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Acts of Parliament, sometimes referred to as
primary legislation Primary legislation and secondary legislation (the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation) are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of governments in representative demo ...
, are texts of law passed by the
legislative body A legislature is an assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. They are often contrasted with the executive and judicial powers of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are usually kno ...
of a jurisdiction (often a
parliament In modern politics, and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. ...
or
council A council is a group of people who come together to consult, deliberate, or make decisions. A council may function as a legislature, especially at a town, city or county/shire level, but most legislative bodies at the state/provincial or natio ...
). In most countries with a
parliamentary system A parliamentary system, or parliamentarian democracy, is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the support ("confidence") of th ...
of government, acts of parliament begin as a
bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote, paper cash (especially in the United States) * Bill (law), a proposed law put before a legislature * Invoice, commercial document issued by a seller to a buyer * Bill, a bird or animal's beak P ...
, which the legislature votes on. Depending on the structure of government, this text may then be subject to assent or approval from the
executive branch The Executive, also referred as the Executive branch or Executive power, is the term commonly used to describe that part of government which enforces the law, and has overall responsibility for the governance of a state. In political syste ...
.


Bills

A draft act of parliament is known as a
bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote, paper cash (especially in the United States) * Bill (law), a proposed law put before a legislature * Invoice, commercial document issued by a seller to a buyer * Bill, a bird or animal's beak P ...
. In other words, a bill is a proposed law that needs to be discussed in the parliament before it can become a law. In territories with a Westminster system, most bills that have any possibility of becoming law are introduced into parliament by the government. This will usually happen following the publication of a "
white paper A white paper is a report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter. It is meant to help readers understand an issue, solve a problem, or make a decision. A white paper ...
", setting out the issues and the way in which the proposed new law is intended to deal with them. A bill may also be introduced into parliament without formal government backing; this is known as a
private member's bill A private member's bill is a bill (proposed law) introduced into a legislature by a legislator who is not acting on behalf of the executive branch. The designation "private member's bill" is used in most Westminster system jurisdictions, in w ...
. In territories with a multicameral parliament, most bills may be first introduced in any chamber. However, certain types of legislation are required, either by constitutional convention or by law, to be introduced into a specific chamber. For example, bills imposing a
tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund government spending and various public expenditures (regional, local, o ...
, or involving public expenditure, are introduced into the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In both of these countries, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the nominally upper house of parliamen ...
in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales and North ...
,
Canada Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over , making it the world's second-largest country by tota ...
's
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In both of these countries, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the nominally upper house of parliamen ...
,
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by an adult universal suffrage and a first- ...
of
India India, officially the Republic of India ( Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on th ...
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, in north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the se ...
's Dáil as a matter of law. Conversely, bills proposed by the Law Commission and consolidation bills traditionally start in the
House of Lords The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminste ...
. Once introduced, a bill must go through a number of stages before it can become law. In theory, this allows the bill's provisions to be debated in detail, and for amendments to the original bill to also be introduced, debated, and agreed to. In bicameral parliaments, a bill that has been approved by the chamber into which it was introduced then sends the bill to the other chamber. Broadly speaking, each chamber must separately agree to the same version of the bill. Finally, the approved bill receives assent; in most territories this is merely a formality and is often a function exercised by the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and ...
. In some countries, such as in France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Spain and Portugal, the term for a bill differs depending on whether it is initiated by the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is ...
(when it is known as a "draft"), or by the parliament (a "proposition", i.e., a private member's bill).


