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Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some
navies A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense a ...

navies
, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full"
general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone in suppo ...
in the army, and is above
vice admiral Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to a rear admiral and junior to an admiral. In many navies,Vice admiral is a three-star rank in the navies of N ...

vice admiral
and below
admiral of the fleet An admiral of the fleet or fleet admiral (equivalent rank to admiral of the navy Admiral of the Navy was the highest possible rank in the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") ...
, or fleet admiral. In
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
, admirals have a rank code of
OF-9 A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the . Four-star officers are often the most senior commanders in the armed services, having ranks such as (full) , (full) , , , or in the case of those air forces with a separate ...

OF-9
as a
four-star rank A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code. Four-star officers are often the most senior commanders in the armed services, having ranks such as (full) admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in ...
.


Etymology

The word in
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured sys ...
comes from
Anglo-French Anglo-French is a term used in contexts involving France and the United Kingdom (UK). Strictly, the designation "wiktionary:Anglo-, Anglo-" refers specifically to England, not the UK as a whole, but it is understood to refer to the UK and not only E ...
, "commander", from
Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share ...
, . These evolved from the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
Amīral (أمير الـ) –
Amīr
Amīr
(أمير), “
king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...

king
,
prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. ''Prince'' is also a title of nobility (often highest), often hereditary title, hereditary, in so ...

prince
, chief, leader,
nobleman Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
,
lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the Peera ...

lord
, a
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...

governor
,
commander Commander is a common naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfa ...

commander
, or person who rules over a number of people,”and al (الـ), the Arabic article answering to “the.” In Arabic, admiral is also represented as Amīr al-Baḥr (أمير البحر) or (البحر أمير), where al-Baḥr (البحر) means the
sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
sea
. The 1818 edition of
Samuel Johnson Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709  – 13 December 1784), often called Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, critic A critic is a person who communicates an asse ...
’s
A Dictionary of the English Language Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, ''A Dictionary of the English Language'', sometimes published as ''Johnson's Dictionary'', is among the most influential dictionary, dictionaries in the history of the English language. ...
, edited and revised by the Rev. Henry John Todd, states that the term “has been traced to the Arab. emir or amir, lord or commander, and the Gr. ἄλιος, the sea, q. d. ''prince of the sea''. The word is written both with and without the d, in other languages, as well as our own. Barb. Lat. admirallus and amiralius. V. Ducange. Barb. Græc. ἄμηρχλιος. V. Meursii Gloss. Græco-Barbarum, edit. 1610. p. 29. Fr. admiral and amiral. Dan. the same. Germ. ammiral. Dutch, admirael or ammirael. Ital. ammiraglio. Sp. almirante. Minsheu, in his Spanish Dictionary, says ‘almiralle is a king in the Arabian language.’ Amrayl is used by Robert of Gloucester, in the sense of a prince, or governour.” The quote from
John MinsheuJohn Minsheu (or Minshew) (1560–1627) was an English linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed lang ...

John Minsheu
’s Dictionarie in Spanish and English (1599), given in Johnson’s Dictionary, has been confirmed as being accurate. Additionally, the definition of Amīr (أمير), as given in
Edward William Lane Edward William Lane (17 September 1801 – 10 August 1876) was a British orientalist Orientalist may refer to: *A scholar of Oriental studies *A person or thing relating to the Western intellectual or artistic paradigm known as Orientalism (as in ...

Edward William Lane
's
Arabic-English Lexicon __NOTOC__ The ''Arabic–English Lexicon'' is an Arabic–English dictionary compiled by Edward William Lane Edward William Lane (17 September 1801 – 10 August 1876) was a British orientalist, translator and lexicographer Lexicography i ...

