reclaim the city. In October 1271, the Mongols led by general Samagar took the city again, attacking with 10,000 horsemen from Anatolia, and defeating the Turkmens, Turcoman troops who were defending Aleppo. The Mamluk garrisons fled to Hama, until Baibars came north again with his main army, and the Mongols retreated. On 20 October 1280, the Mongols took the city again, pillaging the markets and burning the mosques. The Muslim inhabitants fled for Damascus, where the Mamluk leader Qalawun assembled his forces. When his army advanced following the Second Battle of Homs in October 1281, the Mongols again retreated, back across the Euphrates. In 1400, the Mongol-Turkic leader Timur, Tamerlane Sack of Aleppo (1400), captured the city again from the Mamluks. He massacred many of the inhabitants, ordering the building of a tower of 20,000 skulls outside the city. After the withdrawal of the Mongols, all the Muslim population returned to Aleppo. On the other hand, Christians who left the city during the Mongol invasion, were unable to resettle back in their own quarter in the old town, a fact that led them to establish a new neighbourhood in 1420, built at the northern suburbs of Aleppo outside the city walls, to become known as ''Al-Jdayde, al-Jdeydeh'' quarter ("new district" ar, جديدة, link=no).


Ottoman era

Aleppo became part of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
in 1516, when the city had around 50,000 inhabitants, or 11,224 households according to an Ottoman census. It was the centre of the Aleppo Eyalet; the rest of what later became Syria was part of either the eyalets of Damascus, Tripoli, Sidon or Raqqa. Following the Ottoman provincial reform of 1864 Aleppo became the centre of the newly constituted Vilayet of Aleppo in 1866. Thanks to its strategic geographic location on the trade route between Anatolia and the east, Aleppo rose to high prominence in the Ottoman era, at one point being second only to Constantinople in the empire. By the middle of the 16th century, Aleppo had displaced
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
as the principal market for goods coming to the Mediterranean region from the east. This is reflected by the fact that the Levant Company of London, a joint-trading company founded in 1581 to monopolize England's trade with the Ottoman Empire, never attempted to settle a factor, or agent, in Damascus, despite having had permission to do so. Aleppo served as the company's headquarters until the late 18th century.Ágoston and Masters (2009), Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire As a result of the economic development, many European states had opened consulates in Aleppo during the 16th and the 17th centuries, such as the consulate of the Republic of Venice in 1548, the consulate of France in 1562, the consulate of England in 1583 and the consulate of the Dutch Republic, Netherlands in 1613. However, the prosperity Aleppo experienced in the 16th and 17th century started to fade as silk production in Iran went into decline with the fall of the Safavid dynasty in 1722. By mid-century, caravans were no longer bringing silk from Iran to Aleppo, and local Syrian production was insufficient for Europe's demand. European merchants left Aleppo and the city went into an economic decline that was not reversed until the mid-19th century when locally produced cotton and tobacco became the principal commodities of interest to the Europeans. According to Halil İnalcık, "Aleppo ... underwent its worst catastrophe with the wholesale destruction of its villages by Bedouin raiding in the later years of the century, creating a long-running famine which by 1798 killed half of its inhabitants." The economy of Aleppo was badly hit by the opening of the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
in 1869. This, in addition to political instability that followed the implementation of significant reforms in 1841 by the central government, contributed to Aleppo's decline and the rise of Damascus as a serious economic and political competitor with Aleppo. Reference is made to the city in 1606 in William Shakespeare's ''Macbeth''. The witches torment the captain of the ship the ''Tiger'', which was headed to Aleppo from England and endured a 567-day voyage before returning unsuccessfully to port. Reference is also made to the city in Shakespeare's ''Othello'' when Othello speaks his final words (ACT V, ii, 349f.): "Set you down this/And say besides that in Aleppo once,/Where a malignant and a turbanned Turk/Beat a Venetian and traduced the state,/I took by th' throat the circumcised dog/And smote him—thus!" (Arden Shakespeare Edition, 2004). The English naval chaplain Henry Teonge describes in his diary a visit he paid to the city in 1675, when there was a colony of Western European merchants living there. The city remained Ottoman until the empire's collapse, but was occasionally riven with internal feuds as well as attacks of cholera from 1823. Around 20–25 percent of the population died of Plague (disease), plague in 1827. In 1850 a Muslim mob Massacre of Aleppo (1850), attacked Christian neighbourhoods, tens of Christians were killed and several churches looted. Though this event has been portrayed as driven by pure sectarian principles, Bruce Masters argues that such analysis of this period of violence is too shallow and neglects the tensions that existed among the population due to the commercial favor afforded to certain Christianity in Syria, Christian minorities by the Tanzimat Reforms during this time which played a large role in creating antagonism between previously cooperative groups of Muslim and Christians in the eastern quarters of the city. Janissary rebels installed their own government when the Ottoman governor fled. The Ottomans took over the city weeks later killing some 5,000. By 1901, the city's population was around 110,000. At the end of World War I, the Treaty of Sèvres made most of the Province of Aleppo part of the newly established nation of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
, while Cilicia was promised by France to become an Armenian state. However, Kemal Atatürk annexed most of the Province of Aleppo as well as Cilicia to
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
in his Turkish war of independence, War of Independence. The Arab residents in the province (as well as the Kurds) supported the Turks in this war against the French, including the leader of the Hananu Revolt, Ibrahim Hananu, who directly coordinated with Atatürk and received weaponry from him. The outcome, however, was disastrous for Aleppo, because as per the Treaty of Lausanne, most of the Province of Aleppo was made part of Turkey with the exception of Aleppo and Alexandretta; thus, Aleppo was cut from its northern satellites and from the Anatolian cities beyond on which Aleppo depended heavily in commerce. Moreover, the Sykes-Picot division of the Near East separated Aleppo from most of
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
, which also harmed the economy of Aleppo. The situation was exacerbated further in 1939 when Alexandretta was annexed to Turkey, thus depriving Aleppo of its main port of Iskenderun and leaving it in total isolation within Syria.