Procedure


Australia

In Australia, the bill passes through the following stages: # First reading: This stage is a mere formality; it involves the reading of the title of the proposed bill and distribution of the bill to members of parliament. # Second reading: As in the UK, the stage involves a debate on the general principles of the bill and is followed by a vote. Again, the second reading of a government bill is usually approved. A defeat for a government bill on this reading signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time, it is then considered in detail # Consideration in detail: This usually takes place on the floor of the House. Generally, committees sit on the floor of the House and consider the bill in detail. # Third reading: A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended. Very rarely do debates occur during this stage. # Passage: The bill is then sent to the other House (to the Senate, if it originated in the House of Representatives; to the House of Representatives, if it is a Senate bill), which may amend it. If the other House amends the bill, the bill and amendments are posted back to the original House for a further stage. The State of
Queensland ) , nickname = Sunshine State , image_map = Queensland in Australia.svg , map_caption = Location of Queensland in Australia , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = Australia , established_title = Before federation , established_ ...
's Parliament is unicameral and skips this and the rest of the stages. # Consideration of Senate/Representatives amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. It may agree to them, amend them, propose other amendments in lieu, or reject them. However, the Senate may not amend money bills, though it can "request" the House to make amendments. A bill may pass backward and forward several times at this stage, as each House amends or rejects changes proposed by the other. If each House insists on disagreeing with the other, the Bill is lost. # Disagreement between the Houses: Often, when a bill cannot be passed in the same form by both Houses, it is "laid aside", i.e. abandoned. There is also a special constitutional procedure allowing the passage of the bill without the separate agreement of both houses. If the House twice passes the same bill, and the Senate twice fails to pass that bill (either through rejection or through the passage of unacceptable amendments), then the Governor-General may dissolve both Houses of Parliament simultaneously and call an election for the entire Parliament. This is called a
double dissolution A double dissolution is a procedure permitted under the Australian Constitution to resolve deadlocks in the bicameral Parliament of Australia between the House of Representatives (lower house) and the Senate (upper house). A double dissolution ...
. After the election, if the House again passes the bill, but the deadlock between the Houses persists, then the Governor-General may convene a joint sitting of both Houses, where a final decision will be taken on the bill. Although the House and the Senate sit as a single body, bills passed at a joint sitting are treated as if they had been passed by each chamber separately. The procedure only applies if the bill originated in the House of Representatives. Six double dissolutions have occurred, though a joint sitting was only held once, in
1974 Major events in 1974 include the aftermath of the 1973 oil crisis and the resignation of United States President Richard Nixon following the Watergate scandal. In the Middle East, the aftermath of the 1973 Yom Kippur War determined politic ...
. # The bill is sent to the viceroy (the Governor-General for the Commonwealth; the Governor for a State; the Administrator for a Territory) for the royal assent. Certain bills must be reserved by the viceroy for the King's personal assent. Acts in the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (commonly abbreviated as ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a landlocked federal territory of Australia containing the national capital Canberra and some surrounding township ...
do not require this step.


