Publius Aelius Aristides Theodorus ( grc-gre, Πόπλιος Αίλιος Αριστείδης Θεόδωρος ''Poplios Elios Aristidis Theodoros''; 117–181 AD) was a
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
orator and author considered to be a prime example of the
Second Sophistic The Second Sophistic is a literary-historical term referring to the Greek writers who flourished from the reign of Nero Nero ( ; Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the fifth Roman emperor, ruling fr ...
, a group of celebrated and highly influential orators who flourished from the reign of
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth emperor of Rome. He was Adoption in Ancient Rome, adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and s ...

until c. 230 AD. More than fifty of his orations and other works survive, dating from the reigns of
Antoninus Pius Antoninus Pius (; la, Antōnīnus Pius ; 19 September 86 – 7 March 161) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emper ...

Antoninus Pius
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a vari ...

Marcus Aurelius
. His early success was interrupted by a decades-long series of illnesses for which he sought relief by divine communion with the god
Asclepius Asclepius (; grc-gre, Ἀσκληπιός ''Asklēpiós'' ; la, Aesculapius) or HepiusJohn Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطي ...
, effected by interpreting and obeying the dreams that came to him while sleeping in the god's sacred precinct; he later recorded this experience in a series of discourses titled ''Sacred Tales (Hieroi Logoi)''. In his later life, Aristides resumed his career as an orator, achieving such notable success that
Philostratus Philostratus or Lucius Flavius Philostratus (; grc-gre, Φιλόστρατος ; c. 170 – 247/250 AD), called "the Athenian", was a Greek sophist A sophist ( el, σοφιστής, ''sophistes'') was a teacher in ancient Greece in the fifth ...
would declare that "Aristides was of all the sophists most deeply versed in his art."Wright, II.9.


Aristides was probably born at Hadriani in rural area of
Mysia Mysia (UK , US or ; el, Μυσία, lat, Mysia, tr, Misya) was a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the inter ...

. His father, a wealthy landowner, arranged for Aristides to have the finest education available. Aristides first studied under Alexander of Cotiaeum (later a tutor of Marcus Aurelius) at
Smyrna Smyrna ( ; grc, Σμύρνη, Smýrnē, or grc, Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...
, then traveled to various cities to learn from the foremost sophists of the day, including studies in
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

The capstone of his education was a trip to Egypt in 141 AD. Along the way he began his career as an orator, declaiming at Cos, Cnidis, Rhodes, and Alexandria. His travels in Egypt included a journey upriver in hopes of finding the source of the Nile, as he later recounted in "The Egyptian Discourse". Becoming ill, he returned home to Smyrna, and sought to cure himself by turning to the Egyptian god
Serapis Serapis ( grc-koi, Σέραπις, later form) or Sarapis (, earlier form, originally Demotic: ''wsjr-ḥp,'' "Osiris Osiris (, from Egyptian ''wsjr'', Coptic ) is the ancient Egyptian deities, god of fertility, agriculture, the Egyptian ...

(as recounted in his earliest preserved speech, "Regarding Serapis"). Hoping to advance his career as an orator, late in 143 AD Aristides traveled to Rome, but his ambitions were thwarted by severe illness. He returned home to Smyrna. Seeking relief, he eventually turned to
Asclepius Asclepius (; grc-gre, Ἀσκληπιός ''Asklēpiós'' ; la, Aesculapius) or HepiusJohn Tzetzes John Tzetzes ( gr, Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Iōánnēs Tzétzēs; c. 1110, Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطي ...
, "the paramount healing god of the ancient world", and traveled to the god's temple in
Pergamum Pergamon or Pergamum ( or ; grc-gre, Πέργαμον), also referred to by its modern Greek form Pergamos (), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the c ...

