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The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 1935 were held on September 16, 1935. This was the fourth election since the enactment of the
Tydings–McDuffie Act The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act (), is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law Law is a system A system is a gro ...
, a law that paved the way for a transitory government, as well as the first nationwide at-large election ever held in the Philippines.
Senate President President of the Senate is a title often given to the presiding officer of a senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative ...
Manuel Luis Quezon Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944), also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a Filipino people, Filipino statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1 ...
won a lopsided victory against former President
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phi ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
. His election victory was largely due to the weak political machinations of his rivals. Another losing contender was
Gregorio Aglipay Gregorio is a masculine given name and a surname. It may refer to: Given name * Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Armelino (26 November 1925 – 28 December 2016), also known as El Goyo, was an National Army (Uruguay), Uruguaya ...

Gregorio Aglipay
, founder and supreme bishop of the ''Iglesia Filipina Indepediente'' (
Philippine Independent Church The Philippine Independent Church ( es, Iglesia Filipina Independiente; tl, Malayang Simbahan ng Pilipinas; la, Libera Ecclesia Philippina; colloquially called the Aglipayan Church, IFI and PIC) is an independent Christian denomination A Chr ...
). Pascual Racuyal, a mechanic by profession, also ran for President as an independent. Quezon's running mate, Senate President Pro Tempore
Sergio Osmeña Sergio Osmeña Sr. (, ; 9 September 1878 – 19 October 1961) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of t ...
won a more impressive victory as
Vice President of the Philippines The vice president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangalawang Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as ''Bise Presidente ng Pilipinas'', or in es, Vice Presidente de Filipinas) is the second-highest executive official of the government of t ...
. He was said to have faced less effective candidates.


Nominations


Nacionalista Party nomination


Candidates gallery

File:Manuel L. Quezon (November 1942).jpg,
Senate President President of the Senate is a title often given to the presiding officer of a senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative ...
Manuel Luis Quezon Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944), also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a Filipino people, Filipino statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1 ...
of Tayabas File:PresdientSergioOsmeña.jpg, Senate President pro tempore
Sergio Osmeña Sergio Osmeña Sr. (, ; 9 September 1878 – 19 October 1961) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of t ...
of Cebu
After the passage of the
Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act The Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act passed to authors Congress Butler B. Hare, Senator Harry B. Hawes and Senator Bronson M. Cutting. (ch. 11, , enacted January 17, 1933) The Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act was the first US law passed setting a process and ...
in the United States in 1933, only requiring approval of the Philippine legislature, the Nacionalista Party was split between the Quezon and Osmeña factions. The Quezon wing, known as the ''Partido Nacionalista Democratico'' or ''Partido Nacionalista Consolidado'', was against the act. The Osmeña wing, known as the ''Partido Nacionalista Pro-Independencia'' or ''Partido Nacionalista Democrata Pro-Independencia'', was for the passage of the act. Historian
Teodoro Agoncillo Teodoro Andal Agoncillo (November 9, 1912 – January 14, 1985) was a prominent 20th-century Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), official ...

Teodoro Agoncillo
pointed out that the main reason for Quezon's rejection of the act lay in his anticipation that Osmeña, whose efforts brought the passage of the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act, might run as President of the transition government slated to be established before granting of independence, resulting to the relegation of himself as second in command once more. Due to Quezon's efforts in the legislature, the Philippines rejected the act and himself promised a better law than the one brought home by Osmeña. His mission to the United States brought forth the passage of the
Tydings–McDuffie Act The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act (), is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law Law is a system A system is a gro ...
in March 1934, just three months away from the Philippine legislative election, 1934. The general election on June 5, 1934 turned into a gauge on which wing was supreme. Both factions claimed the Nacionalista label and independence became the central issue. When the results came in, Quezon's wing proved better than that of Osmeña, at least in the national scale. Osmeña faction candidates still dominated the local scene. After the election, the idea of forming a coalition between the two factions, reuniting the old Nacionalista party once more, floated in public discussion. On June 15, 1935, three months before the scheduled elections for the Commonwealth, both factions held their own national conventions, wherein Quezon was named candidate for president, and Osmeña was named candidate for vice president. According to historian
Nick Joaquin Nicomedes "Nick" Marquez Joaquin (; May 4, 1917 – April 29, 2004) was a Filipino writer and journalist best known for his short story, short stories and novels in the English language. He also wrote using the pen name Quijano de Manila. Joaqui ...
, "''Osmeña showed greatness in accepting the No. 2 role in a drama where he started out as protagonist.''" At this, the two factions reconciled as a unified Nacionalista party with an eight-point program.


National Socialist Party nomination


Candidates gallery

File:AGUINALDO.jpg, Former President
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phi ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
of Cavite
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phi ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
, who founded the National Socialist Party in 1934, announced his candidacy for President on June 2, 1935. Raymundo Melliza, former governor of Iloilo, was his running mate. Among those who supported his bid were Sixto Lopez, Anastacio Teodoro, judge Cayetano Lukban, Emiliano Tria Tirona, Narciso Lapuz, Vicente Sotto, and Miguel Cornejo. In Aguinaldo's acceptance speech at Cavite, Cavite, he addressed to an audience of around 5,000 his 44-point platform. His candidacy was also supported by the organization ''Veteranos de la Revolucion'', formed during the administration of Governor-General
Leonard Wood Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare, land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight Uniformed service ...
by remaining Filipino veterans of the
Philippine Revolution The Philippine Revolution ( fil, Himagsikang Pilipino / Rebolusyong Pilipino; es, Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War () by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippi ...
and the Philippine–American War.
– General
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phi ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
in his acceptance speech, June 1935.
Other parties that supported Aguinaldo's bid was ''Partido Radical'', a left-wing party formed in 1930 by Alfonso Mendoza, and ''Partido Filipinista'', another party founded by Aguinaldo. Mendoza was then representative of .


