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File:2nd millennium montage.png, From left, clockwise: in 1492,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
navigator
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
arrives in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
; the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
; the
Ottoman conquest of Constantinople The fall of Constantinople ( grc-x-byzant, Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, translit=Hálōsis tē̂s Kōnstantinoupóleōs; tr, , lit= Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the Byzantine Empire The Byzantin ...
; the
Atomic Bomb A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either nuclear fission, fiss ...

Atomic Bomb
from
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
; an alternate source of light, the
light bulb An electric light is a device that produces visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum ...

light bulb
; for the first time, a
human being Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...

human being
in 1969 during the
Apollo 11 Apollo 11 was the spaceflight Spaceflight (or space flight) is an application of astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either human spaceflight, with or uncrewed spaceflight, without humans on board. Most spacefli ...

Apollo 11
moon mission;
aeroplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a fixed-wing aircraft A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine Early flying machines include all forms of aircraft studied or constructed before the development of th ...

aeroplane
s become the most-used way of transport through the skies;
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) r ...

Napoleon Bonaparte
, in the early 19th century, affects France and Europe with
expansionism In expansionism, states expand their territory through military empire-building or colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and gener ...
and
modernization Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber Maximilian Karl Emil Weber (; ; 21 April 186414 June 1920) was a German socio ...
;
Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell (; March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born inventor, scientist, and engineer who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He also co-founded the (AT&T) in 1885. , grandf ...

Alexander Graham Bell
's
telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyt ...

telephone
; in 1348, the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
kills in just two years over 100 million people worldwide, and over half of
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
. (Background: An excerpt from the
Gutenberg Bible The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the earliest major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. It marked the start of the " Gutenberg Revolution" and the age of printed ...

Gutenberg Bible
, the first major book printed in the West using movable type, in the 1450s), 500px, thumb rect 3 3 253 191
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: " American_Revolution_ The_American_Revolution_was_an_ideological_and_political_revolution_which_occurred_in__colonial_North_America_between_1765_and_1783._The_Americans_in_the_Thirteen_Colonies The_Thirteen_Colonies,_also_known_as_the_Thirteen_British_Colo_...
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American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
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Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by the plague bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bact ...

Black Death
rect 5 212 110 375
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) r ...

Napoleon Bonaparte
rect 129 197 253 299 Telephone rect 123 309 257 386
aeroplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a fixed-wing aircraft A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine Early flying machines include all forms of aircraft studied or constructed before the development of th ...

aeroplane
s rect 268 257 432 379
Moon landing A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon. This includes both crewed and robotic missions. The first human-made object to touch the Moon was the Soviet Union's Luna 2, on 13 September 1959. The United St ...

Moon landing
rect 446 165 560 296
Atomic Bomb A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either nuclear fission, fiss ...

Atomic Bomb
rect 440 303 514 387
Light Bulb An electric light is a device that produces visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum ...

Light Bulb
rect 1 1 566 394
Gutenberg Bible The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the earliest major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. It marked the start of the " Gutenberg Revolution" and the age of printed ...

Gutenberg Bible
The second millennium of the
Anno Domini The terms (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , r ...
or
Common Era Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar (and its predecessor, the Julian calendar), the world's most widely used calendar era. Before the Common Era (BCE) is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives ...
was a
millennium A millennium (plural millennia or millenniums) is a period of one thousand year A year is the orbital period of a planetary body, for example, the Earth, moving in Earth's orbit, its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, th ...

millennium
spanning the years 1001 to 2000 ( 11th to
20th 20 (twenty; Roman numeral XX) is the natural number following 19 (number), 19 and preceding 21 (number), 21. A group of twenty units may also be referred to as a score. In mathematics *20 is a pronic number. *20 is a tetrahedral number as 1, ...
centuries; in astronomy: JD – ). It encompassed the
High High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname) Science, technology and economics * Height * High (atmospheric), a high-pressure area * High (computability), a quality of a Turing degree, in computability theory * High (technical analy ...
and
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical com ...
of the
Old World The Old World consists of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% o ...
, the
Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. M ...
and the period of
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
, followed by the
Early Modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
, characterized by the
Wars of Religion A religious war or holy war ( la, bellum sacrum) is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polit ...
in Europe, the
Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment); ger, Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminismo, "Enlightenment"; pl, Oświecenie , "Enlightenment"; pt, Iluminismo, "Enlightenment"; es, link= ...
, the
Age of Discovery The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (sometimes also, particularly regionally, Age of Contact or Contact Period), is an informal and loosely defined term for the early modern period The early modern period of modern history ...
and the
colonial periodColonial period (a period in a country's history where it was subject to management by a Colonialism, colonial power) may refer to: * Spanish conquest of Guatemala * Viceroyalty of Peru * Colonial history of the United States * British Raj, British ...
. Its final two centuries coincide with
Modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, advent of writing, from primary source, primary an ...
, characterized by
industrialization Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is b ...
, the rise of
nation state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (news ...
s, the rapid development of
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...