, "one of the chief healing sites in the ancient world", where "incubants" slept on the temple grounds, then recorded their dreams in search of prescriptions from the god; for Aristides, these included fasting, unusual diets, bloodletting, enemas, vomiting, and refraining from bathing or bathing in frigid rivers. Despite recurrent bouts of illness, by 147 AD Aristides resumed his career as a writer and occasional lecturer, though he sought legal immunity from various civic and religious obligations expected of a citizen of his standing. By 154 AD he felt well enough to resume his career on a full scale, including lecture tours to Greece and to Rome, where, in the presence of the imperial court, he delivered what was to become his most famous speech, "Regarding Rome". He also took pupils, the most famous being the sophist Damianus. In 165 AD, Aristides succumbed to the so-called
Antonine Plague The Antonine Plague of 165 to 180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (after Galen Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus ( el, Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 – c. AD 216), often Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or angli ...
that ravaged the Roman Empire. He survived, but became less active and renewed his devotion to Asclepius. In 171 AD he set about writing the ''Sacred Tales'' to record the numerous omens and insights he had received from Asclepius in his dreams over a period of almost thirty years. His greatest career success came in 176 AD, when Marcus Aurelius visited Smyrna and Aristides delivered an oration that greatly impressed the emperor. His greatest civic success followed in 177 AD when an earthquake destroyed Smyrna; Aristides wrote an appeal to Marcus Aurelius that was so instrumental in securing imperial funds for rebuilding that Philostratus would write, "To say that Aristides founded Smyrna is no mere boastful eulogy but most just and true." A bronze statue of Aristides was set up in the marketplace of Smyrna, inscribed, "For his goodness and speeches". Aristides spent his last years in seclusion at his country estates in Mysia, dying in 181 AD. Living a generation after Aristides, the most famous physician of antiquity,
Galen Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus ( el, Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 – c. AD 216), often Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modi ...
, wrote: "As to them whose souls are naturally strong and whose bodies are weak, I have seen only a few of them. One of them was Aristides... belonged to the most prominent rank of orators. Thus it happened to him, since he was active in teaching and speaking throughout his life, that his whole body wasted away."


Aristides' "many-sided literary output...made him a giant in his own day", and the subsequent popularity of his work—addresses for public and private occasions, polemical essays, declamations on historical themes, and prose hymns to various gods—established him (according to
Glen Bowersock Glen Warren Bowersock (born January 12, 1936 in Providence, Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island) is a historian of ancient Greece, Rome and the Near East. Early life Bowersock was born in Providence, Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island and ...
) as a "pivotal figure in the transmission of Hellenism".Hornblower, p. 160. Unlike many sophists, Aristides disliked speaking extempore. According to Philostratus, "Since his natural talent was not in the line of extempore eloquence, he strove after extreme accuracy...he was well endowed with native ability and purified his style of any empty verbosity." When he met Marcus Aurelius in Smyrna and the emperor asked him to declaim, Aristides replied: "Propose the theme today and tomorrow come and hear me, for I am one of those who do not vomit their speeches but try to make them perfect." There are five extant works by Aristides regarding the city of Smyrna. The first "Smyrnaean Oration", a sort of guided tour of the city for a visiting official, gives "the best description of ancient Smyrna which we possess". Other works describe the city before and after the devastating earthquake of 177 CE, including "A Letter to the Emperors Concerning Smyrna"; when this plea for help was read to him, Marcus Aurelius was so moved that he "actually shed tears over the pages." In "To Plato: In Defense of the Four", Aristides derisively criticizes a group of people by comparing them to "impious men of Palestine" that "do not believe in the higher powers":
These men alone should be classed neither among flatterers nor free men. For they deceive like flatterers, but they are insolent as if they were of higher rank, since they are involved in the two most extreme and opposite evils, baseness and willfulness, behaving like those impious men of Palestine. For the proof of the impiety of those people is that they do not believe in the higher powers. And these men in a certain fashion have defected from the Greek race, or rather from all that is higher.
His most famous oration was "Regarding Rome", which he delivered before the imperial household in Rome and in which Aristides glorifies "the Empire and the theory behind it, particularly the
Pax Romana The ''Pax Romana'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to ...
", and "paints an impressive picture of the Roman achievement". "The culminating passage...compares the creation of the Roman World with the creation of an orderly universe and represents the Roman World as the perfect state in which the gods can take delight, because it is dedicated to them." This oration would become "the main basis for history's favorable verdict on the Antonines", inspiring
Gibbon Gibbons () are ape Apes (Hominoidea ) are a branch of Old World tailless simians native to Africa and Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern sub ...

's famous pronouncement that the period between Domitian and Commodus was the happiest era of human history.