Arabic-English Lexicon
, concurs, in part, with Minsheu's definition, stating that the term means “One having, holding, or possessing, command; a commander; a governor; a lord; a prince, or king.” While other Greek words of the period existed to indicate “belonging to the sea,” or “of the sea,” the now obsolete Gr. ἄλιος mentioned in Johnson’s Dictionary is expressly defined as "of the sea, Lat. marinus, epith. of sea-gods,
nymphs A nymph ( grc, νύμφη, nýmphē, el, script=Latn, nímfi, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Gree ...

nymphs
, etc." Though there are multiple meanings for the Arabic Amīr (أمير), the literal meaning of the phrase Amīr al-Baḥr (أمير البحر) is “Prince of the Sea.” This position, versus “commander of the sea,” is demonstrated by legal practices prevailing in the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, whereas it was only possible for
Phanariots Phanariots, Phanariotes, or Fanariots ( el, Φαναριώτες, ro, Fanarioți, tr, Fenerliler) were members of prominent Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδ ...
to qualify for attaining four princely positions, those being
grand dragoman The Dragoman of the Sublime Porte (Ottoman Turkish language, Ottoman Turkish: ''terdjümân-ı bâb-ı âlî''; el, έγαςδιερμηνέας της Υψηλής Πύλης), Dragoman of the Imperial Council (''terdjümân-ı dîvân-ı h ...
,
dragoman of the fleetThe Dragoman of the Fleet (Ottoman Turkish language, Ottoman Turkish: ''tersâne terdjümân-ı'', "Dragoman of the Imperial Arsenal, Arsenal"; el, δραγουμάνος του στόλου) was a senior office in the Ottoman Empire, held by Phanar ...
, and the voievods of
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
and
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found ...
. Those Phanariots who attained the princely position of dragoman of the fleet served under the Ottoman admiral having administration of the
Aegean islands The Aegean Islands ( el, Νησιά Αιγαίου, Nisiá Aigaíou; tr, Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located betwe ...
and the Anatolian coast. Modern acknowledgement of the phrase Amīr al-Baḥr (أمير البحر) meaning “Prince of the Sea” includes a speech made in an official
U.S. military The United States Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between ...

U.S. military
ceremony conducted in an Arabic port, and a news article published by an Arabic news outlet: On 24 May 2012, in a
change of command A change of command is a military tradition that represents a formal transfer of authority and responsibility for a unit from one commanding or flag officer A flag officer is a Officer (armed forces), commissioned officer in a nation's armed fo ...
ceremony aboard
aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a warship A warship or combatant ship is a that is built and primarily intended for . Usually they belong to the of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faster ...
USS Enterprise (CVN 65) USS ''Enterprise'' (CVN-65), formerly CVA(N)-65, is a decommissioned United States Navy aircraft carrier. She was the first Nuclear marine propulsion, nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the eighth United States naval vessel to bear List of sh ...
, while docked at Khalifa Bin Salman Port,
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf. The Island country, island nation c ...

Bahrain
, U.S. Marine Corps Gen.
James Mattis James Norman Mattis (born September 8, 1950) is a retired United States Marine Corps General (United States), four-star general who served as the 26th US secretary of defense from January 2017 to January 2019. During his 44 years in the Marine Co ...
, Commander,
U.S. Central Command The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is one of the eleven unified combatant commands of the U.S. Department of Defense. It was established in 1983, taking over the previous responsibilities of the Rapid Deployment Joint Task ...
, introduced
Vice Admiral Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to a rear admiral and junior to an admiral. In many navies,Vice admiral is a three-star rank in the navies of N ...

Vice Admiral
as “Admiral Fox, the prince of the sea, emir of the sea – to translate ‘admiral’ from the Arabic to English;” On 04 Feb 2021, in an announcement of his
coronavirus Coronaviruses are a group of related Orthornavirae, RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some ca ...

coronavirus
-related death, the Arabic news website Saudi 24 News referred to Admiral Edmond Chagoury by the title “Prince of the Sea.” An alternate etymology proposes that the term admiral evolved, instead, from the title of Amīr al-Umarāʾ (أمير الأمراء‎). Under the reign of the
Buyid dynasty The Buyid dynasty, or the Buyids ( fa, آل بویه ''Āl-e Būya''; also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids), was a Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam. It holds t ...
(934 to 1062) of
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
and
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
, the title of Amīr al-Umarāʾ, which means prince of princes, came to denote the
heir-apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ( ...
, or
crown prince A crown prince or hereditary prince is the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when i ...