French mandate

The State of Aleppo was declared by French General Henri Gouraud (French Army officer), Henri Gouraud in September 1920 as part of a French scheme to make Syria easier to control by dividing it into several smaller states. France became more hostile to the idea of a united Syria after the Battle of Maysaloun. By separating Aleppo from Damascus, Gouraud wanted to capitalize on a traditional state of competition between the two cities and turn it into political division. The people in Aleppo were unhappy with the fact that Damascus was chosen as capital for the new nation of Syria. Gouraud sensed this sentiment and tried to manipulate it by making Aleppo the capital of a large and wealthier state with which it would have been hard for Damascus to compete. The State of Aleppo as drawn by France contained most of the fertile area of Syria: the fertile countryside of Aleppo in addition to the entire fertile basin of river Euphrates. The state also had access to sea via the autonomous Sanjak of Alexandretta. On the other hand, Damascus, which is basically an oasis on the fringes of the Syrian Desert, had neither enough fertile land nor access to sea. Basically, Gouraud wanted to lure Aleppo by giving it control over most of the agricultural and mineral wealth of Syria so that it would never want to unite with Damascus again.M. Andrew & Sydney Kanya-Forstner (1981) The climax of French imperial expansion, 1914–1924Fieldhouse, David Kenneth (2006) Western imperialism in the Middle East 1914–1958 The limited economic resources of the Syrian states made the option of completely independent states undesirable for France, because it threatened an opposite result: the states collapsing and being forced back into unity. This was why France proposed the idea of a Syrian federation that was realized in 1923. Initially, Gouraud envisioned the federation as encompassing all the states, even Lebanon. In the end however, only three states participated: Aleppo, State of Damascus, Damascus, and the Alawite State. The capital of the federation was Aleppo at first, but it was relocated to Damascus. The president of the federation was Subhi Barakat, an
Antioch Antioch on the Orontes (; grc, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, ''Antiókheia hē epì Oróntou''; also Syrian Antioch) grc-koi, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ ...
-born politician from Aleppo. The federation ended in December 1924, when France merged Aleppo and Damascus into a single Syrian State and separated the Alawite State again. This action came after the federation decided to merge the three federated states into one and to take steps encouraging Syria's financial independence, steps which France viewed as too much. When the Great Syrian Revolt, Syrian Revolt erupted in southern Syria in 1925, the French held in Aleppo State new elections that were supposed to lead to the breaking of the union with Damascus and restore the independence of Aleppo State. The French were driven to believe by pro-French Aleppine politicians that the people in Aleppo were supportive of such a scheme. After the new council was elected, however, it surprisingly voted to keep the union with Damascus. Syrian National Block, Syrian nationalists had waged a massive anti-secession public campaign that vigorously mobilized the people against the secession plan, thus leaving the pro-French politicians no choice but to support the union. The result was a big embarrassment for France, which wanted the secession of Aleppo to be a punitive measure against Damascus, which had participated in the Syrian Revolt. This was the last time that independence was proposed for Aleppo.


Post-independence

The period immediately following independence from France was marked by increasing rivalry between Aleppo and Damascus. Aleppo feverishly called for an immediate union between Syria and kingdom of Iraq, Hashimite Iraq, a demand that was firmly rejected by Damascus. Instead, Damascus favoured a pro-Egyptian, pro-Saudi orientation and actively participated in the establishment of the Arab League in Alexandria in 1944, an organization that was seen by many Arab nationalists as a 'conspiracy' aimed against the unification of the Fertile Crescent under the Hashimites. The increasing disagreements between Aleppo and Damascus led eventually to the split of the Syrian National Block, National Block into two factions: the National Party (Syria), National Party, established in Damascus in 1946, and the People's Party (Syria), People's Party, established in Aleppo in 1948 by Rushdi al-Kikhya, Nazim Qudsi and Mustafa Bey Barmada. An underlying cause of the disagreement, in addition to the union with Iraq, was Aleppo's intention to relocate the capital from Damascus. The issue of the capital became an open debate matter in 1950 when the Popular Party presented a constitution draft that called Damascus a "temporary capital." The first coup d'état in modern Syrian history was carried out in March 1949 by an army officer from Aleppo, Hussni Zaim. However, lured by the absolute power he enjoyed as a dictator, Zaim soon developed a pro-Egyptian, pro-Western orientation and abandoned the cause of union with Iraq. This incited a second coup only four months after his. The second coup, led by Sami Hinnawi (also from Aleppo), empowered the Popular Party and actively sought to realize the union with Iraq. The news of an imminent union with Iraq incited a third coup the same year: in December 1949, Adib Shishakli, Adib Shishakly led a coup preempting a union with Iraq that was about to be declared. Soon after Shishakly's domination ended in 1954, a United Arab Republic, union with Egypt under Gamal Abdul Nasser was implemented in 1958. The union, however, collapsed only two years later when a junta of young Damascene officers carried out a separatist coup. Aleppo resisted the separatist coup, but eventually it had no choice but to recognize the new government. In March 1963 a coalition of Baathists, Nasserists, and Socialists launched a new coup whose declared objective was to restore the union with Egypt. However, the new government only restored the flag of the union. Soon thereafter disagreement between the Baathists and the Nasserists over the restoration of the union became a crisis, and the Baathists ousted the Nasserists from power. The Nasserists, most of whom were from the Aleppine middle class, responded with an insurgency in Aleppo in July 1963. Again, the Ba'ath government tried to absorb the dissent of the Syrian middle class (whose center of political activism was Aleppo) by putting to the front Amin al-Hafiz, a Baathist military officer from Aleppo. President Hafez al-Assad, who came to power in 1970, relied on support from the business class in Damascus. This gave Damascus further advantage over Aleppo, and hence Damascus came to dominate the Syrian economy. The strict centralization of the Syrian state, the intentional direction of resources towards Damascus, and the hegemony Damascus enjoys over the Syrian economy made it increasingly hard for Aleppo to compete. Hence, Aleppo is no longer an economic or cultural capital of Syria as it once used to be. In 2006, Aleppo was named by the Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO) as the capital of Islamic culture.