Canada

In Canada, the bill passes through the following stages: # First reading: This stage is a mere
formality A formality is an established procedure or set of specific behaviors and utterances, conceptually similar to a ritual although typically secular and less involved. A formality may be as simple as a handshake upon making new acquaintances in West ...
. #
Second reading A reading of a bill is a stage of debate on the bill held by a general body of a legislature. In the Westminster system, developed in the United Kingdom, there are generally three readings of a bill as it passes through the stages of becomin ...
: As in the UK, the stage involves a
debate Debate is a process that involves formal discourse on a particular topic, often including a moderator and audience. In a debate, arguments are put forward for often opposing viewpoints. Debates have historically occurred in public meetings, ...
on the general principles of the bill and is followed by a
vote Voting is a method by which a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, can engage for the purpose of making a collective decision or expressing an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect ho ...
. Again, the second reading of a government bill is usually approved. A defeat for a Government bill on this reading signifies a major loss. If the bill is read a second time, then it progresses to the committee stage. # Committee stage: This usually takes place in a standing committee of the
Commons The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable Earth. These resources are held in common even when owned privately or publicly. Commons ...
or
Senate A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature. The name comes from the ancient Roman Senate (Latin: ''Senatus''), so-called as an assembly of the senior (Latin: ''senex'' meaning "the el ...
. #*
Standing committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to a deliberative assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more ...
: The standing committee is a permanent one; each committee deals with bills in specific subject areas. Canada's standing committees are similar to the UK's select committees. #* Special committee: A committee established for a particular purpose, be it the examination of a bill or a particular issue. #* Legislative committee: Similar to a special committee in that it is established for the consideration of a particular bill. The chairmanship is determined by the Speaker, rather than elected by the members of the committee. Not used in the Senate. #*
Committee of the Whole A committee of the whole is a meeting of a legislative or deliberative assembly using procedural rules that are based on those of a committee, except that in this case the committee includes all members of the assembly. As with other (standing) c ...
: The whole house sits as a committee in the House of Commons or Senate. Most often used to consider appropriation bills, but can be used to consider any bill. The committee considers each clause of the bill, and may make amendments to it. Significant amendments may be made at the committee stage. In some cases, whole groups of clauses are inserted or removed. However, if the Government holds a majority, almost all the amendments which are agreed to in committee will have been tabled by the Government to correct deficiencies in the bill or to enact changes to policy made since the bill was introduced (or, in some cases, to import material which was not ready when the bill was presented). # Report stage: this takes place on the floor of the appropriate chamber, and allows the House or Senate to approve amendments made in committee, or to propose new ones. # Third reading: A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended. # Passage: The bill is then sent to the other House (to the Senate, if it originated in the House of Commons; to the Commons, if it is a Senate bill), where it will face a virtually identical process. If the other House amends the bill, the bill and amendments are sent back to the original House for a further stage. # Consideration of Senate/Commons amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. It may agree to them, amend them, propose other amendments in lieu or reject them. If each House insists on disagreeing with the other, the Bill is lost. # Disagreement between the Houses: There is no specific procedure under which the Senate's disagreement can be overruled by the Commons. The Senate's rejection is absolute. The debate on each stage is actually debate on a specific motion. For the first reading, there is no debate. For the second reading, the motion is "That this bill be now read a second time and be referred to ame of committee and for third reading "That this bill be now read a third time and pass." In the Committee stage, each clause is called and motions for amendments to these clauses, or that the clause stand part of the bill are made. In the Report stage, the debate is on the motions for specific amendments. Once a bill has passed both Houses in an identical form, it is presented to the
Governor General Governor-general (plural ''governors-general''), or governor general (plural ''governors general''), is the title of an office-holder. In the context of governors-general and former British colonies, governors-general are appointed as viceroy t ...
, who gives it
royal assent Royal assent is the method by which a monarch formally approves an act of the legislature, either directly or through an official acting on the monarch's behalf. In some jurisdictions, royal assent is equivalent to promulgation, while in oth ...
. Although the Governor General can refuse to assent a bill, this power has never been exercised. Bills being reviewed by Parliament are assigned numbers: 2 to 200 for government bills, 201 to 1000 for
private member's bill A private member's bill is a bill (proposed law) introduced into a legislature by a legislator who is not acting on behalf of the executive branch. The designation "private member's bill" is used in most Westminster system jurisdictions, in w ...
s, and 1001 up for
private bill Proposed bills are often categorized into public bills and private bills. A public bill is a proposed law which would apply to everyone within its jurisdiction. This is unlike a private bill which is a proposal for a law affecting only a single ...
s. They are preceded by C- if they originate in the House of Commons, or S- if they originate in the Senate. For example, Bill C-250 was a private member's bill introduced in the House. Bills C-1 and S-1 are
pro forma The term ''pro forma'' (Latin for "as a matter of form" or "for the sake of form") is most often used to describe a practice or document that is provided as a courtesy or satisfies minimum requirements, conforms to a norm or doctrine, tends to ...
bills, and are introduced at the beginning of each session in order to assert the right of each Chamber to manage its own affairs. They are introduced and read a first time, and then are dropped from the Order Paper.


Croatia

In the Croatian legal system, a Constitutional Act is legislation passed and amended under the same conditions under which the
Constitution of Croatia The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia ( hr, Ustav Republike Hrvatske) is promulgated by the Croatian Parliament. History While it was part of the socialist Yugoslavia, the Socialist Republic of Croatia had its own Constitution under t ...
is passed or amended. A Constitutional Act is hierarchically under the Constitution and must comply with it, but is above other laws and decisions which must be in accordance with the Constitutional Act. There are altogether three Constitutional Acts in Croatia. The first Constitutional Act was the Constitutional Act on the Rights of National Minorities in the Republic of Croatia, which on the recommendation of the Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia was
international community The international community is an imprecise phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world. As a rhetorical term Aside from its use as a general descriptor, the term is ...
's precondition for the recognition of Croatian independence from
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply as Yugoslavia, was a country in Central and Southeast Europe. It emerged in 1945, following World War II, and lasted until 1992, with the breakup of Y ...
. Its new version was an initial precondition for the beginning of the European Union accession process of Croatia. The other two are the ''Constitutional Act on Implementation of the Constitution of Croatia'' and ''Constitutional Act on the Constitutional Court of Croatia''.