crown prince
. This alternate etymology states that the term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of
Norman Sicily The term Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture, Norman-Sicilian culture or, less inclusively, Norman-Arab culture, (sometimes referred to as the "Arab-Norman civilization") refers to the interaction of the Norman, Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical ...
, which had formerly been ruled by Arabs, at least by the early 11th century. During this time, the Norman
Roger II of Sicily Roger II ( it, Ruggero II; 22 December 1095 – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana ...

Roger II of Sicily
(1095–1154) employed a Greek Christian, known as
George of Antioch George of Antioch ( gr, Γεώργιος Αντιοχέας, died 1151 or 1152) was the first to hold the office of ''ammiratus ammiratorum'' (emir of emirs) in the Kingdom of Sicily, Norman Kingdom of Sicily. He was a Syrian-born Eastern Orthodo ...

George of Antioch
, who previously had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in
Abbasid The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islam Islam (;There ar ...

Abbasid
fashion as , or Amīr al-Umarāʾ, with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as . The
Sicilians Sicilians or the Sicilian people are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a stron ...
and later
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...

Genoese
took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, , from their
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...
opponents. The and
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
gave their sea commanders similar titles while in
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
the word changed to . As the word was used by people speaking
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling in the 14th century and to ''admiral'' by the 16th century.


Further history

The word "admiral" has come to be almost exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's
navies A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense a ...

navies
, equivalent to the army rank of
general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone in suppo ...

general
. However, this was not always the case; for example, in some European countries prior to the end of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, admiral was the third highest naval rank after
general admiral General admiral or Admiral general was a Danish, Dutch, German, Russian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish naval military rank, rank. Its historic origin is a title high military or naval dignitaries of early modern Europe sometimes held, for exampl ...
and
grand admiral #REDIRECT Grand admiral Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, the highest rank in the several European navies that used it. It is best known for its use in Germany as . A comparable rank in modern navies is that of Admiral of the fleet. Grand ...
. The rank of admiral has also been subdivided into various grades, several of which are historically extinct while others remain in use in most present-day navies. The
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
used the colours red, white, and blue, in descending order to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; for example,
Horatio Nelson Vice-admiral (Royal Navy), Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805), also known simply as Admiral Nelson, was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. His inspirational ...

Horatio Nelson
's highest rank was vice-admiral of the white. The generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is
flag officer A flag officer is a Officer (armed forces), commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag to mark the position from which the officer exercises command. The term is used differently in different countr ...
. Some navies have also used army-type titles for them, such as the "general at sea".


Admiral insignia by country

The rank insignia for an admiral often involves four stars or similar devices, or three stripes over a broad stripe, but there are many cases where the insignia do not involve four stars or similar devices. File:AL-ARA.png, ''Almirante''
Argentine Navy The Argentine Navy (ARA; es, Armada de la República Argentina)In the native Spanish, the navy is known as ''Armada de la República Argentina''. This also forms the basis for the navy's ship prefix "ARA". is the navy of Argentina. It is one of ...
File:Royal Australian Navy OF-9.svg, Admiral
Royal Australian Navy The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the principal naval force A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riveri ...
File:14.BNF-ADMF.svg, Admiral
Bangladesh Navy The Bangladesh Navy ( bn, বাংলাদেশ নৌবাহিনী; ''Bangladesh Nou Bahini'') is the naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm ...
File:AlmirantedeEsquadra MB.png, ''Almirante-de-Esquadra''
Brazilian Navy ) , colors= Blue Blue is one of the three of pigments in painting and traditional , as well as in the . It lies between and on the of . The eye perceives blue when observing light with a between approximately 450 and 495 s. Most blues c ...
File:18.RBrN-GEN.svg, ''Laksamana''
Royal Brunei Navy The Royal Brunei Navy ( ms, Tentera Laut Diraja Brunei, abbreviated TLDB) is the naval defence force of Brunei Darussalam Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, J ...
File:Cambodian Navy OF-09.svg, Admiral ()
Royal Cambodian Navy The Royal Cambodian Navy ( km, កងទ័ពជើងទឹក, ) is the naval warfare service branch of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces and one of the three uniformed services of the Kingdom of Cambodia. It has an estimated of 4,000 active ...
File:Canada-Navy-OF-9-collected.svg,
Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

