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The American Library Association and Library of Congress Romanization Tables for Russian, or the Library of Congress system, are a set of rules for the
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
of
Russian-language Russian (, tr. ''russkiy yazyk'') is an East Slavic language native to the Russians in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise ar ...
text from
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
to
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
. The ALA-LC Romanization tables comprise a set of standards for
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
of texts in various languages, written in non-Latin writing systems. These romanization systems are intended for bibliographic cataloguing, and used in US and Canadian libraries, by the British Library since 1975,
Searching for Cyrillic items in the catalogues of the British Library: guidelines and transliteration tables
and in many publications worldwide. The romanization tables were first discussed by the American Library Association in 1885, and published in 1904 and 1908, including rules for romanizing some languages written in Cyrillic script:
Church Slavic Church Slavonic (''црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ'', ''crĭkŭvĭnoslověnĭskŭ językŭ'', literally "Church-Slavonic language"), also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the Conservative (la ...
, Serbo-Croatian, and Russian in the pre-reform alphabet. Revised tables including more languages were published in 1941, and a since-discontinued version of the entire standard was printed in 1997. The system for Russian remains virtually unchanged from 1941 to the latest release, with the current Russian table published online in 2012. The formal, unambiguous version of the system requires some diacritics and two-letter tie characters which are often omitted in practice. The table below combines material from the ALA-LC tables for Russian (2012) and, for some obsolete letters, Church Slavic (2011).


See also

*
Romanization of Russian Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#L ...


References


External links


ALA-LC Romanization Tables
at the U.S. Library of Congress
CyrAcademisator
Bi-directional online transliteration of Russian according to ALA-LC (diacritics). Supports Old Slavonic characters

Supports ALA-LC, ISO 9, GOST 7.79B and other standards. {{Romanization ALA-LC romanization Romanization of Cyrillic Russian language