Syrian Civil War

On 12 August 2011, some months after protests had begun elsewhere in Syria, anti-government protests were held in several districts of Aleppo, including the city's Sakhour district. During this demonstration, which included tens of thousands of protesters, security forces shot and killed at least two people. Two months later a pro-government demonstration was held in Saadallah Al-Jabiri Square, in the heart of the city. According to the ''New York Times'', the 11 October 2011 rally in support of Bashar al-Assad was attended by large crowds, while state and local media claimed more than 1.5 million attended and stated that it was one of the largest rallies ever held in Syria. In early 2012, Syrian forces started bombing Aleppo due to an uprising. On 2012 Aleppo bombings, 10 February 2012, suicide car bombs exploded outside two security compounds – the Military Intelligence Directorate (Syria), Military Intelligence Directorate's local headquarters, and a Security Preservation forces barracks – reportedly killing 28 (four civilians, thirteen military personnel and eleven security personnel) and wounding 235. On 18 March 2012, another car bomb blast in a residential neighbourhood reportedly killed two security personnel and one female civilian, and wounded 30 residents. In late July 2012, the conflict reached Aleppo in earnest when fighters from the surrounding countryside mounted their first offensive there, apparently trying to capitalise on momentum gained during the Damascus assault. Then, some of the civil war's "most devastating bombing and fiercest fighting" took place in Aleppo, often in residential areas. In the summer, autumn and winter of 2012 house-to-house fighting between armed opposition and government forces continued, and by the spring 2013 the Syrian army had entrenched itself in the western part of Aleppo (government forces were operating from a military base in the southern part of the city) and the armed opposition in the eastern part with a no man's land between them. One estimate of casualties by an international humanitarian organization is that by this time 13,500 had been killed in the fighting– 1,500 under 5 years of age – and that another 23,000 had been injured. Local police stations in the city, used as bases of government forces and hated and feared by residents, were a focus of much of the conflict. As a result of the severe battle, many sections in Al-Madina Souq (part of the Old City of Aleppo World Heritage Site), including parts of the Great Mosque of Aleppo and other medieval buildings in the ancient city, were destroyed and ruined or burnt in late summer 2012 as the armed groups of the Free Syrian Army and the Syrian Arab Army Battle of Aleppo (2012), fought for control of the city. In March 2013, the Syrian Foreign Ministry claimed that some 1,000 factories in Aleppo have been plundered, and their stolen goods transferred to Turkey with the full knowledge and facilitation of the Turkish government. A stalemate that had been in place for four years ended in July 2016, when Syrian government troops closed the last supply line of the armed opposition into Aleppo with the support of Russian airstrikes. In response, rebel forces launched unsuccessful counteroffensives in September and October that failed to break the siege; in November, government forces embarked on a decisive campaign. The rebels agreed to evacuate from their remaining areas in December 2016. The Syrian government victory was widely seen as a potential turning point in Syria's civil war. On 22 December, the evacuation was completed with the Syrian Army declaring it had taken complete control of the city. Red Cross later confirmed that the evacuation of all civilians and rebels was complete. When the battle ended, 500,000 refugees and internally displaced persons returned to Aleppo, and Syrian state media said that hundreds of factories returned to production as electricity supply greatly increased. Many parts of the city that were affected are undergoing reconstruction. On 15 April 2017, a convoy of buses carrying evacuees was 2017 Aleppo suicide car bombing, attacked by a suicide bomber in Aleppo, killing more than 126 people, including at least 80 children. Syrian state media reported that the Aleppo shopping festival took place on 17 November 2017 to promote industry in the city. A YPG commander stated in February 2018 that Kurdish fighters had shifted to Afrin, Syria, Afrin to help repel the Operation Olive Branch, Turkish assault. As a result, he said the pro-Syrian government forces had regained control of the districts previously controlled by them. In February 2020, government forces achieved a major breakthrough when they captured the last remaining rebel-held areas in Aleppo's western periphery, thus decisively ending the clashes that began with the Battle of Aleppo (2012–2016), Battle of Aleppo over eight years prior.


Geography

Aleppo lies about inland from the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
, on a Aleppo plateau, plateau above sea level, east of the Syrian-Turkish border Bab al-Hawa Border Crossing, checkpoint of Bab al-Hawa. The city is surrounded by farmlands from the north and the west, widely cultivated with olive and pistachio trees. To the east, Aleppo approaches the dry areas of the Syrian Desert. The city was founded a few kilometres south of the location of the current old city, on the right bank of Queiq River which arises from the Aintab plateau in the north and runs through Aleppo southward to the fertile country of Qinnasrin. The old city of Aleppo lies on the left bank of the Queiq. It was surrounded by a circle of eight hills surrounding a prominent central hill on which the castle (originally a temple dating to the 2nd millennium BC) was erected. The radius of the circle is about . The hills are Tell as-Sawda, Tell ʕāysha, Tell as-Sett, Tell al-Yāsmīn (Al-ʕaqaba), Tell al-Ansāri (Yārūqiyya), ʕan at-Tall, al-Jallūm, Baḥsīta. The old city was enclosed within an ancient wall that was last rebuilt by the Mamluks. The wall has since disappeared. It had nine gates and was surrounded by a broad deep ditch. Occupying an area of more than , Aleppo is one of the fastest growing cities in the Middle East. According to the new major plan of the city adopted in 2001, it is envisaged to increase the total area of Aleppo up to by the end of 2015.Syria New
statement by Syrian Minister of Local Administration, Syria (Arabic, August 2009)


Climate

Aleppo has a cold semi-arid climate, cool steppe climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: BSk). The mountain series that run along the Mediterranean coast, namely the Syrian Coastal Mountain Range, Alawiyin Mountains and the Nur Mountains, largely block the effects of the Mediterranean on climate (rain shadow effect). The average high and low temperature throughout the year is . The average precipitation is . More than 80% of precipitation occurs between October and March. It snows once or twice every winter. Average humidity is 55.7%.


Architecture

Aleppo is characterized with mixed architectural styles, having been ruled by, among others, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuqs, Mamluks and Ottomans. Various types of 13th and 14th centuries constructions, such as caravanserais, caeserias, Quranic schools, hammams and religious buildings are found in the Old City of Aleppo, old city. The quarters of al-Jdayde district are home to numerous 16th and 17th-century houses of the Aleppine bourgeoisie, featuring stone engravings. Baroque architecture of the 19th and early 20th centuries is common in al-Azizyah district, including the Villa Rose. The new Shahbaa district is a mixture of several styles, such as Neo-classical architecture, Neo-classic, Norman Architecture, Norman, Oriental and even Chinese architecture. Since the old city is characterized with its large mansions, narrow alleys and covered souqs, the modern city's architecture has replenished the town with wide roads and large squares such as the Saadallah Al-Jabiri Square, the Liberty Square (Aleppo), Liberty Square, the President's Square and Sabaa Bahrat Square (Aleppo), Sabaa Bahrat Square There is a relatively clear division between old and new Aleppo. The older portions of the city, with an approximate area of are contained within a wall, in circuit with nine gates. The huge medieval castle in the city – known as the
Citadel of Aleppo The Citadel of Aleppo ( ar, قلعة حلب, Qalʿat Ḥalab) is a large medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and t ...

Citadel of Aleppo
— occupies the center of the ancient part, in the shape of an acropolis. Being subjected to constant invasions and political instability, the inhabitants of the city were forced to build cell-like quarters and districts that were socially and economically independent. Each district was characterized by the religious and ethnic characteristics of its inhabitants. The mainly white-stoned old town was built within the historical walls of the city, pierced by the nine historical gates, while the newer quarters of the old city were first built by the Christians during the early 15th century in the northern suburbs of the ancient city, after the Mongol withdrawal from Aleppo. The new quarter known as al-Jdayde is one of the finest examples of a cell-like quarter in Aleppo. After Timur, Tamerlane invaded Aleppo in 1400 and destroyed it, the Christians migrated out of the city walls and established their own cell in 1420, at the northwestern suburbs of the city, thus founding the quarters of al-Jdayde. The inhabitants of the new quarters were mainly brokers who facilitated trade between foreign traders and local merchants. As a result of the economic development, many other quarters were established outside the walls of the ancient city during the 15th and 16th centuries. Thus, the Old City of Aleppo — composed of the ancient city within the walls and the old cell-like quarters outside the walls – has an approximate area of housing more than 120,000 residents.