Royal Canadian Navy , march = "Heart of Oak The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessel The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system that transport blood througho ...
File:PLANF-0720-GEN.png, ''海军上将''
People's Liberation Army Navy The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN; ), also known as the Chinese Navy or PLA Navy, is the naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill th ...
File:Almirante pala Chile.png, ''Almirante''
Chilean Navy The Chilean Navy ( es, Armada de Chile) is the naval warfare Naval warfare is human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and int ...
File:Almirante Chile.png, ''Almirante''
Chilean Navy The Chilean Navy ( es, Armada de Chile) is the naval warfare Naval warfare is human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and int ...
File:Rukav zimske odore admirala HRM.svg, ''admiral''
File:Cuba-Navy-OF-8.svg, ''Almirante''
Cuban Navy The Cuban Revolutionary Navy ( es, Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria) is the navy of Cuba. History The Cuban Navy, Constitutional Navy of Cuba was the navy of Cuba that existed prior to 1959. During the Cold War, the Cuban Navy successfully Le ...
File:Almirante EC.jpg, ''Almirante''
Ecuadorian Navy The Ecuadorian Navy is responsible for the surveillance and protection of national maritime territory and has a personnel of 9,127 men to protect a coastline of 2,237 km which reaches far into the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the ...
File:EgyptianNavyInsignia-Admiral-shoulderboard.svg, فريق أول
Egyptian Navy The Egyptian Navy ( ar, القوات البحرية المصرية, Quwwāt el-Bahriat el-Miṣriyya, Egyptian Navy Forces), also known as the Egyptian Naval Force, is the maritime branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. It is the largest navy in t ...
File:Mereväeadmiral.png, ''Admiral''
Estonian Navy en, "Call of the Sea – Call to Defend" , colors= , colors_label= , march= , mascot= , battles= Estonian War of Independence The Estonian War of Independence ( et, Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, ...
File:Amiraali olkalaatta.svg, ''Amiraali''
Finnish Navy The Finnish Navy ( fi, Merivoimat, sv, Marinen) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. The navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval an ...
File:Amiraali hihalaatta.svg, ''Amiraali''
Finnish Navy The Finnish Navy ( fi, Merivoimat, sv, Marinen) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. The navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval an ...
File:Amiral France.png, ''Amiral''
French Navy The French Navy (french: Marine nationale, lit=National Navy), informally , is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces The French Armed Forces (french: Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "ar ...
File:23.GN-ADM.svg, ''Admiral''
Gabonese Navy File:MDS 64 Admiral Trp.svg, ''Admiral''
German Navy The German Navy (german: Deutsche Marine; officially german: Marine ) is the navy of Germany and part of the unified ''Bundeswehr'' (Federal Defense), the German Armed Forces. The German Navy was originally known as the ''Bundesmarine'' (Fe ...
File:MDJA 64 Admiral Trp Lu.svg, ''Admiral''
German Navy The German Navy (german: Deutsche Marine; officially german: Marine ) is the navy of Germany and part of the unified ''Bundeswehr'' (Federal Defense), the German Armed Forces. The German Navy was originally known as the ''Bundesmarine'' (Fe ...
File:15-Ghana Navy-ADM.svg, ''Admiral''
Ghana Navy Ghana (), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to ...
File:Greek-Admiral.jpg, '' Návarchos''
Hellenic Navy The Hellenic Navy (HN; el, Πολεμικό Ναυτικό, Polemikó Naftikó, War Navy, abbreviated ΠΝ) is the naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collect ...
File:14-Indian Navy-ADM.svg,
Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

Indian Navy The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for ...