''Sacred Tales''

The six books of ''Sacred Tales'' "are in a class apart. A record of revelations made to Aristides in dreams by the healing god Asclepius...they are of major importance, both as evidence for the practices associated with temple medicine, and as the fullest first-hand report of personal religious experience that survives from any pagan writer." Modern scholarship has seen a proliferation of theories about the nature of Aristides' illnesses (real or imagined) and about the meaning of his religious experiences; "a number of scholars have applied psychoanalytical theories to Aristides' self-presentation" and have come to various conclusions. The complete works of Aristides were translated into English by Charles A. Behr and published in two volumes, in 1981 and 1986. Behr also worked out a chronology of Aristides' life and works and composed a lengthy biography which was included in his earlier book ''Aelius Aristides and the Sacred Tales'' (1968), in which he set forth the unique importance of the ''Sacred Tales'':
Nowhere does the whole person of a figure from the ancient world lie more open to scrutiny than that of Aristides through the prism of the ''Sacred Tales''. If the voluminous and faithful record of dream world and waking life, which is the substance of that work, is correctly employed, for the first time unequaled possibilities are at hand to break the barriers of anonymity which surround the inner life of even the best known figures of antiquity, and without qualification or conjecture, to penetrate to the subconscious level of one of them.

Text transmission and editions


234 manuscripts of works by Aelius Aristides are catalogued by Charles A. Behr. The earliest of them are four papyrus fragments dating from the fifth to the seventh centuries AD. Two are from ''Panathenaicus'' (Or. 1), and the others are from ''In Defense of the Four'' (Or. 3) and the ''Sacred Tales''. The earliest surviving medieval manuscript is codex A (written ca.917 by the scribe John the Calligrapher for the archbishop
Arethas of Caesarea Arethas of Caesarea ( el, Ἀρέθας; born c. 860 AD) was Archbishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia (modern Kayseri, Turkey) early in the 10th century, and is considered one of the most scholarly theologians of the Greek Orthodox Church. The ...
), now divided in two: Parisinus graecus 2951 and Laurentianus 60.3. It contains 42 of 53 surviving speeches and is the only one to preserve the fragmentary Or. 53. The earliest nearly complete text (missing only the fragmentary Orr. 52-53) is T (Laurentianus graecus 60.8; eleventh century). According to Behr, the whole tradition has one common reconstructable archetype (O) and was divided into two routes via the hyparchetypes ω and φ, both lost. The papyrus fragments represent perhaps a different line of transmission, but they are too short and hence of no great use.


The first speeches by Aelius Aristides to be printed were ''Panathenaicus'' and ''The Encomium on Rome'' (Orr. 1 and 36) added as appendix to
Aldus Manutius Aldus Pius Manutius (; it, Aldo Pio Manuzio; 1449/14526 February 1515) was an Italian humanist Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, ...

Aldus Manutius
's 1513 edition of
Isocrates Isocrates (; grc, Ἰσοκράτης ; 436–338 BC) was an ancient Greek rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Tri ...
. The first full edition was the Juntine, edited by Eufrosino Bonino and published by Filippo Giunta (Florence, 1517), though it omits Orr. 16 and 53. It was based on two inferior manuscripts and followed the faulty ordering of the speeches. The Latin translation of Aristides was made by
Willem Canter Willem Canter (1542-1575) was a classical scholar from Utrecht. He edited the ''Eclogues'' of Stobaeus and the tragedies of Euripides, Sophocles and Aeschylus. Canter studied under Jean Daurat in Paris before becoming an independent scholar in Old ...