Demographics


History

According to the Aleppine historian Sheikh ''Kamel Al-Ghazzi'' (1853–1933), the population of Aleppo was around 400,000 before the disastrous earthquake of 1822. Followed by cholera and plague attacks in 1823 and 1827 respectively, the population of the city declined to 110,000 by the end of the 19th century. In 1901, the total population of Aleppo was 108,143 of which Muslims were 76,329 (70.58%), Christians – mostly Catholics – 24,508 (22.66%) and Jews 7,306 (6.76%). Aleppo's large Christian population swelled with the influx of Armenians in Syria, Armenian and Syrian-Assyrians, Assyrian Christian refugees during the early 20th-century and after the Armenian Genocide, Armenian and Assyrian Genocide, Assyrian genocides of 1915. After the arrival of the first groups of Armenians in Syria, Armenian refugees (1915–1922) the population of Aleppo in 1922 counted 156,748 of which Muslims were 97,600 (62.26%), native Christians -mostly Catholics- 22,117 (14.11%), Jews 6,580 (4.20%), Europeans 2,652 (1.70%), Armenian refugees 20,007 (12.76%) and others 7,792 (4.97%). However, even though a large majority of the Armenians arrived during the period, the city has had an Armenian community since at least the 1100s, when a considerable number of Armenian families and merchants from the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia settled in the city. The Forty Martyrs Cathedral, oldest Armenian church in the city is from 1491 as well, which indicates that they have been here long before. The second period of Armenian flow towards Aleppo marked with the withdrawal of the French troops from Cilicia in 1923. After the arrival of more than 40,000 Armenian refugees between 1923 and 1925, the population of the city reached up to 210,000 by the end of 1925, where Armenians formed more than 25% of it. According to the historical data presented by ''Al-Ghazzi'', the vast majority of the Aleppine Christians were Catholics until the latter days of the Ottoman rule. The growth of the Oriental Orthodox Christians is related with the arrival of the Assyrian survivors from Cilicia and Southern Turkey, while on the other hand, large numbers of Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch, Eastern Orthodox Christians from the Hatay Province, Sanjak of Alexandretta arrived in Aleppo, after the annexation of the Sanjak in 1939 in favour of Turkey. In 1944, Aleppo's population was around 325,000, with 112,110 (34.5%) Christians among which Armenians have counted 60,200. Armenians formed more than half of the Christian community in Aleppo until 1947, when many groups of them left for Soviet Armenia within the frames of the ''Armenian Repatriation Process (1946–1967)''.


Pre-civil war status

Aleppo was the most populous city in Syria, with a population of 2,132,100 as indicated in the latest official census in 2004 by the Central Bureau of Statistics (Syria), Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Its subdistrict (''nahiya'') consisted of 23 localities with a collective population of 2,181,061 in 2004.. Central Bureau of Statistics (Syria), Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Aleppo Governorate. Archived. According to the official estimate announced by the Aleppo City Council, the population of the city was 2,301,570 by the end of 2005. As a result of the
Syrian Civil War#REDIRECT Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ, ''al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah'') is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Ara ...

Syrian Civil War
, however, the city eastern half's population under the control of the opposition had plummeted to an estimated 40,000 by 2015.


Muslims

More than 80% of Aleppo's inhabitants are Sunni Muslims. They are mainly Syrian Syrian people, Arabs, followed by Syrian Turkmen, Turkmens and Kurds. Other Muslim groups include small numbers of ethnic Circassians, Chechens, Albanians, Bosniaks, Greeks and Bulgarians.


Christians

Until the breakup of the Battle of Aleppo in 2012 within the frames of the
Syrian Civil War#REDIRECT Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ, ''al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah'') is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Ara ...

Syrian Civil War
, the city contained one of the largest Christian communities in the Middle East, with many Oriental Orthodox Christian congregations, mainly Armenians in Syria, Armenians and Assyrians in Syria, Assyrians (locally known as Syriacs). Historically, the city was the main centre of French Catholic missionaries in Syria. The Christian population of Aleppo was slightly more than 250,000 before the civil war, representing about 12% of the total population of the city. However, as a consequence of the Syrian Civil War, the Christian population of the city decreased to less than 100,000 as of the beginning of 2017, of whom around 30% are ethnic Armenians. A significant number of the Assyrians in Syria, Assyrians in Aleppo speak Aramaic, hailing from the city of Urfa in Turkey. The large community of Oriental Orthodox Christians belongs to the Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Apostolic and Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac Orthodox churches. However, there is a significant presence of the Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch as well. There is also a large number Eastern Catholic Christians in the city, including Melkite Greek Catholic Church, Melkite Greeks, Maronite Church, Maronites, Chaldean Catholic Church, Chaldeans, Syriac Catholic Church, Syrian Catholics and the followers of the Latin rite. Evangelical Christians of different denominations are a minority in the city. Several districts of the city have a Christian and Armenian majority, such as the old Christian quarter of al-Jdayde. Around 50 churches operate in the city operated by the above-mentioned congregations. However, according to the Deputy Chairman of the commission for UNESCO of the Russian Federation Alexander Dzasokhov, around 20 churches suffered great destruction during the battles in Aleppo, with the most notable being the National Evangelical Church, as well as the surrounding historic churches of al-Jdayde district. On 25 December 2016, following the government victory, Christmas was publicly celebrated in Aleppo for the first time in four years.


Jews

The city was home to a significant Jewish population from ancient times. The Central Synagogue of Aleppo, Great Synagogue, built in the 5th century, housed the Aleppo Codex. The Jews of Aleppo were known for their religious commitment, Rabbinic leadership, and their liturgy, consisting of Pizmonim and Baqashot. After the Spanish Inquisition, the city of Aleppo received many Sephardic Jewish immigrants, who eventually joined with the native Aleppo Jewish community. Peaceful relations existed between the Jews and surrounding population. In the early 20th-century, the town's Jews lived mainly in Al-Jamiliyah, Bab Al-Faraj and the neighbourhoods around the Great Synagogue. Unrest in Palestine in the years preceding the establishment of Israel in 1948 resulted in growing hostility towards Jews living in Arab countries, culminating in the Jewish exodus from Arab lands. In December 1947, after the UN decided the partition of Palestine, an Arab mob Aleppo pogrom, attacked the Jewish quarter. Homes, schools and shops were badly damaged. Soon after, many of the town's remaining 6,000 Jews emigrated. In 1968, there were an estimated 700 Jews still remaining in Aleppo. The houses and other properties of the Jewish families which were not sold after the migration, remain uninhabited under the protection of the Syrian Government. Most of these properties are in Al-Jamiliyah and Bab Al-Faraj areas, and the neighbourhoods around the Central Synagogue of Aleppo. In 1992, the Syrian government lifted the travel ban on its 4,500 Jewish citizens. Most traveled to the United States, where a sizable number of
Syrian Jews Syrian Jews ( he, יהודי סוריה ''Yehudey Surya'', ar, الْيَهُود السُّورِيُّون ''al-Yahūd as-Sūriyyūn'', colloquially called SYs in the United States) are Jews who lived in the region of the modern state of Syria ...
currently live in Brooklyn, New York. The last Jews of Aleppo, the Halabi family, were evacuated from the city in October 2016 by the Free Syrian Army and now live in Israel. The Jews from Aleppo referred to their city as "Aram Tzova" (ארם צובא) after the ancient
Aramean The Arameans (Old Aramaic language, Old Aramaic: 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Greek language, Greek: Ἀραμαῖοι; Syriac language, Syriac: ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ / Ārāmāyē) were an ancient Semitic languages, Semitic-speaking people in the Near East, fi ...
city of Aram-Zobah mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.