Indian Navy
File:Pdu laksamanatni staf.png, ''Laksamana''
Indonesian Navy The Indonesian Navy ( id, Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut, , Indonesian National Military-Naval Force, TNI-AL) is the naval branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces , founded = as the ('People's Security Forces') ...

Indonesian Navy
File:17-IIN-Daryabod-2.png, ''Daryabod'' ()
Imperial Iranian Navy The Iranian Navy traditionally located in the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf, has always been the smallest of the country's military forces. An Iranian navy in one form or another has existed since Achaemenid times in 500 BC. The Phoenician nav ...
File:21-Daryabod.png, ''Daryabod'' ()
Islamic Republic of Iran Navy , ''Daryādelān''"Seahearts" , patron = , motto = fa, راه ما، راه حسین است, ''Rāh-e ma, rāh-e hoseyn ast''"''Our Path, Is Hussain's Path''" , colors = , ...
File:IDF Navy Rav Aluf Prediction.png, ''
Rav aluf ''Aluf'' ( he, אלוף, lit=champion or "First\leader of a group" in Biblical Hebrew; ) is a senior military rank in the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) for officers who in other countries would have the rank of general A general officer is a ...
'' ()
Israel Defense Forces The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; he, צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל ; ), commonly referred to by the Hebrew-language acronym ''Tzahal'' (), are the combined military forces of the Israel, State of Israel, consisting of t ...
File:IT-Navy-OF-10.png, ''Ammiraglio''
Italian Navy "Fatherland and Honour" , patron = , colors = , colors_label = , march = ( is the return of soldiers to their barrack, or sailors to their ship after ...
File:JMSDF Admiral insignia (b).svg, ''Kaishō serving as Chief of Staff''
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force , also simply known as the Japanese Navy, is the maritime warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. The JMSDF was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World Wa ...
File:16. KNF-GEN.svg, ''Admiral (فريق أول)''}
Kuwait Naval Force The Kuwait Naval Force (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Kha ...
File:Laksamana insignia of Royal Malaysian Navy.png, ''Laksamana''
Royal Malaysian Navy The Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN, ms, Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia; TLDM; Jawi alphabet, Jawi:تنترا لاوت دراج مليسيا) is the naval arm of the Malaysian Armed Forces. RMN is the main agency responsible for the country's maritime ...
File:19-Montenegro Navy-ADM.svg, ''Admiral''
Montenegrin Navy File:Almirante hombrera SEMAR.png, ''Almirante''
Mexican Navy The Mexican Navy is one of the two independent armed forces of Mexico. The actual naval forces are called the ''Armada de México''. The ''Secretaría de Marina'' (''SEMAR'') (English: Naval Secretariat) includes both the ''Armada'' itself and ...
File:Nigeria-Navy-OF-9.svg, Admiral
Nigerian Navy The Nigerian Navy (NN) is a branch of the Nigerian Armed Forces. It is among the largest navies on the African continent, consisting of several thousand personnel, including those of the Coast Guard. History The Nigerian Navy owes its origin to ...
File:NOR NavyOF9.png, Admiral
Royal Norwegian Navy Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name)Royal can be a surname or a given name. Bearers include: Surname * Billy Joe Royal (1942–2015), American country music and pop singer * Calvin Royal III, American ballet dancer * Darrell Royal (1924 ...