science
, widespread
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
, and universal
health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health, according to the , is "a state of complete physical, and social and not merely the absence of and ".. (2006)''Constitution of the World Health Organization''– ''Basic Docume ...

health care
and
vaccination Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened, live or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. In stimulating ...

vaccination
s in the
Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe, Northern America, and Australasia.
. The
20th century The 20th (twentieth) century began on January 1, 1901 ( MCMI), and ended on December 31, 2000 ( MM). It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. The 20th century was dominated by significant events that defined the era: Spanish ...
saw increasing
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...

globalization
, most notably the two
World Wars A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newsp ...
and the subsequent formation of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
. 20th-century technology includes
powered flight A powered aircraft is an aircraft that uses onboard Air propulsion, propulsion with mechanical power generated by an aircraft engine of some kind. Aircraft propulsion nearly always uses either a type of propeller, or a form of jet propulsion. Ot ...
,
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...

television
and semiconductor technology, including
integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of indiv ...

integrated circuit
s. The term "
Great Divergence 320px, The European book output rose between 500 and 1800 by a factor of 100,000, particularly after the Printing Revolution in 1450. The Great Divergence or European miracle is the socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics ...
" was coined to refer the unprecedented cultural and political ascent of the
Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe, Northern America, and Australasia.
in the second half of the millennium, emerging by the 18th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization, having eclipsed
Qing China The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pre ...
and the
Islamic World The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...
. This allowed the
colonization Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their—or their ancestors'—former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such l ...
by European countries of much of the world during this millennium, including the Americas, Africa, Oceania, and South and Southeast Asia.
World population In demography, demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have exceeded 7.9 billion people . It took over 2 million years of prehistory, human prehistory and human history, history fo ...

World population
grew without precedent over the millennium, from about 310 million in 1000 to about 6 billion in 2000. The
population growth Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size ...
rate increased dramatically during this time; world population approximately doubled to 600 million by 1700, and doubled more than three more times by 2000, ultimately reaching about 1.8% per year in the second half of the 20th century.


Political history


Middle Ages

::'' 11th century,
1143 Year 1143 ( MCXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in t ...
,
1400 Year 1400 (Roman numerals, MCD) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The year 1400 was not a leap year in the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar. Events January–December * Henry ...
,
1495 Year 1495 ( MCDXCV) was a common year starting on Thursday A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addition ...
'' ;Europe *Western/Central Europe **
Kingdom of Scotland The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern thi ...
(843–1707): see
Medieval Scotland Scotland in the Middle Ages concerns the history of Scotland The recorded begins with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, when the Roman province, province of Roman Britain, Britannia reached as far north as the Antonin ...
**
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
(927–1707): see
Medieval England England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England The British Isles became inhabited more than 800,000 years ago, as the discovery of stone tools and footprints at Happisburgh in Norfolk has indicated.; "Earliest footprints outside ...
**
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
(962–1806): see
Medieval Germany The concept of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germa ...
**
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
(987–1789): see
Medieval France The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 10th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of ...
**
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
(1000–1526) **
Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385) Historical political entities *Kingdom of Poland "Kingdom of Poland" ( Polish: ''Królestwo Polskie'', Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was orig ...
: see
Medieval Poland In this time period History of Poland, Polish history covering roughly a millennium, from the 5th century, the way through to the 16th century. It is commonly dated from the Decline of the Roman Empire, fall of the Western Roman Empire, and contrast ...
**
Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language German (: , ) is a mainly spoken in . It is the most widely spoke ...
(from c. 1300): see Medieval Switzerland *
Medieval Italy The history of the Italian peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Ital ...
**
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
**
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
**
Maritime republics The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it, repubbliche mercantili), of the Mediterranean Basin were Thalassocracy, thalassocratic city-states in Italy in the Middle Ages, Italy and Dalmatia during th ...
**
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, ente ...