Spoken languages

The Arabic dialect of Aleppo is a type of Syrian Arabic, which is of the North Levantine Arabic variety. Much of its vocabulary is derived from the Syriac language. The Kurdish language is the second most spoken language in the city, after Arabic. Kurds in Syria, Kurds in Aleppo speak the Northern Kurdish (also known as Kurmanji). Syrian Turkmen population of Aleppo speak the Kilis and Antep dialect of the Turkish language. Most Armenians speak the Western Armenian, Western form of the Armenian language. Syriac language is rarely spoken by the Syriac community during daily life, but commonly used as the liturgical language of the Syriac Church. The members of the small Greeks in Syria, Greco-Syrian community in Aleppo speak Arabic, but the Koine Greek dialect of the Greek language is used during church service by the Orthodox and Catholic Greek churches of Antioch. English and French are also spoken.


Culture


Art

Aleppo is considered one of the main centres of Arabic traditional and classic music with the Aleppine ''Muwashshahs'', ''Qudud Halabiya'' and ''Arabic maqam, Maqams'' (religious, secular and folk poetic-musical genres). Aleppines in general are fond of Arab classical music, the ''Tarab'', and it is not a surprise that many artists from Aleppo are considered pioneers among the Arabs in classic and traditional music. The most prominent figures in this field are Sabri Mdallal, Sabah Fakhri, Shadi Jamil, Abed Azrie and Nour Mhanna. Many iconic artists of the Arab music like Sayed Darwish and Mohammed Abdel Wahab were visiting Aleppo to recognize the legacy of Aleppine art and learn from its cultural heritage. Aleppo is also known for its knowledgeable and cultivated listeners, known as ''sammi'a'' or "connoisseur listeners". Aleppine musicians often claim that no major Arab artist achieved fame without first earning the approval of the Aleppine ''sammi'a''. Aleppo hosts many music shows and festivals every year at the citadel amphitheatre, such as the "Syrian Song Festival", the "Silk Road Festival" and "Khan al-Harir Festival". Al-Adeyat Archaeological Society founded in 1924 in Aleppo, is a cultural and social organization to preserve the tangible and intangible heritage of Aleppo and Syria in general. The society has branches in other governorates as well.


Museums

* National Museum of Aleppo. * Museum of the popular traditions known as the ''Aleppine House'' at Beit Achiqbash in al-Jdayde. * Aleppo Citadel Museum. * Museum of medicine and science at Bimaristan Arghun al-Kamili. * Aleppo Memory Museum at ''Beit Ghazaleh'' in al-Jdayde. * ''Zarehian Treasury'' of the Armenian Apostolic Church at the old Armenian church of the Holy Mother of God, Al-Jdeydeh.


Cuisine

Aleppo is surrounded by olive, nut and fruit orchards, and its cuisine is the product of its fertile land and location along the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
. The International Academy of Gastronomy in France awarded Aleppo its culinary prize in 2007. The city has a wide selection of different types of dishes, such as kebab, kibbeh, dolma, hummus, ful halabi, za'atar halabi, etc. Ful halabi is a typical Aleppine breakfast meal: fava bean soup with a splash of olive oil, lemon juice, garlic and Aleppo's red peppers. The za'atar of Aleppo (thyme) is a kind of oregano which is popular in the regional cuisines. The kibbeh is one of the favourite foods of the locals, and the Aleppines have created more than 17 types of kibbeh dishes, which is considered a form of art for them. These include ''kibbeh'' prepared with sumac (''kәbbe sәmmāʔiyye''), yogurt (''kәbbe labaniyye''), quince (''kәbbe safarjaliyye''), lemon juice (''kәbbe ḥāmḍa''), pomegranate sauce and cherry sauce. Other varieties include the "disk" ''kibbeh'' (''kәbbe ʔrāṣ''), the "plate" ''kibbeh'' (''kәbbe bәṣfīḥa'' or ''kәbbe bṣēniyye'') and the raw ''kibbeh'' (''kәbbe nayye''). Kebab Halabi – influenced by Armenian and Turkish tastes – has around 26 variants including: ''kebab'' prepared with cherry (''kebab karaz''), eggplant (''kebab banjan''), chili pepper with parsley and pine nut (''kebab khashkhash''), truffle (''kebab kamayeh''), tomato paste (''kebab hindi''), cheese and mushroom (''kebab ma'juʔa''), etc. The favourite drink is Arak (distilled beverage), Arak, which is usually consumed along with meze, Aleppine kebabs and kibbehs. Beer in Syria, Al-Shark beer – a product of Aleppo – is also among the favourite drinks. Local wines and brandies are consumed as well. Aleppo is the origin of different types of sweets and pastries. The Aleppine sweets, such as mabrumeh, siwar es-sett, balloriyyeh, etc., are characterized by containing high rates of ghee butter and sugar. Other sweets include mamuniyeh, shuaibiyyat, mushabbak, zilebiyeh, ghazel al-banat etc. Most pastries contain the renowned Aleppine pistachios and other types of nuts.


Leisure and entertainment

Until the break-up of the Battle of Aleppo (2012–16), Battle of Aleppo in July 2012, the city was known for its vibrant nightlife. Several night-clubs, bars and cabarets that were operating at the centre of the city as well as at the northern suburbs. The historic quarter of al-Jdayde was known for its pubs and boutique hotels, situated within ancient oriental mansions, providing special treats from the Aleppine flavour and cuisine, along with local music. Club d'Alep opened in 1945, is a unique social club known for Contract bridge, bridge games and other nightlife activities, located in a 19th-century mansion in the Aziziyah district of central Aleppo. The Aleppo Public Park opened in 1949, is one of the largest planted parks in Syria, located near in the Aziziyah district, where Queiq River breaks through the green park. The ''Blue Lagoon'' water park – heavily damaged during the battles – was one of the favourite places among the locals, as it was the first water park in Syria. Aleppo's Shahba Mall – one of the largest shopping centres in Syria – was also among the most visited locations for the locals. It has received major damages during the civil war.


Historical sites


Souqs and khans

The city's strategic trading position attracted settlers of all races and beliefs who wished to take advantage of the commercial roads that met in Aleppo from as far as China and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
to the east, Europe to the west, and the Fertile Crescent and Egypt to the south. The largest covered souq-market in the world is in Aleppo, with an approximate length of . ''Al-Madina Souq'', as it is locally known, is an active trade centre for imported luxury goods, such as raw silk from Iran, spices and dyes from India, and coffee from
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
. Souq al-Madina is also home to local products such as wool, agricultural products and soap. Most of the souqs date back to the 14th century and are named after various professions and crafts, hence the wool souq, the copper souq, and so on. Aside from trading, the souq accommodated the traders and their goods in ''khans'' (caravanserais) and scattered in the souq. Other types of small market-places were called ''caeserias'' (ﻗﻴﺴﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ). Caeserias are smaller than khans in their sizes and functioned as workshops for craftsmen. Most of the khans took their names after their location in the souq and function, and are characterized by their façades, entrances and fortified wooden doors.