Royal Norwegian Navy
File:17.RNO-ADM (Sleeve).svg, Admiral
Royal Navy of Oman Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name)Royal can be a surname or a given name. Bearers include: Surname * Billy Joe Royal (1942–2015), American country music and pop singer * Calvin Royal III, American ballet dancer * Darrell Royal (1924 ...
File:Admiral Pakistan Navy Insignia.JPG,
Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

Pakistan Navy (''Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It i ...
File:PN ADM WhtDr.svg, Admiral
Philippine Navy The Philippine Navy (PN) ( fil, Hukbong Dagat ng Pilipinas) is the naval warfare Naval warfare is human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, h ...
File:PN ADM BlkDr-Slv.svg, Admiral
Philippine Navy The Philippine Navy (PN) ( fil, Hukbong Dagat ng Pilipinas) is the naval warfare Naval warfare is human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, h ...
File:POL PMW pagon1 admirał.svg, ''Admirał''
Polish Navy The Polish Navy ( pl, Marynarka Wojenna, , War Navy; often abbreviated to ''Marynarka'') is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces responsible for naval operations. The Polish Navy consists of 48 ships and about 12,000 commissioned and enlis ...
File:POR-Navy-OF9.svg, ''Almirante''
Portuguese Navy The Portuguese Navy ( pt, Marinha Portuguesa, also known as ''Marinha de Guerra Portuguesa'' or as ''Armada Portuguesa'') is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces The Portuguese Armed Forces ( pt, Forças Armadas) are the military o ...
File:RO-Navy-OF-10.png, ''Amiral''
Romanian Naval Forces The Romanian Navy ( ro, Forțele Navale Române) is the navy branch of the Romanian Armed Forces; it operates in the Black Sea and on the Danube. It traces its history back to 1860. History The Romanian Navy was founded in 1860 as a river floti ...
File:RO-Navy-OF-10s.png, ''Amiral''
Romanian Naval Forces The Romanian Navy ( ro, Forțele Navale Române) is the navy branch of the Romanian Armed Forces; it operates in the Black Sea and on the Danube. It traces its history back to 1860. History The Romanian Navy was founded in 1860 as a river floti ...
File:1899mor-07.png, ''Адмиралъ''
Imperial Russian Navy The Imperial Russian Navy () operated as the navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral ...
(1884—1904) File:1904mor-20.png, ''Адмиралъ''
Imperial Russian Navy The Imperial Russian Navy () operated as the navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral ...
(1904—1917) File:1904mor-e20.png, ''Адмиралъ''
Imperial Russian Navy The Imperial Russian Navy () operated as the navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral ...
(1904—1917) File:Rus Navy FADM shoulder2.png, ''Адмирал''
Russian Navy )Slow – "''Гвардейский встречный марш Военно-морского флота''" () , mascot = , equipment = 1 aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a that serves as ...
pre 2010 File:RAF N F8-Admiral 2010–.png, ''Адмирал''
Russian Navy )Slow – "''Гвардейский встречный марш Военно-морского флота''" () , mascot = , equipment = 1 aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a that serves as ...
post 2010 File:RAF N F8-Admiral sleeve.png, ''Адмирал''
Russian Navy )Slow – "''Гвардейский встречный марш Военно-морского флота''" () , mascot = , equipment = 1 aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a that serves as ...
(sleeve) File:Almirante (Armada Española).png, ''Almirante''
Spanish Navy The Spanish Navy ( es, link=no, Armada Española) is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces The Spanish Armed Forces are in charge of guaranteeing the sovereignty and independence of the Kingdom of Spain, defending its territorial in ...
File:Sudan Navy - OF09.svg, ''Fariq awwal (فريق أول)''
Sudanese Navy File:SWE-NavyOF9.svg, ''Amiral''
Royal Swedish Navy The Swedish Navy ( sv, Svenska marinen) is the navy, naval branch of the Swedish Armed Forces. It is composed of surface and submarine naval units – the Naval fleet, Fleet () – as well as Marine (armed services), marine units, the S ...
File:Taiwan-navy-OF-9a.svg, ''二級上將''
Republic of China Navy The Republic of China Navy (ROCN), also retroactively known as the Chinese Navy and commonly known as the Taiwanese Navy is the maritime branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces on Taiwan. The ROC Navy's primary mission is to defend ROC ...
File:RTN OF-9 (Admiral).svg, ''พลเรือเอก''
Royal Thai Navy The Royal Thai Navy ( Abrv: RTN, ทร.; th, กองทัพเรือไทย, ), Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southea ...