India

In the
Parliament of India The Parliament of India (IAST: ) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the president of India and two houses: the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the Pe ...
, every bill passes through following stages before it becomes ''an Act of Parliament of India'': # First reading – introduction stage: Any member, or member-in-charge of the bill seeks the leave of the house to introduce a bill. If the bill is an important one, the minister may make a brief speech, stating its main features. #
Second reading A reading of a bill is a stage of debate on the bill held by a general body of a legislature. In the Westminster system, developed in the United Kingdom, there are generally three readings of a bill as it passes through the stages of becomin ...
– discussion stage: This stage consists of detailed consideration of the bill and proposed amendments. # Third reading – voting stage: This stage is confined only to arguments either in support of the bill or for its rejection as a whole, without referring to its details. After the bill is passed, it is sent to the other house. # Bill in the other house (
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally the Council of States, is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India. , it has a maximum membership of 245, of which 233 are elected by the legislatures of the states and union territories using ...
): After a bill, other than a money bill, is transmitted to the other house, it goes through all the stages in that house as that in the first house. But if the bill passed by one house is amended by the other house, it goes back to the originating house. # President's approval: When a bill is passed by both the houses, it is sent to the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) * President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese f ...
for his approval. The President can assent or withhold his assent to a bill or he can return a bill, other than a
money bill In the Westminster system (and, colloquially, in the United States), a money bill or supply bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending (also known as appropriation of money), as opposed to changes in public law. Co ...
. If the President gives his assent, the bill is published in ''
The Gazette of India ''The Gazette of India'' is a public journal and an authorised legal document of the Government of India, published weekly by the Department of Publication, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs. As a public journal, the ''Gazette'' prints off ...
'' and becomes an Act from the date of his assent. If he withholds his assent, the bill is dropped, which is known as pocket veto. The pocket veto is not written in the constitution and has only been exercised once, by President
Zail Singh Giani Zail Singh (, born Jarnail Singh; 5 May 1916 – 25 December 1994) was an Indian politician from Punjab who served as the seventh president of India from 1982 to 1987. He was the first Sikh and the first person from a backward caste to ...
in 1986, over the postal act where the government wanted to open postal letters without warrant. If the president returns it for reconsideration, the
Parliament In modern politics, and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. ...
must do so, but if it is passed again and returned to him, he must give his assent to it.


Ireland

In the Irish Parliament, the
Oireachtas The Oireachtas (, ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the bicameral parliament of Ireland. The Oireachtas consists of: *The President of Ireland *The two houses of the Oireachtas ( ga, Tithe an Oireachtais): **Dáil Éireann ( ...
, bills pass through the following stages. Bills may be initiated in either the Dáil or the Seanad, and must pass both houses. # First stage – private members must seek the permission of the house to introduce a bill. Government bills do not require approval and are therefore introduced at the second stage. # Second stage – this involves a discussion of the general principle of the bill. It is introduced by the sponsoring minister (or in the case of a private member's bill, by the member) and is followed by contributions from the floor of the house. Finally, the debate is brought to a conclusion by voting on the proposal "that the bill now be read a second time". # Third stage, commonly referred to as the Committee Stage. This involves section by section scrutiny of the bill and any amendments which have been tabled. In the Dáil this usually takes place in a committee room and will involve examination by one of the select committees. In the Seanad, this stage takes place in the chamber. The Seanad may only make recommendations rather than amendments, in the case of a money bill. # Fourth stage, commonly referred to as the Report Stage. At this point, a version of the bill incorporating any changes made at the Committee Stage is printed for consideration. In both houses, this stage is taken on the floor of the chamber. Amendments may be considered at this stage but must arise from matters discussed or changes made at the Committee Stage. # Fifth stage: in practice this is a formality, taken with the fourth stage and referred to as the Report and Final Stage. # Passage in the other house: the same stages are repeated in the other house and the bill is then deemed to have been passed, except that any bill initiated in the Dáil and amended by the Seanad must return to the Dáil for final consideration. # Signature: once the bill has passed both houses it is sent to the President for signature. The signed copy is then enrolled in the Office of the Supreme Court.