Kingdom of Sicily
*
Medieval Spain In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula. After the passage of the Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples T ...
: see also
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
**
Caliphate of Córdoba A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
(929–1031) **
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
(1035–1479) **
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Kingdom of Castile, Castile and Kin ...

Crown of Castile
(1030–1479) **
Emirate of Granada ) , common_languages = Official language: Classical ArabicOther languages: Andalusi Arabic, Mozarabic, Berber, Ladino , capital = Granada , religion = Majority religion:Sunni Islam Sunni Islam () i ...

Emirate of Granada
(1230–1492) *
Medieval Scandinavia In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages i ...
: see also
Viking Age The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) was the period during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation o ...
**
Kingdom of Denmark The Danish Realm ( da, Danmarks Rige; fo, Danmarkar Ríki; kl, Danmarkip Naalagaaffik), officially the Kingdom of Denmark (; ; ), is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized governm ...
(c. 936–1397) **
Kingdom of Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...
(c. 970–1397) **
Kingdom of Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål: ''Norge'' ; Nynorsk: '; Official names in minority languages: Northern Sami: ''Norga''; Lule Sami ''Vuodna''; Southern Sámi, Southern Sami: ' ...
(c. 1015–1397) **
Kalmar Union The Kalmar Union (Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancest ...
(1397–1523) *Eastern/Southeastern Europe **
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
(330–1453) **
Kievan Rus Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
(880–1150) **
Kingdom of Croatia (925–1102) The Kingdom of Croatia ( hr, Kraljevina Hrvatska; la, Regnum Croatiae), or Croatian Kingdom ( hr, Hrvatsko Kraljevstvo), was a medieval kingdom in Southern Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia (without western Istria and some Dalmati ...
,
Croatia in union with Hungary The Kingdom of Croatia (925–1102), Kingdom of Croatia ( la, Regnum Croatiae; hr, Kraljevina Hrvatska, ''Hrvatsko kraljevstvo'', ''Hrvatska zemlja'') entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102, after a period of rule of kings fr ...
(1102–1526) **
Kingdom of Bosnia The Kingdom of Bosnia ( sh, Kraljevina Bosna / Краљевина Босна), or Bosnian Kingdom (''Bosansko kraljevstvo'' / Босанско краљевство), was a medieval kingdom that lasted from 1377 to 1463 and evolved out of the Ban ...
(1154–1463) **
Second Bulgarian Empire The Second Bulgarian Empire (Middle Bulgarian Middle Bulgarian language was the lingua franca and the most widely spoken language of the Second Bulgarian Empire The Second Bulgarian Empire ( bg, Второ българско царство, ...

Second Bulgarian Empire
(1185–1396) **
Kingdom of Serbia The Kingdom of Serbia ( sr-cyr, Краљевина Србија, Kraljevina Srbija) was a country located in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a ...
(1217–1346) **
Serbian Empire The Serbian Empire ( sr, / , ) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affa ...

Serbian Empire
(1346–1371) ** Grand Duchy of Lithuania (c. 1236–1795) ** Golden Horde (1240s–1502), see also: Tatar yoke ** Grand Duchy of Moscow (1283–1547) ;Near East : see also Crusades, Mongol invasions *
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
(330–1453) * Abbasid Caliphate (750–1517) * Fatimid Caliphate (910–1171) * Kingdom of Georgia (1008–1493) * Seljuk Empire (1037–1194) * Khwarazmian dynasty (1077–1231) * Crusader states **County of Edessa (1098–1144) **Principality of Antioch (1098–1268) **Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099–1291) **County of Tripoli (1102–1289) **Latin Empire (1204–1261) * Ayyubids (1171–1260) * Sultanate of Rum (1194–1308) * Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517) * Ilkhanate (1256–1353) * Rise of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Empire (1299–1924) * Timurid Empire (1370–1507) ;North Africa * Almoravid dynasty (1040–1147) * Almohad dynasty (1121–1269) * Marinid dynasty (1244–1465) * Hafsid dynasty (1229–1574) * Kingdom of Tlemcen (1235–1554) ;East Asia * Goryeo (918–1392) * Hoysala Empire (1026–1343) * Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty (1115–1234) * Joseon Dynasty * Khmer Empire (802–1431) * Liao dynasty (907–1125) * Mongol Empire (1206–1368) * Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) * Pagan Kingdom (849–1287) * Song dynasty (960–1279) * Western Xia (1038–1227) * Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty (1271–1368) ;India *Eastern Chalukyas (7th to 12th centuries) *Pala Empire (8th to 12th centuries) *Chola Empire (9th century to 13th centuries) *Western Chalukya Empire (10th to 12th centuries) *Kalachuris of Tripuri, Kalachuri dynasty (10th to 12th centuries) *Eastern Ganga dynasty (11th to 15th centuries) *Hoysala Empire (10th to 14th centuries) *Kakatiya dynasty, Kakatiya Kingdom (1083–1323) *Sena dynasty (11th to 12th centuries) *Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526) *Bengal Sultanate (1352–1576) *Ahom Kingdom (from 1228) *Reddy dynasty, Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448) *Seuna (Yadava) dynasty (1190–1315) *Vijayanagara Empire (1375–1591) ;Sahel / Sudan and Sub-Saharan Africa * Gao Empire, Sahel (c. 9th to 15th centuries) * Benin Empire, West Africa (from c. 1180) * Sultanate of Ifat, Horn of Africa (1285–1415) * Mali Empire, Sahel (c. 1230–1600) * Songhai Empire, Sahel (c. 1464–1591) * Empire of Kitara, East Africa (13th century) * Oyo Empire, West Africa (from c. 1300) * Kongo Empire, West Africa (from c. 1390) * Kingdom of Nri, West Africa (from c. 1200?) ;Pre-Columbian Americas * Maya civilisation * Toltec * Mississippian culture * Vinland * Chimú * Kingdom of Cuzco * Aztec Empire * Inca Empire