Gates of Aleppo and other historic buildings

The old part of the city is surrounded with , thick walls, pierced by the nine historical gates (many of them are well-preserved) of the old town. These are, clockwise from the north-east of the citadel: Bab al-Hadid, Bab al-Ahmar, Bab al-Nairab, Bab al-Maqam, Bab Qinnasrin, Bab Antakeya, Bāb Jnēn, Bab al-Faraj (Aleppo), Bab al-Faraj and Bab al-Nasr (Aleppo), Bab al-Nasr. The most significant historic buildings of the ancient city include: * Citadel of Aleppo, The Citadel, a large fortress built atop a huge, partially artificial mound rising above the city, dates back to the first millennium BC. Recent excavations unearthed a temple and 25 statues dating back to the first millennium BC. Many of the current structures date from the 13th century. The Citadel had been extensively damaged by earthquakes, notably in 1822. * Al-Shibani Church, Al-Shibani building, al-Halawiyah Madrasa, al-Muqaddamiyah Madrasa, al-Zahiriyah Madrasa, al-Sultaniyah Madrasa, al-Firdaws Madrasa, Bimaristan Arghun al-Kamili, Beit Junblatt, Bab al-Faraj Clock Tower, etc. The following are among the important historic mansions of al-Jdayde Christian quarter: * ''Beit Wakil'', an Aleppine mansion built in 1603, with unique wooden decorations. One of its decorations was taken to Berlin and exhibited in Pergamon Museum, known as the ''Aleppo Room''. * ''Beit Achiqbash'', an old Aleppine house built in 1757. The building is home to the ''Popular Traditions Museum'' since 1975, showing fine decorations of the Aleppine art. * ''Beit Ghazaleh'', an old 17th-century mansion characterized with fine decorations, carved by the Armenian sculptor ''Khachadur Bali'' in 1691. It was used as an Armenian elementary school during the 20th century.


Places of worship

* Great Mosque of Aleppo (Jāmi' Bani Omayya al-Kabīr), founded c. 715 by Umayyad caliph Walid I and most likely completed by his successor Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik, Sulayman. The building contains a tomb associated with Zechariah (priest), Zachary, father of John the Baptist. Construction of the present structure for Nur al-Din commenced in 1158. However, it was damaged during the Mongol invasion of 1260, and was rebuilt. The tower (described as "the principal monument of medieval Syria") was erected in 1090–1092 under the first Seljuk sultan, Tutush I. It had four façades with different styles. The tower was completely destroyed during the Syrian civil war in March 2013 (reported on 24 March 2013). * Al-Nuqtah Mosque ("Mosque of the drop [of blood]"), a Shia, Shī'ah mosque, which contains a stone said to be marked by a drop of Husayn ibn Ali, Husayn's blood. The site is believed to have previously been a monastery, which was converted into a mosque in 944. * Al-Shuaibiyah Mosque, Al-Qaiqan Mosque, Mahmandar Mosque, Altun Bogha Mosque, Al-Sahibiyah Mosque, Bahsita Mosque, Al-Tawashi Mosque, Al-Otrush Mosque, Al-Saffahiyah Mosque, Khusruwiyah Mosque, Al-Adiliyah Mosque, Bahramiyah Mosque, etc. * Churches of al-Jdayde quarter: the Forty Martyrs Cathedral, Forty Martyrs Armenian Apostolic Cathedral, the Church of the Dormition of Our Lady, Dormition of Our Lady Greek Orthodox church, Mar Assia al-Hakim Church, Mar Assia al-Hakim Syrian Catholic church, the Saint Elijah Cathedral, Aleppo, Maronite Cathedral of Saint Elijah, the Armenian Catholic Cathedral of Our Mother of Reliefs and the Melkite Greek Catholic Cathedral of Virgin Mary. * Central Synagogue of Aleppo or al-Bandara synagogue, completed as early as the 9th century by the efforts of the Jewish community. The synagogue was ruined several times until 1428 when it was restored. Recently, the building was renovated by the efforts of Aleppine Jewish migrants in US.


Hammams

Aleppo was home to 177 Turkish bath, hammams during the medieval period until the Mongol invasion, when many of the prominent structures of the city were destroyed. Before the civil war, 18 hammams were operating in the old city, including: * Hammam al-Nahhasin built during the 12th century near khan al-Nahhaseen. * Hammam al-Sultan built in 1211 by Az-Zahir Ghazi. * Hammam al-Bayadah of the Mamluk era built in 1450. * Hammam Yalbugha built in 1491 by the List of rulers of Aleppo, Emir of Aleppo Saif ad-Din Yalbugha al-Naseri. * Hammam al-Jawhary, hammam Azdemir, hammam Bahram Pasha, hammam Bab al-Ahmar, etc.


Nearby attractions and the ''Dead Cities''

Aleppo's western suburbs are home to a group of historical sites and villages which are commonly known as the ''Dead Cities''. Around 700 abandoned settlements in the northwestern parts of Syria before the 5th century, contain remains of Christian Byzantine architecture. Many hundreds of those settlements are in Mount Simeon (Jabal Semaan) and Jabal Halaqa regions at the western suburbs of Aleppo, within the range of Limestone Massif. Dead Cities were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011, under the name of "Ancient Villages of Northern Syria". The most notable ''Dead cities'' and archaeological sites in Mount Simeon and Kurd Mountain, Mount Kurd near Aleppo include: Kalota Castle and churches northwest of Aleppo, Kharab Shams Byzantine basilica of the 4th century, the half-ruined Roman basilica in Fafertin village dating back to 372 AD, the old Byzantine settlement of Surqanya village at the northwest of Aleppo, the 4th-century Basilica of Sinhar settlement, the Mushabbak Basilica dating back to the second half of the 5th century, the 9th-century BC Assyrian settlement of Kafr Nabu, Barad, Syria, Brad village and the Julian of Antioch, Saint Julianus Maronite monastery (399–402 AD) where the shrine of Maron, Saint Maron is located, the 5th-century Kimar settlement of the Roman and Byzantine eras, the
Church of Saint Simeon Stylites The Church of Saint Simeon Stylites ( ar, كنيسة مار سمعان العمودي , Kanīsat Mār Simʿān el-ʿAmūdī) is a building that can be traced back to the 5th century, located approximately northwestern part of Aleppo, Syria. It i ...
of the 5th century, the
Syro-Hittite and Aramean states ( 800 BCE) The states that are called Syro-Hittite (in older literature), or Luwian-Aramean (in modern scholarly works), were Luwians, Luwian and Aramean regional polities of the Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of ...
Ain Dara temple of the Iron Age dating back to the 10th and 8th centuries BC, the ancient city of Cyrrhus with the old Roman amphitheatre and two historic bridges, etc.