New Zealand

In New Zealand, the bill passes through the following stages: # First reading: MPs debate and vote on the bill. If a bill is approved, it passes on to the committee stage. # Select committee stage: The bill is considered by a Select Committee, which scrutinises the bill in detail and hears public submissions on the matter. The Committee may recommend amendments to the bill. # Second reading: The general principles of the bill are debated, and a vote is held. If the bill is approved, it is put before a Committee of the House. # Committee of the House: The bill is debated and voted on, clause by clause, by the whole House sitting as a committee. # Third reading: Summarising arguments are made, and a final vote is taken. If the bill is approved, it is passed to the Governor-General for royal assent. New Zealand has no upper house, and so no further approval is necessary.


Pakistan


United Kingdom


United Kingdom Parliament

A draft piece of legislation is called a ''bill''; when this is passed by Parliament it becomes an ''Act'' and part of statute law. There are two types of bill and Act, ''public'' and ''private''. Public Acts apply to the whole of the UK or a number of its constituent countries – England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Private Acts are local and personal in their effect, giving special powers to bodies such as local authorities or making exceptions to the law in particular geographic areas.Robert Rogers and Rhodri Walters (2006), ''How Parliament Works'', 6th edition, Pearson Longman, p. 190 In the United Kingdom Parliament, each bill passes through the following stages: # Pre-legislative scrutiny: Not undertaken for all bills; usually a joint committee of both houses will review a bill and vote on amendments that the government can either accept or reject. The report from this stage can be influential in later stages as rejected recommendations from the committee are revived to be voted on. # First reading: This is a formality; no vote occurs. The Bill is presented and ordered to be printed and, in the case of private members' bills, a date is set for second reading. #
Second reading A reading of a bill is a stage of debate on the bill held by a general body of a legislature. In the Westminster system, developed in the United Kingdom, there are generally three readings of a bill as it passes through the stages of becomin ...
: A debate on the general principles of the bill is followed by a vote. # Committee stage: This usually takes place in a public bill committee in the Commons and on the floor of the House in the Lords. The committee considers each clause of the bill, and may make amendments to it. # Consideration (or report) stage: This takes place on the floor of the House, and is a further opportunity to amend the bill. Unlike committee stage, the House need not consider every clause of the bill, only those to which amendments have been tabled. # Third reading: A debate on the final text of the bill, as amended in the House of Lords. Further amendments may be tabled at this stage. # Passage: The bill is then sent to the other House (to the Lords, if it originated in the Commons; to the Commons, if it is a Lords bill), which may amend it. # Consideration of Lords/Commons amendments: The House in which the bill originated considers the amendments made in the other House. This may continue for several rounds. # Royal assent: the bill is passed with any amendments and becomes an act of parliament.


Senedd (Welsh Parliament)


Northern Ireland Assembly


Scottish Parliament

In the Scottish Parliament,Mitchell, James (January 1, 2010). "The Narcissism of Small Differences: Scotland and Westminster". ''Parliamentary Affairs'' 63(1), p. 98. bills pass through the following stages: # Introduction: The bill is introduced to the parliament together with its accompanying documents – explanatory notes, a policy memorandum setting out the policy underlying the bill, and a financial memorandum setting out the costs and savings associated with it. Statements from the presiding officer and the member in charge of the bill are also lodged, indicating whether the bill is within the legislative competence of the parliament. # Stage one: The bill is considered by one or more of the subject committees of the parliament, which normally take evidence from the bill's promoter and other interested parties before reporting to the parliament on the principles of the bill. Other committees, notably the Finance and Subordinate Legislation Committees, may also feed in at this stage. The report from the committee is followed by a debate in the full parliament. # Stage two: The bill returns to the subject committee where it is subject to line-by-line scrutiny and amendment. This is similar to the committee stage in the UK Parliament. # Stage three: The bill as amended by the committee returns to the full parliament. There is a further opportunity for amendment, followed by a debate on the whole bill, at the end of which the parliament decides whether to pass the bill. # Royal assent: After the bill has been passed, the presiding officer submits it to the monarch for royal assent. However, he cannot do so until a 4-week period has elapsed during which the law officers of the Scottish government or the UK government can refer the bill to the
Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom (initialism: UKSC or the acronym: SCOTUK) is the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom for all civil cases, and for criminal cases originating in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. As the Unite ...
for a ruling on whether it is within the powers of the parliament. There are special procedures for emergency bills, member's bills (similar to private member's bills in the UK Parliament), committee bills, and private bills.


