HOME

TheInfoList




ALA-LC (
American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
-
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
) is a set of standards for
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
, the representation of text in other
writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, p ...
s using the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic writing system based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, derived from a form of the Cumae alphabet, Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscan civilizat ...

Latin script
.


Applications

The system is used to represent bibliographic information by North American libraries and the British Library (for acquisitions since 1975)Searching for Cyrillic items in the catalogues of the British Library: guidelines and transliteration tables
and in publications throughout the English-speaking world. The
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules ''Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules'' (AACR) were an international library cataloging Technical standard, standard. First published in 1967 and edited by C. Sumner Spalding, a second edition (AACR2) edited by Michael Gorman (librarian), Michael Go ...
require catalogers to romanize access points from their non-Roman originals. However, as the
MARC standards MARC (machine-readable cataloging) standards are a set of digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electro ...
have been expanded to allow records containing
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent character encoding, encoding, representation, and handling of Character (computing), text expressed in most of the world's wri ...

Unicode
characters, many cataloguers now include bibliographic data in both Roman and original scripts. The emerging
Resource Description and AccessResource Description and Access (RDA) is a standard for descriptive cataloging initially released in June 2010, providing instructions and guidelines on formulating bibliographic data. Intended for use by libraries A library is a curated col ...
continues many of AACR's recommendations but refers to the process as "transliteration" rather than "Romanization."


Scripts

The ALA-LC Romanization includes over 70 romanization tables. Here are some examples of tables: * A
Cherokee The Cherokee (; chr, ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯᎢ, translit=Aniyvwiyaʔi, or chr, ᏣᎳᎩ, links=no, translit=Tsalagi) are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentr ...
Romanization table was created by the LC and ALA in 2012 and subsequently approved by the Cherokee Tri-Council meeting in
Cherokee, North Carolina in Cherokee Image:Museum of the Cherokee Indian, Cherokee, NC IMG 4881.JPG, 200px, Museum of the Cherokee Indian on Tsali Boulevard in Cherokee Cherokee (Cherokee language, Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩ) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Swain Coun ...
. It was the first ALA-LC Romanization table for a Native American syllabary. * The
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
Romanization table used the
Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken lang ...
transliteration system until 1997, when the Library of Congress (LC) announced a decision to switch to the
Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin, ...

Pinyin
system.


See also

*
ALA-LC romanization for RussianThe American Library Association and Library of Congress Romanization Tables for Russian, or the Library of Congress system, are a set of rules for the romanization of Russian-language text from Cyrillic script to Latin script. The ALA-LC romanizati ...
*
Devanagari transliteration Devanāgarī is an Indian Script (styles of handwriting), script used for many languages of India and Nepal, including Hindi, Marathi language, Marathi, Nepali language, Nepali and Sanskrit. There are several somewhat similar methods of trans ...
*
Romanization of Arabic The romanization of Arabic refers to the standard norms for rendering Modern Standard Arabic, written and varieties of Arabic, spoken Arabic language, Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic is used for a nu ...
*
Romanization of Armenian There are various systems of romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken la ...
*
Romanization of Belarusian Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian language, Belarusian from Cyrillic script, Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet. Standard systems for romanizing Belarusian Standard systems for romanizing ...
*
Romanization of Bulgarian Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specifi ...
*
Romanization of Khmer The romanization of Khmer is a representation of the Khmer (Cambodian) language using letters of the Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin ...
*
Romanization of Georgian Romanization of Georgian is the process of transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#L ...
*
Romanization of Persian Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian ( fa, لاتین‌نویسی فارسی, Lātinnevisiye fārsi, ) is the representation of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may re ...
*
Romanization of Ukrainian The romanization of Ukrainian (or sometimes Latinization) is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin alphabet, Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Rom ...
*
Romanization of Urdu Roman Urdu ( ur, ) is the name used for the Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and cultu ...


References


External links


ALA-LC Romanization Tables
{{Romanization Library cataloging and classification