Transportation


Buses and minibuses

The city of Aleppo is served by a public transport network of buses and minibuses. New modern buses are used to connect the city with Damascus and the other Syrian cities to the east and the south of Aleppo.


Railway

Aleppo was one of the major stations of Syria that has been connected with the
Baghdad Railway Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq and one of the largest cities in the Arab world, and compared to its large population it has a small area at just 673 square kilometers (260 sq mi). Located along the Tigris, near the ...
in 1912, within the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. The connections to Turkey and onwards to Ankara still exist today, with a twice weekly train from Damascus. It is perhaps for this historical reason that Aleppo is the headquarters of Syria national railway network, Chemins de Fer Syriens. As the railway is relatively slow, much of the passenger traffic to the port of Latakia had moved to road-based air-conditioned coaches. But this has reversed in recent years with the 2005 introduction of South Korean built Diesel multiple unit, DMUs providing a regular bi-hourly express service to both Latakia and Damascus, which miss intermediate stations. However, after the break-out of the civil war in 2011, the Syrian railway network has suffered major damage and is currently out of use. The opening scene in Agatha Christie's ''Murder on the Orient Express'' takes place on the railway station in Aleppo: "It was five o'clock on a winter's morning in Syria. Alongside the platform at Aleppo stood the train grandly designated in railway guides as the Taurus Express."


Airport

Aleppo International Airport (IATA: ALP, ICAO: OSAP) is the international airport serving the city. The airport serves as a secondary hub for Syrian Arab Airlines. The history of the airport dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. It was upgraded and developed in the years to 1999 when the new current terminal was opened. The airport was closed since the beginning of 2013 as a result of the military operations in the area. However, following the Syrian government's recapture of eastern Aleppo during the Battle of Aleppo (2012–16), Battle of Aleppo, an airplane conducted its first flight from the airport in four years.


Economy


Trade and industry

The main role of the city was as a trading place throughout the history, as it sat at the crossroads of two trade routes and mediated the trade from India, the Tigris and Euphrates regions and the route coming from
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
in the South, which traced the base of the mountains rather than the rugged seacoast. Although trade was often directed away from the city for political reasons , it continued to thrive until the Europeans began to use the Cape of Good Hope, Cape route to India and later to utilize the route through Egypt to the Red Sea. The commercial traditions in Aleppo have deep roots in the history. The Aleppo Chamber of commerce founded in 1885, is one of the oldest chambers in the Middle East and the Arab world. According to many historians, Aleppo was the most developed commercial and industrial city in the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
after Constantinople and
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
. As the largest urban area in pre-civil war Syria, Aleppo was considered the capital of Syrian industry. The economy of the city was mainly driven by textiles, chemicals, pharmaceutics, agro-processing industries, electrical commodities, alcoholic beverages, engineering and tourism. It occupied a dominant position in the country's manufacturing output, with a share of more than 50% of manufacturing employment, and an even greater export share. Possessing the most developed commercial and industrial plants in Syria, Aleppo is a major centre for manufacturing precious metals and stones. The annual amount of the processed gold produced in Aleppo is around 8.5 tonnes, making up to 40% of the entire manufactured gold in Syria. The industrial city of Aleppo in Shaykh Najjar, Sheikh Najjar district is one of the largest in Syria and the region. Occupying an area of in the north-eastern suburbs of Aleppo, the total investments in the city counted more than US$3.4 billion during 2010. Still under development, it is envisaged to open hotels, exhibition centres and other facilities within the industrial city. The old traditional crafts are well-preserved in the old part of the city. The famous laurel Aleppo soap, soap of Aleppo is considered to be the world's first hard soap.


Construction

In the 2000s, Aleppo was one of the fastest-growing cities in Syria and the Middle East. Many villagers and inhabitants of other Syrian districts are migrating to Aleppo in an effort to find better job opportunities, a fact that always increases population pressure, with a growing demand for new residential capacity. New districts and residential communities have been built in the suburbs of Aleppo, many of them were still under construction . Two major construction projects are scheduled in Aleppo: the "Old City Revival" project and the "Reopening of the stream bed of Queiq River". * The Old City revival project completed its first phase by the end of 2008, and the second phase started in early 2010. The purpose of the project is the preservation of the old city of Aleppo with its souqs and khans, and restoration of the narrow alleys of the old city and the roads around the citadel. * The restoration of Queiq River is directed towards the revival of the flow of the river, demolishing both the artificial cover of the stream bed and the reinforcement of the stream banks along the river in the city centre. The flow of the river was blocked during the 1960s by the Turks, turning the river into a tiny sewage channel, something that led the authorities to cover the stream during the 1970s. In 2006 the flow of pure water was restored through the efforts of the Syrian government, granting a new life to the Quweiq River. Like other major Syrian cities, Aleppo is suffering from the dispersal of informal settlements: almost half of its population (around 1.2 million) is estimated to live in 22 informal settlements of different types.


Education

As the main economic centre of Syria, Aleppo has a large number of educational institutions. According to the governor of Aleppo Hussein Diyab, there are around 450,000 students attending 913 schools in the city, as of September 2017. In addition to the University of Aleppo, there are state colleges and private universities which attract large numbers of students from other regions of Syria and the Arab countries. The number of the students in Aleppo University is more than 60,000. The university has 18 faculties and 8 technical colleges in the city of Aleppo. Currently, there are two private universities operating in the city: al-Shahba University (SU) and Mamoun University for Science and Technology (MUST). Branches of the state conservatory and the fine arts school are also operating in the city. Aleppo is home to several Christian and Armenian private schools as well as two international schools: International School of Aleppo and Lycée Français d'Alep.


Sport

The city of Aleppo is considered an important centre of team sports with association football, football being the most popular in the city. The five major sporting clubs of the city are Al-Ittihad SC Aleppo, al-Ittihad SC, al-Hurriya SC, al-Yarmouk SC Aleppo, al-Yarmouk SC, Jalaa SC and Ouroube SC Aleppo, Ouroube SC. Many Other sport clubs are located in several districts of the city including al-Herafyeen SC, Shorta Aleppo SC, Ommal Aleppo SC, Nayrab SC, al-Shahbaa SC, al-Qala'a SC and Aleppo Railways SC. Basketball is also played in the city. All of the 5 Aleppine major sport clubs participate in the men's and women's top division of the Syrian Basketball League, in which both Jalaa SC (men's basketball), Jalaa SC and Al-Ittihad SC Aleppo (men's basketball), Al-Ittihad SC consecutively dominated winning the league from 1956 to 1993. Other sports being practiced by the major clubs in the city include tennis, handball, volleyball, table tennis and swimming (sport), swimming. With a capacity of 53,200 seats, the Aleppo International Stadium is the largest sports venue in Syria. Other major sport venues in the city include the Aleppo 7 April Stadium, 7 April Stadium, al-Assad Sports Arena, Bassel al-Assad Swimming Complex, and al-Hamadaniah Olympic Swimming and Diving Complex. On 29 January 2017, Aleppo hosted the first sports event since 2012, when the local football rivals Al-Ittihad SC Aleppo, al-Ittihad SC and al-Hurriya SC played at the Ri'ayet al-Shabab Stadium, within the frames of the 2016–17 Syrian Premier League.