Singapore

In Singapore, the bill passes through these certain stages before becoming into an Act of Parliament. # First reading: The bill is introduced to the government, usually by the members of parliament. The unicameral parliament will then discuss the bill, followed by a vote. Voting must be at least half ayes for non-controversial bills and two-thirds ayes for controversial ones. If the bill passes the vote it will proceed to the second reading. # Second reading: In this stage, the bill is further discussed and put to a second vote. If more than half of the votes are ayes the bill proceeds to the select committee. # Select committee: The select committee consists of people not only from the parliaments, but also the people who could be affected by the bill is passed into law. This is to ensure equality and that the bill is fair for all. If the bill is in favour, it will proceed to the third reading. # Third reading: After the select committee has discussed and are in favour of the bill, they will put it to a vote. At this juncture, if the votes are more than half ayes, it will be sent to the President of Singapore, currently
Halimah Yacob Halimah Yacob (Jawi script: ; born 23 August 1954) is a Singaporean politician and former lawyer who has been serving as the eighth president of Singapore since 2017. Prior to her presidency, she was the country's parliament speaker. She is al ...
. This is known as President Assent. # President Assent: The president must give permission in order for the bill to be passed. If they approve it, it will become a statute passed down by the members of parliament which is called an Act of Parliament.


Titles and citation of acts

Acts passed by the
Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England from the 13th century until 1707 when it was replaced by the Parliament of Great Britain. Parliament evolved from the great council of bishops and peers that advised ...
did not originally have titles, and could only be formally cited by reference to the parliamentary session in which they were passed, with each individual act being identified by year and chapter number. Descriptive titles began to be added to the enrolled acts by the official clerks, as a reference aid; over time, titles came to be included within the text of each bill. Since the mid-nineteenth century, it has also become common practice for acts to have a
short title In certain jurisdictions, including the United Kingdom and other Westminster-influenced jurisdictions (such as Canada or Australia), as well as the United States and the Philippines, primary legislation has both a short title and a long title. T ...
, as a convenient alternative to the sometimes lengthy main titles. The Short Titles Act 1892, and its replacement the
Short Titles Act 1896 The Short Titles Act 1896 (59 & 60 Vict c 14) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It replaces the Short Titles Act 1892. This Act was retained for the Republic of Ireland by section 2(2)(a) of, and Part 4 of Schedule 1 to, the ...
, gave short titles to many acts which previously lacked them. The numerical citation of acts has also changed over time. The original method was based on the regnal year (or years) in which the relevant parliamentary session met. This has been replaced in most territories by simple reference to the calendar year, with the first act passed being chapter 1, and so on. In the United Kingdom, legislation is referenced by year and chapter number. Each act is numbered consecutively based on the date it received royal assent, for example the 43rd act passed in 1980 would be 1980 Chapter 43. The full reference includes the (short) title and would be The Magistrate's Court Act 1980 C. 43. Until the 1980s, acts of the
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of , Australia is the largest country b ...
n state of Victoria were numbered in a continuous sequence from 1857; thus the Age of Majority Act 1977 was No. 9075 of 1977.


See also

*
Act of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. Acts may apply only to individual entities (called private laws), or to the general public ( public laws). For a bill to become an act, the text must pass through both house ...
*
Legislative act Legislation is the process or result of enrolling, enacting, or promulgating laws by a legislature, parliament, or analogous governing body. Before an item of legislation becomes law it may be known as a bill, and may be broadly referred to ...
*
Halsbury's Statutes ''Halsbury's Statutes of England and Wales'' (commonly referred to as ''Halsbury's Statutes'') provides updated texts of every Public General Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Measure of the Welsh Assembly, or Church of England Me ...
* List of legislation in the United Kingdom *
Table of contents A table of contents, usually headed simply Contents and abbreviated informally as TOC, is a list, usually found on a page before the start of a written work, of its chapter or section titles or brief descriptions with their commencing page number ...


References


Citations


Sources

; General
www.publications.parliament.uk


External links

* Acts of Parliament and statutory instruments are available free on-line under Crown copyright terms National Archives
legislation.gov.uk
.
Parliamentary Stages of a Government Bill (pdf)
from the House of Commons Information Office.
Acts of the Commonwealth Parliament of Australia: ComLaw.gov.au
{{Authority control Westminster system Statutory law