Willem Canter
(Basel, 1566), who also reordered the speeches. It is this order that remained in all subsequent editions up to and including Dindorf's. These editions combined the Juntine text with Canter's translation. Paul Estienne's (Geneva, 1604) and
Samuel Jebb Samuel Jebb ( – 9 March 1772) was an English physician and literary scholar. Life He was born about 1694, probably at Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, the second son of Samuel Jebb, a maltster, and Elizabeth Gilliver. His eldest brother, Richard, ...
's (Oxford, 1722-1730) are the best ones.
Johann Jakob Reiske Johann Jakob Reiske (Neo-Latin language, Neo-Latin: Johannes Jacobus Reiskius; December 25, 1716 – August 14, 1774) was a Germany, German scholar and physician. He was a pioneer in the fields of Arabic and Byzantine philology as well as Numismati ...
planned an edition, but never completed the task. In 1761 he published a very acute set of notes and comments on Aristides and made a compilation of scholia. The most important 19th-century edition was
Karl Wilhelm Dindorf Karl Wilhelm Dindorf ( la, Guilielmus Dindorfius; 2 January 1802 – 1 August 1883) was a German classical scholar. He was born and died at Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of German ...
's 1829. Its first two volumes contain Aristides's text, while the third presents the scholia collected by Reiske.
Bruno Keil Bruno Keil (8 July 1859 in Havelberg – 23 March 1916 in Leipzig) was a German classical philologist. He studied classical philology, archaeology and Germanistics in Berlin, Bonn and Greifswald, obtaining his doctorate in 1884 at the Universi ...
intended to publish a completely new complete edition, but finished only the second volume (1898; speeches 17—53). He also restored the order of the speeches as it is found in the manuscript T. His work was taken by , who prepared speeches 1 and 5—16, but died in 1969. At last Charles Allison Behr completed this task and published the first volume (1976, 1980; speeches 1—16). A complete edition in 4 volumes with Behr's English translation was announced by the
Loeb Classical Library The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb; , ) is a series of books, originally published by Heinemann_(publisher), Heinemann in London, UK, today by Harvard University Press, US, which presents important works of ancient Greek l ...

Loeb Classical Library
, but only the first volume was edited (1973). Instead, Behr's complete English translation of all speeches in 2 volumes was published by Brill (1981, 1986).Behr (1986), p. vii. A new Loeb edition is being prepared by Michael Trapp (with Greek text after Lenz-Behr and Keil), of which vol.1 (2017) is already available (L533).



* Behr, C.A., 1968. ''Aelius Aristides and the Sacred Tales''. Amsterdam: Hakkert. * Behr, Charles A., trans., 1981. ''P. Aelius Aristides: The Complete Works'', vol. 2 (published first). Leiden: Brill. * Behr, Charles A., trans., 1986.
P. Aelius Aristides: The Complete Works
', vol. 1 (published second). Leiden: Brill. * Grant, Michael, 1994. ''The Antonines: The Roman Empire in Transition''. London & New York: Routledge. * Hornblower, Simon and Antony Spawforth, editors, 1996. ''The Oxford Classical Companion'', Third Edition. Oxford Univ. Press. * Oliver, James H., 1953. "The Ruling Power: A Study of the Roman Empire in the Second Century after Christ through the Roman Oration of Aelius Aristides" (including full Greek text and English translation of the oration) in ''Transactions of the American Philosophical Society'', Vol. 43, No. 4 (1953), pp. 871–1003. * Petsalis-Diomidis, Alexia, 2010. ''Truly Beyond Wonders: Aelius Aristides and the Cult of Asklepios''. Oxford Univ. Press (Oxford Studies in Ancient Culture & Representation). * Trapp, Michael, ed. and trans
Aelius Aristides: Orations, Volume I
Loeb Classical Library 533. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017. * Wright, Wilmer C., trans., 1922. ''Philostratus: Lives of the Sophists''. Loeb Classical Library.

External links

*''Aristides'', W. Dindorf (ed.), Lipsiae, libraria Weidmannia, G. Reimer, 1829
vol. 1vol. 2vol. 3
*''Aelii Aristidis Smyrnaei quae supersunt omnia'',
Bruno Keil Bruno Keil (8 July 1859 in Havelberg – 23 March 1916 in Leipzig) was a German classical philologist. He studied classical philology, archaeology and Germanistics in Berlin, Bonn and Greifswald, obtaining his doctorate in 1884 at the Universi ...
(ed.), Berolini apud Weidnannos, 1898: vol.1 (never edited)
vol. 2

Aelius Aristides' Orations (Greek) at Perseus Project
* ''Rhetores Graeci'', L. Spengel (ed.), Lipsiae, sumptibus et typis B. G. Teubneri, 1854
vol. 2 pp. 457-554
{{DEFAULTSORT:Aelius Aristides 117 births 181 deaths 2nd-century Romans 2nd-century Greek people 2nd-century writers Ancient Greek rhetoricians Roman-era students in Athens People from Roman Anatolia Ancient Smyrna
Aristides Aristides (; grc-gre, Ἀριστείδης, Aristeídēs ; 530–468 BC) was an ancient Athenian statesman A statesman or stateswoman typically is a politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is ...