Republican Party nomination


Candidates gallery

File:Gregorio Aglipay.jpg, Supreme Bishop
Gregorio Aglipay Gregorio is a masculine given name and a surname. It may refer to: Given name * Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Armelino (26 November 1925 – 28 December 2016), also known as El Goyo, was an National Army (Uruguay), Uruguaya ...

Gregorio Aglipay
of Ilocos Norte
After his worldwide tour in 1934, wherein Aglipay went to Copenhagen to attend the 11th International Congress of Religious Liberals by the International Association for Religious Freedom (IARF), and even claimed to have interviewed
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
and talked with
Alejandro Lerroux Alejandro Lerroux García (La Rambla, Córdoba, La Rambla, Córdoba Province, Spain, Córdoba, 4 March 1864 – Madrid, 25 June 1949) was a Politics of Spain, Spanish politician who was the leader of the Radical Republican Party. He served as ...
, Prime Minister of Spain, and
Edvard Beneš Edvard Beneš (; 28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948) was a Czech politician and statesman who served as the president of Czechoslovakia#REDIRECT List of presidents of Czechoslovakia {{redr, {{R from other capitalisation {{R from move ... from ...

Edvard Beneš
, President of Czechoslovakia, he expressed his intention to run as President of the Commonwealth. On June 19, 1935, Aglipay announced his candidacy. Thus, Aglipay revived the ''Republican Party'' for this purpose, first organized in 1904 but collapsed after the 1907 elections. With this, he also launched his seven-point program.
– Bishop
Gregorio Aglipay Gregorio is a masculine given name and a surname. It may refer to: Given name * Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Armelino (26 November 1925 – 28 December 2016), also known as El Goyo, was an National Army (Uruguay), Uruguaya ...

Gregorio Aglipay
in his Manifesto of his candidacy, June 1935.
His bid was supported by the
Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas The Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas-1930 (PKP-1930), also known as the Philippine Communist Party, is a communist party in the Philippines that was established on November 7, 1930. It uses the aforementioned appellation in order to distinguish i ...
(PKP), a left-wing party organized on November 7, 1930 by
Crisanto Evangelista Crisanto Evangelista (November 1, 1888 – June 2, 1942) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippine ...
. The PKP fielded Norberto Nabong of Manila as Aglipay's running mate.


Results

Quezon carried all the provinces except Aguinaldo's home province of
Cavite , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Kabite; Chabacano: ''Provincia de Cavite''), is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon Regions of the Philippines, region in Luzon. Located on the ...

Cavite
and Aglipay's home province of
Ilocos Norte Ilocos Norte ( ilo, Amianan nga Ilocos; Probinsia ti Ilocos Norte) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative regio ...

Ilocos Norte
. Aguinaldo showed strength in the Bicol provinces in the face of early results, but Quezon eventually triumphed in the region. Aglipay's strength in Nueva Vizcaya nearly won the province for the Republican candidate, yet the Nacionalistas still prevailed. Osmeña also carried all the provinces except
Cavite , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Kabite; Chabacano: ''Provincia de Cavite''), is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon Regions of the Philippines, region in Luzon. Located on the ...

Cavite
, wherein Melliza won by a close margin. Osmeña's feat is unmatched to date. While Aglipay quickly accepted the results, Aguinaldo protested about electoral manipulations.Coalition ticket wins by landslide, September 21, 1935
/ref> He raised the issue up to the United States, and his supporters in Cavite plotted not only a rally to disrupt the inauguration in November, but also launching an assassination attempt against the winners, yet to no avail.


President


Vice-President


Manila vote

Manila, as showed in the June 1934 election, leaned to vote for the opposition. First District voted for Gregorio Perfecto, a Democrata, as representative. Second District voted Alfonso Mendoza, a Radical. However, an opposition bailiwick the city could have been, the Nacionalista party won overwhelmingly, whereas it was expected that Aguinaldo and Aglipay will make an upset advantage.


See also

*
1935 Philippine legislative election The elections for the members of the National Assembly were held on September 16, 1935 pursuant to the Tydings–McDuffie Act The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act (), is a United States federal law The la ...
*
Commission on Elections An election commission is a body charged with overseeing the implementation of electioneering process of any country. The formal names of election commissions vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and may be styled an electoral commission, a ce ...
*
Politics of the Philippines The politics of the Philippines take place within a three-branch governmental system. The country is a democracy, led by a directly-elected president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader o ...
*
Elections in the Philippines Elections in the Philippines are of several types. The President of the Philippines, president, Vice President of the Philippines, vice-president, and the Senate of the Philippines, senators are elected for a six-year term, while the House of R ...


References


External links


The Philippine Presidency Project

Official website of the Commission on Elections

Emilio Aguinaldo on the Presidential Museum and Library

Manuel L. Quezon on the Presidential Museum and Library
{{Philippine presidential elections
1935 Events January * January – Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia creates a military school at Holeta.1935 elections in the Philippines