Municipality

The city of Aleppo is the capital of
Aleppo Governorate Aleppo Governorate ( ar, محافظة حلب / ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The ...

Aleppo Governorate
and the centre of Mount Simeon District. Aleppo City Council is the governing body of the city. The first municipality council was formed in 1868. However, the governor being appointed directly by the president of the republic, has a supreme authority over the city and the entire governorate.


Subdivisions

Districts in Aleppo can be considered in four categories: * Old quarters inside the walls of the ancient city. * Old quarters outside the walls of the ancient city. * Modern neighborhoods, including a newly developed area called The New Aleppo. * Informal settlements.


Integrated Urban Development in Aleppo

The "Integrated Urban Development in Aleppo" (UDP) is a joint programme between the German Development Cooperation (GTZ) and the Municipality of Aleppo. The programme promotes capacities for sustainable urban management and development at the national and municipal level. The Programme has three fields of work: # Aleppo City Development Strategy (CDS): promoting support structures for the municipality, including capacity building, networking, and developing municipal strength in the national development dialogue. # Informal Settlements (IS): includes strategy and management development of informal settlements. # The Project for the Rehabilitation of the Old City of Aleppo (OCA): includes further support for the rehabilitation of the Old City, as well as for a city development strategy oriented to the long term. The UDP cooperates closely with other interventions in the sector, namely the EU-supported 'Municipal Administration Modernization' programme. It is planned to operate from 2007 to 2016.


Preservation of the ancient city

As an ancient trading centre, Aleppo has impressive ''souqs'', ''khans'', ''hammams'', ''madrasas'', mosques and churches, all in need of more care and preservation work. After World War II the city was significantly redesigned; in 1954 French architect André Gutton had a number of wide new roads cut through the city to allow easier passage for modern traffic. Between 1954 and 1983 many buildings in the old city were demolished to allow for the construction of modern apartment blocks, particularly in the northwestern areas (Bab al-Faraj and Bab al-Jinan). As awareness for the need to preserve this unique cultural heritage increased, Gutton's master plan was finally abandoned in 1979 to be replaced with a new plan presented by the Swiss expert and urban designer Stefano Bianca, which adopted the idea of "preserving the traditional architectural style of Ancient Aleppo" paving the way for UNESCO to declare the Old City of Aleppo as a World Heritage Site in 1986. Several international institutions have joined efforts with local authorities and the Aleppo Archaeological Society, to rehabilitate the old city by accommodating contemporary life while preserving the old one. The governorate and the municipality are implementing serious programmes directed towards the enhancement of the ancient city and Jdeydeh quarter. The German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and Aga Khan Foundation (within the frames of Aga Khan Historic Cities Programme) has made a great contribution in the preservation process of the old city.


Twin towns – sister cities

Aleppo is Sister city, twinned with: * Gaziantep, Turkey (2005) * Osmangazi, Turkey (2010)


Notable natives

. Sharaf al-Dawla Muslim 960 -1066 Prince of Aleppohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharaf_al-Dawla_Muslim * Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi, thinker and religious reformer * Abd al-Rahman Mowakket, sculptor * Abed Azrie, composer and classical songs performer * Ali Sarmini, painter * Amin al-Hafiz, former List of Presidents of Syria, president of Syria * Antranig Dzarugian, Armenian novelist and poet * Avraam Russo, Russian pop singer * Bassam Kousa, actor * Buhturi, Arab poet * Charla Baklayan Faddoul, reality TV figure * Diana al-Hadid, sculptor * Fateh Moudarres, painter * Francis Marrash, Francis, Abdallah Marrash, Abdallah and Maryana Marrash, writers and poets * Gabriel Acacius Coussa, cardinal and expert in canon law * George Tutunjian, Armenian revolutionary songs performer * Georges Tarabichi, writer and translator * Harut Sassounian, Armenian-American writer and journalist * Hilarion Capucci, titular archbishop of Caesarea Maritima, Caesarea * Husni al-Za'im, former List of Presidents of Syria, president of Syria * Issam Haitham Taweel (born 1989), Egyptian tennis player * Jacob of Edessa, Syriac people, Syriac writer and theologian * Jacobo Harrotian, Mexican General during the Mexican Revolution, revolution * Jean Carzou, French-Armenian painter * John George (actor), John George, actor in silent American movies * Karnig Sarkissian, Armenian revolutionary songs performer * Levon Ter-Petrossian, former president of Armenia * Louay Kayali, painter * Mar'i Pasha al-Mallah, politician * Michel Madanly, renowned basketball player * Mohammad Nasser Afash, Mohammad Afash, prominent footballer * Mohammed Mohiedin Anis, businessman and car collector * Mustafa Bey Barmada, statesman * Moustapha Akkad, film producer and director * Muhammad Naji al-Otari, politician * Muhammed Faris, first Syrian cosmonaut * Najdat Anzour, television director * Nazim al-Kudsi, former List of Presidents of Syria, president of Syria * Omar Abu-Riche, Syrian poet * Paul Baghdadlian, Armenian singer * Paul of Aleppo, theologian, traveler and chronicler * Philipp Stamma, chess master and writer * Qustaki al-Himsi, writer and poet * Rashad Barmada, politician * Rizqallah Hassun, founder of the first Arabic newspaper in 1855 * Ronaldo Mouchawar, entrepreneur, founder of Souq.com * Rushdi al-Kikhya, Syrian political leader * Saadallah al-Jabiri, politician * Sabah Fakhri, Arabic traditional songs performer * Maron, Saint Maron, figure in Christianity * Sami al-Hinnawi, military leader * Sati' al-Husri, educationalist and thinker * Sayf al-Dawla, ruler of Hamadanid dynasty * Seta Dadoyan, Armenian scholar and historian * Simeon Stylites, figure in Christianity * Subhi Barakat, politician * Vartan Oskanian, Armenian politician * Wahbi al-Hariri, artist and architect * Wiz Kilo, Syrian–Canadian hip hop artist * Zeki Pasha, field marshal of the Ottoman forces


See also

* ''Pinus halepensis'' * ''Tulipa aleppensis'' * List of people from Aleppo


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * *


External links


Aleppo Governorate

Aleppo news

Aleppo history and culture
{{Authority control Aleppo, Amorite cities Populated places along the Silk Road Populated places in Mount Simeon District Populated places established in the 5th millennium BC Cities in Syria Levant 5th-century BC establishments