Early Modern period

;Europe * Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569), Kingdom of Poland *
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, see German Renaissance, early modern Germany *
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
, see early modern France *
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
(before 1707) *
Kingdom of Scotland The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern thi ...
(before 1707) * Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801) * Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg Empire (1526–1867) ;Colonial empires * Spanish Empire (1402–1975) * Portuguese Empire (1415–2002) * Dutch Empire (1543–1975) * British Empire (1583–1997) * French colonial empire (1605–1960) ;Asia * Ottoman Empire (1299–1922) * Safavid Persia * Zand dynasty (1750–1794) * Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) * Afsharid dynasty (1736–1796) * Mughal Empire (1526–1858) * Mysore empire (1399–1950) ;sub-Saharan Africa * Mutapa Empire * Maravi Empire * Luba Empire * Lunda Empire


Modern history

;Europe * French First Empire * British Empire (1583–1997) * Russian Empire (1721–1917) * United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922) * Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918) * Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) * French Second Empire (1852–1870) * German Empire (1871–1918) * French Third Republic (1870–1940) * Nazi Germany (1933–1945) * United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (since 1922) * Soviet Union (1922–1991) ;Asia * Qing dynasty (1636–1912) * Qajar dynasty (1794–1925) * British Raj (1858–1947) * Empire of Japan (1868–1947) * Republic of China (1912–1949) * People's Republic of China (from 1949) * Partition of India (1947) *Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire *Russian conquest of Central Asia *First Philippine Republic (1898–1901) ;Americas * United States, United States of America (from 1776) * First Mexican Empire, Mexican Empire (1821–1823) * Empire of Brazil (1822–1889) * Federal Republic of Central America (1823–1841) * Gran Colombia (1819–1831) * Canadian Confederation (1867) ;Africa *European exploration of Africa *Scramble for Africa *French West Africa *French Equatorial Africa *French Algeria *German East Africa *Italian Libya *Portuguese Angola *Portuguese Mozambique *Spanish Sahara *Spanish protectorate in Morocco *Belgian Congo *Decolonisation *List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa


Cultural and technological history


Calendar

The Julian calendar was used in Europe at the beginning of the millennium, and all countries that once used the Julian calendar had adopted the Gregorian calendar by the end of it. For this reason, the end date of the 2nd millennium is usually calculated based on the Gregorian calendar, while the beginning date is based on the Julian calendar (or occasionally the proleptic Gregorian calendar). In the late 1990s, there was a dispute as to whether the millennium should be taken to end on December 31, 1999, or December 31, 2000. Stephen Jay Gould at the time argued there is no objective way of deciding this question. Associated Press reported that the third millennium began on 1 January 2001, but also reported that celebrations in the US were generally more subdued at the beginning of 2001, compared to the beginning of 2000. Many public celebrations for the end of the second millennium were held on December 31, 1999 – January 1, 2000—with a few people marking the end of the millennium a year later.


Centuries and decades


Notes


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:2nd Millennium 2nd millennium, Millennia