File:Generic-Navy-O11.svg, ''Oramiral''
Turkish Navy The Turkish Naval Forces ( tr, ), or Turkish Navy ( tr, ) is the naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat (French language, French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violence, violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the op ...
File:Ukraine Admiral shoulderboard.svg, ''Адмірал''
Ukrainian Navy The Ukrainian Naval Forces ( uk, Військово-Морські Сили України, ВМСУ, Viys’kovo-Mors’ki Syly Ukrayiny, VMSU) is the navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces princi ...
(old version) File:UAN shoulder mark 21.svg, ''Адмірал''
Ukrainian Navy The Ukrainian Naval Forces ( uk, Військово-Морські Сили України, ВМСУ, Viys’kovo-Mors’ki Syly Ukrayiny, VMSU) is the navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces princi ...
(new version) File:Ukraine-Navy-OF-9.svg, ''Адмирал''
Ukrainian Navy The Ukrainian Naval Forces ( uk, Військово-Морські Сили України, ВМСУ, Viys’kovo-Mors’ki Syly Ukrayiny, VMSU) is the navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces princi ...
(sleeve) File:British Royal Navy OF-9.svg,
Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...
(shoulder board)
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
File:British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-9.svg,
Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...
(sleeve insignia)
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
File:US Navy O10 insignia.svg,
Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh" , mascot = , equipment = List of equipment of the United St ...
File:Almirante - 2.png, ''Almirante''
Venezuelan Navy) , mascot = , battles = Venezuelan War of Independence and the Battle of Lake Maracaibo , anniversaries = July 24, Birthday of Simon Bolivar, Navy Day and Battle of Lake Maracaibo Anni ...
File:A VNN-OF-8.svg, ''Đô đốc''
Republic of Vietnam Navy ) , patron= , motto=''Tổ quốc - Đại dương'' () , colors= , colors_label= , march= , mascot= , battles= Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War{{native name, vi, Chiến tranh Việt Nam , partof ...
(1955-1963) File:B VNN-OF-9.svg, ''Đô đốc''
Republic of Vietnam Navy ) , patron= , motto=''Tổ quốc - Đại dương'' () , colors= , colors_label= , march= , mascot= , battles= Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War{{native name, vi, Chiến tranh Việt Nam , partof ...
(1964-1975) File:Vietnam People's Navy Admiral.jpg, ''Đô đốc''
Vietnam People's Navy The Vietnam People's Navy ( vi, Hải quân nhân dân Việt Nam), commonly known as the Vietnamese Navy or the Vietnamese People's Navy, is the naval branch of the Vietnam People's Army , image_map = , map_caption ...


National ranks


Australia


Canada


France


Germany


India


Japan

Post-World War II rank is or '''' serving as Chief of Staff, Joint Staff with limited function as an advisory staff to
Minister of Defense (Japan) The , or , is the Cabinet of Japan The is the executive branch of the government of Japan. It consists of the Prime Minister of Japan, Prime Minister, who is Imperial Investiture, appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor after being des ...
, compared to ''Kaigun-taishō'' (
Imperial Japanese Navy The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai are the traditional forms of kanji, Chinese characters, Chinese written characters used in Japanese language, Japanese. Their simplified counterparts are shinjitai (), "new character forms". Some of ...
) during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945.


Netherlands


Pakistan


Russia


Spain


Sweden


United Kingdom


United States


See also

*
Comparative military ranks In general linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality or degree - see also comparison (grammar) Comparison is a feature in the morp ...
*
Laksamana The Laksamana ( Jawi: لقسامان) is a position within the armed forces, similar to the position of admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Com ...
, native title for naval leaders in
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
and
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
*
Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO Navies Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a ranking A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either "ranked ...
*Admiralty (disambiguation), Admiralty *Nebraska admiral *Isabel Barreto, the first female admiral.


Notes


References


External links

* * {{Authority control Naval ranks Admirals,